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Ethical Decision Making - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis
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Ethical Decision Making - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis


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Ethical Decision Making - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

Ethical Decision Making - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

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  • 1. Ethical Decision Making In Education: Utilizing The Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Professor PhD Program in Educational Leadership Prairie View A&M University The Texas A&M University System
  • 2. Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning
    • The six realms cover the range of possible meanings that comprise the basic competencies that general education should develop in every person. A complete person should be skilled in the use of speech, symbol, and gesture (Symbolics), factually well informed (Empirics), capable of creating and appreciating objects of esthetic significance (Esthetics), endowed with a rich and disciplined life in relation to self and others (Synnoetics), able to make wise decisions and to judge between right and wrong (Ethics), and possessed an integal outlook (Synoptics). These are the aims of general education for the development of whole persons. (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 15)
  • 3. Caring/Kindness Generosity Tolerance Citizenship Initiative Confidence Cooperation Loyalty Courage Patience Dependability/Reliability Respect Perseverance Fairness Responsibility Honesty Trust Love
  • 4. Responsibility
    • “ The Realm of ethics is concerned with active personal commitment” (Kritsonis, 2007).
    • Responsibility entails:
    • Dependability
    • Initiative
    • Assertiveness
    • Self-Confidence
    • Desire to Excel
  • 5. Trust
    • Trust is building confidence through teamwork and open communication.
    • Trust facilitates cooperation and promotes cohesiveness.
    • Trust is built by behavior that is considerate, supportive, and collegial.
    • “ Trust is like air; no one thinks much about it until it is needed and is not there” (Hoy & Miskel, 2005).
  • 6. Professional Development
    • One who reads widely, attend workshops and conferences, member of professional associations, consult with colleagues, self-reflection.
    • Synnoetics : Ongoing commitment towards human association with concern as well as seeking the well-being of others.
    • Searching for insight and training into educational issues.
  • 7. Effective Interpersonal Skills
    • Develops strong binding interpersonal skills with students, parents and colleagues= trust between all members. (Kritsonis, 2007)
    • Symbolics : Symbolizes a way for individuals to experience meaning through communication.
    • Effective communication derives from the principle that language is a source of power expressing various experiences of each individual.
  • 8. Environment of Care
    • Responsibility of educators to build care and compassion with the community. (Kritsonis, 2007)
    • Synoptics : A school environment of care values all members’ individual feelings and emotions into one synopsis or single vision.
    • Educators have to make a conscious decision to study our past mistakes, care for others, at the same time accommodate to the needs of the organization and the community.
  • 9. Protect the Rights of Stakeholders
    • Educators have a responsibility to protect and respect students’ individuality and acknowledge their right to make choices for themselves. (Kritsonis, 2007)
    • Ethics : These beliefs and choices of what is right and wrong lay the foundation for our civilization and culture.
    • In order to demonstrate a sincere respect for each student’s self-worth, educators need to listen to students and consider their views.
  • 10. Self-Evaluation
    • In order to self-reflect, choices can be determined to be good or bad, better or worse, depending on how caring is demonstrated from all members.
    • (Kritsonis, 2007)
    • Ethics : Belief that everyone has the logic to make the right choices and decisions, and if one fails, he/she gains a sense of guilt from within him/herself.
    • School community’s policies cannot be ethical, only individuals can make decisions that take into consideration the policies that apply to a certain situation or circumstance. (Kritsonis, 2007)
  • 11. Ethical Decision Making to Improve Academic Achievement
    • Appropriate Scope of Study
    • Maximize Meanings Through Mastery
    • Curriculum Should be Broad and Diverse
    • Curriculum Should Provide Meaning
    • Attain Mastery
  • 12. Appropriate Scope of Study
    • According to Kritsonis (2007):
    • The scope of study should include unique personality of the student, social and cultural context, and available resources.
    • Requires careful planning and ethical decision making.
    • “ High standards” – students are expected to reach a predetermined bar.
    • Implement creativity and individuality.
  • 13. Maximize Meanings Through Mastery
    • Fulfillment lies within mastery and the depth of understanding.
    • Curriculum should be relevant to all.
    • Ultimate goal should be intensity of knowledge.
  • 14. Curriculum Should be Broad and Diverse
    • Students should gain an understanding in a variety of fields.
    • Competence should be gained in a number of different activities.
    • Use connection between culture, curriculum, home, and school to promote academic achievement.
  • 15. Attaining Mastery
    • The following elements are needed in
    • helping students reach their mastery goal:
    • A healthy, safe learning environment.
    • Encouraging and caring environment.
    • High standards of academic achievement.
    • Focus on students’ individual needs.
    • (O’Neal, 2004)
  • 16.
    • Why Should School Communities have Codes of Ethics?
      • Promote honorable behavior.
      • Provide a basis for ethical behavior.
      • Ensure effective operation.
      • Morally ethical decisions.
    • Ethics is Everybody’s Business. (Kritsonis, 2007)
  • 17.
    • Confidentiality and Integrity
    • Educators should not disclose confidential information unless obligated to do so by law.
    • Educators should not use confidential information for advantageous gain.
    • Educators should avoid activities which could impede performance of job duties in an ethical manner.
    • Educators should refuse gifts, favors, or hospitality that would influence or would appear to influence another’s actions.
  • 18.
    • Professional Certification
    • Educators’ should…
    • Maintain a level of competence.
    • Seek knowledge.
    • Develop and improve skills.
    • Perform duties in accordance with laws, rules, and regulations.
    • Prepare appropriately.
    • Use only relevant and reliable information.
  • 19.
    • Financial Fraud
    • Funds must be used appropriately and for intended purposes.
    • A system should be in place to ensure financial honesty.
    • Someone not directly related to the organization should assist in the monitoring financial spending.
    • Rules, regulations, and consequences must be in place that are not negotiable. (Martin, 2004)
  • 20. What are the consequences of showing unjustified favoritism within and educational organization?
  • 21.
    • Creates disenchantment and dissension among members and supporters.
    • Informal Groups are created which results in a negative and unproductive climate.
    • Leaders are not supported or trusted.
    • There should be acknowledged moral leaders, to whom many look for moral direction, guidance and inspiration. (Kritsonis, 2007)
  • 22. References
    • Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2005). Educational administration. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
    • Kritsonis, W. A. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning . Oxford, England: Oxford Round Table.
    • Martin, J. (2004, December). The relationship between principals, ethics, and campus ratings. Retrieved from
    • O’Neal, S. (2004). Individualized instruction for improved student achievement education’s ‘holy grail’. The Journal . Retrieved from