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Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy
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Dr. Wm. A. Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy, …

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy,
Philosophies of Education, Curriculum Development and Improvement

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  • 1. 10108646 Page 1 of 20 1. Using the Six Realms of Meaning as a Process for Selecting Curriculum for the Development of the Complete Person ABSTRACT Unity in the learning experience can occur through differentiated learning (Kritsonis, 2007). The six realms of meaning or logical patterns bring a variety of structures in knowledge and disciplined understanding. No one plan is best for every teacher and for all students in all situations. Good teaching lies in guided discipline. Introduction The six realms of meaning cover the range of possible meanings and comprise the basic competencies that general education should develop in every person. A complete person should be skilled in the use of speech, symbol, and gesture (symbolic), factually well informed (empirics), capable of creating and appreciating objects of esthetic significance (esthetics), endowed with a rich and disciplined life in relation to self and others (synnoetics), able to make wise decisions and to judge between right and wrong (ethics) and possessed of an integral outlook (synoptics). These are the aims of general education for the development of complete persons. A philosophical theory of the curriculum for general education based on the idea of logical patterns in disciplined understanding is presented in Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (Kritsonis, 2007). There are patterns or structures in knowledge and an understanding of these typical forms is essential for the guidance of teaching, learning, and constructing the curriculum. The various patterns of knowledge are varieties of meaning, and the
  • 2. 10108646 Page 2 of 20 learning of these patterns is the clue to the effective realization of essential humanness through the curriculum of general education (Kritsonis, 2007). Purpose of the Article The purpose of this essay is to discuss six philosophical strategies for implementing the realms of mean as a process for selecting curriculum for the development of the complete person. Also, planning initiatives are discussed for strategic planning in educational leadership. Planning Initiatives The six realms of meaning are viewed as six fundamental patterns of meaning (Kritsonis, 2007). These patterns are sequential and provide the foundation for all meanings that enter the human experience and emerge from an analysis of possible distinctive modes of human understanding. The patterns are symbolics, empirics, esthetics, synnoetics, ethics, and synoptics (Kritsonis, 2007). The entire school or organization’s future is at stake in strategic planning (Center for Organizational Development and Leadership, 2007). Strategic planning in educational leadership determines where a school is going over the next year or more and how it's going to get there. The ontology of planning determined direction to accomplishing goals. A postmodern approach for academic and administrative departments would be to implement plans and strategies that are narrowly focused and vital to their future. A plan too broad would allow for planning initiatives to go amiss from the correct course of focus or persons could get stuck and not be able to move forward (Center for School or Organizational Development and Leadership, 2007). The six realms of meaning can be used as a national guide in planning initiatives for educational leaders. Espitemologically, a person deals with content that is presented so that he can absorb it in a way that is learned.
  • 3. 10108646 Page 3 of 20 If a person is to achieve the highest excellence in anything at all, the basic realms are required. The six realms bring meaning in knowledge and disciplined understanding to the development of the complete person. The controlling idea of general education for the development of complete persons emerges from a philosophy of man and his ways of knowing. In the first realm of symbolics, a complete person should be skilled in everyday language with the use of speech, symbol, and gesture, able to study math and learn one to two foreign languages. The second realm of empirics would allow the student to study several of the social sciences such as Physical Science, Biology, Psychology, and Social Science (Kritsonis, 2007). Among the four disciplines in the third realm of esthetics, music, art, literature and the arts of movement in physical education could be studied. “Literature is one of the best sources of insight into personality and culture” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 366). The student would be factually well informed, capable of creating and appreciating objects of esthetic significance. The first three realms require detachment as the knower (Kritsonis, 2007). The knower stands apart from what he knows. This view is held by the modernist. The modernist divorces the knower (English, 2003). In the fourth realm of synnoetics, the student could gain personal insight through working with skilled guidance counselors or thorough a social activity. The student is endowed with a rich and disciplined life in relation to self and others. Synnoetics requires active participation and engagement. To know and to be are one and the same in personal existence. Ethics or moral knowledge is the fifth realm where a student is able to make wise decisions and to judge between right and wrong. His moral conduct is a universal responsibility. It is what ought to be done and it is right action. In the sixth realm of synoptics, the student would
  • 4. 10108646 Page 4 of 20 possess an integral outlook of which epistemology - the theory of knowledge, and metaphysics - what is real, are the primary basis for its function (Kritsonis, 2007). Concluding Remarks In conclusion, there are patterns or structures in knowledge and an understanding of these typical forms is essential for the guidance of teaching, learning, and constructing the curriculum. The purpose of this essay is to discuss six philosophical strategies for implementing the realms of mean as a process for selecting curriculum for the development of the complete person. Also planning initiatives are discussed for strategic planning in educational leadership. According to Kritsonis (2007), the six realms of meaning are viewed as six fundamental patterns of meaning. The various patterns of knowledge are varieties of meaning, and the learning of these patterns is the clue to the effective realization of essential humanness through the curriculum of general education of the complete person. The epistemological concern of fostering a culture of continuous assessment is imperative in fulfilling goals in educational leadership. Success in solving the problems of life (Kritsonis, 2007) is best achieved by those whose imaginations are kindled. References Center for School or Organizational Development and Leadership (2007). Strategic planning in higher education: A guide for leaders. [Brochure]. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. English, F. W. (2003). The postmodern challenge to the theory and practice of educational administration. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Kritsonis, W. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, TX: National FORUM Journals.
  • 5. 10108646 Page 5 of 20 2. Ayn Rand’ s Atlas Shrugged: Success for an Educator ABSTRACT The role of the mind of man in his existence and the morality of rational self-interest described a new moral philosophy known as Objectivism. Atlas Shrugged shows what happens when human greatness goes on strike. Rational, independent, free and self-reliant individuals achieved greatness and allowed society to thrive. Being true to the mind was an absolute, productive achievement and noble activity. These are lessons for an educator’s success. Introduction Ayn Rand, the author of Atlas Shrugged, was an objectivist. Her philosophy was “the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute” (“Objectivism (Ayn Rand)”, n.d.). In Atlas Shrugged, the source of man’s rights was the law of identity that states that man is man. Man had rights that allowed him to exist and survive on earth. He had the right to use his mind, to act on his own judgment, to work for his values and to keep the product of his efforts of work. Atlas Shrugged provided a view of the nature of altruism which declared that any action taken for the benefit of others is good and any action taken for one’s own benefit is evil. Human greatness consisted of brilliant minds who were honest, thought logically and were creative thinkers of society. In Atlas Shrugged, the individuals involved in the strike were honest men, creative thinkers, great men and women, who were known to the world as the
  • 6. 10108646 Page 6 of 20 movers and shakers of the world. These individuals went on strike. Men who were rational beings, independent, free, and self-reliant achieved greatness and allowed society to thrive. A rational code of thinking was valued. The world needed the prime movers, but treated them viciously. John Galt is the organizer of the strike. He is the leader and initiator of the strike that protested the oppression of the thinker’s intellect and creativity. The question, Who is John Galt? is uttered as a sign of despair and hopelessness when answers do not exist to the problems that plaque American society. Withdrawal of the great thinkers caused the collapse of the American economy and the end of dictatorship. The strike proved the role the rational mind played in the attainment of progress and prosperity (Rand, 1961). Topics such as the virtue of wealth, the martyrdom of the industrialist, the capitalism and its moral meaning, and the slogan This is John Galt Speaking are discussed. Purpose of the Article The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities humankind must face during his lifetime relative to life, ethics, morals, values, and spirituality through the story of Atlas Shrugged and to discuss lessons for an educator’s success as a rational being that make decisions in schools. The Virtue of Wealth Francisco d’Anconia, a copper industrialist and the wealthiest man in the world, was the first person to join John Galt in the strike. He was Galt’s closest friend and an heir to an enormous fortune. Francisco addressed the topic on the virtue of wealth, and people thinking that money was the root of all evil when someone remarked that he was a depraved product of money.
  • 7. 10108646 Page 7 of 20 Metaphysically, the looters of this world became the hitchhikers of virtue. Their axiology was a double standard. The double standard was one of living by force and counting on those who traded to create the value of their looted money. They created laws that demanded that the honest man would give up his money in order for them to get theirs. What goes around comes around so that if you got it wrong, you lose it as you got it. This is John Galt Speaking Hank Rearden retired. Someone put it out that he had died. Either way, the American steel industry dropped dramatically. The countryside was terrorized with acts of random violence. His philosophy was one where man chose between good and evil. Man has to make a decision to think and thinking was not automatic. Man did not operate on a whim because he made rational decisions that he chose to pursue. Man was not sinful by nature, but he pursued his own self-interest and sought his own values. Galt believed that men who tried to live by self- sacrifice either to God, society or something else, brought on their own destruction. The only political and economic system was that of laissez-faire capitalism. Laissez-faire capitalism protected man’s right to use his mind independently. The mind must be set free. Lessons for Educators The achievements of thinkers in Atlas Shrugged signified that reason was the primary cause of progress. The same is true of an educational leader in school. The principal is the key player in schools (Kritsonis, 2007). His achievement is defined by his ability to be a thinker and being aware of his own thinking (Senge, 2010). Administrative decisions are complex for the principal and his rationality is limited by how he processes information. His achievement was the primary cause of progress (Simon, 1991). He goes through “a general pattern of action that includes recognizing and defining the problem or issue, analyzing the difficulties in the situation,
  • 8. 10108646 Page 8 of 20 establishing criteria for a satisfactory solution, developing a strategy for action, initiating a plan of action and evaluating the outcomes” (Hoy & Miskel, 2005, p. 302). The practice to make an ethical judgment or rational decision is predicated on his reflective examination of alternative plans of actions to find a satisficing solution. The principal is a rational, independent, free and self-reliant individual that achieve greatness in his role in school. In Atlas Shrugged, the individuals involved in the strike were honest men, creative thinkers, great men and women, who were known to the world as the movers and shakers of the world. What would happen if principals went on strike? What would happen if educators failed to make decisions that affect our schools? Atlas, shrugged. Concluding Remarks In conclusion, by the metaphysical nature of man and of his existence, man has to maintain his life by his own effort. In order to promote man’s prosperity on earth, intellect is necessary. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities humankind must face during his lifetime relative to life, ethics, morals, values, and spirituality through the story of Atlas Shrugged and to discuss lessons for an educator’s success as rational being who make decisions in schools. The achievements of thinkers in Atlas Shrugged signified that reason was the primary cause of progress. The same is true of an educational leader in school. The principal is the key player in schools. His achievement is defined by his ability to be a thinker and being aware of his own thinking. References Hoy, W. & Miskel, C. (2005). Educational Administration Theory, Research, and Practice. (7th ed.) McGraw-Hill: New York, NY. Kritsonis, W. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, TX: National
  • 9. 10108646 Page 9 of 20 FORUM Journals. Objectivism (Ayn Rand) (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved September 19, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objectivism_(Ayn_Rand) Rand, A. (1961). For the new intellectual. New York: Penquin Group USA Senge, P. (2010). Shifting the trajectory of civilization: The solutions in our midst. Oxford Leadership Journal, 1(4), 6. Simon, H. (1991). Keynote Address. UCEA Conference, Baltimore, MD.
  • 10. 10108646 Page 10 of 20 3. Ayn Rand: Man’s Ultimate Moral Value ABSTRACT The ultimate moral value of man is his concern for his own well being which leads him to experience a healthy, purposeful and fulfilling life. A man’s self-interest cannot be determined by blind desires or random whims, feelings, urges, or wishes. His interest must be discovered and achieved by the guidance of rational principles that he chooses for himself. Introduction Presented as a collection of essays In The Virtue of Selfishness, Ayn Rand (1964) brings clarity to topics on ethical issues that were confused by the influence of altruism. She provided readers with a consistent philosophical frame of reference on issues and problems in today’s culture such as values, the nature of right and good, rationality, justice, productiveness and benevolence. A man’s self-interest could not be determined by blind desires or random whims, feelings, urges, or wishes. Rand (1964) stated that man’s interest must be discovered and achieved by the guidance of rational principles that he chooses for himself which resulted in his selfishness as an individual. Man’s concern with his own interest was a virtue. This action was considered good. The ethics of altruism enjoined man to renounce his own interests for the sake of others. In accepting the altruistic point of view, man had no moral guidance. The beneficiary of one’s actions would be anybody other than oneself. If man’s actions benefit himself, it was evil. Altruist’s ethics produced the problems that characterized human relationships today: immorality, chronic injustice, double standards, insoluble conflicts and contradictions.
  • 11. 10108646 Page 11 of 20 Selfishness must be redeemed by asserting man’s right to a moral existence such as a moral code to guide the course and fulfillment of his own life. Ayn Rand’s (1964) essays on “The Objectivist Ethics” (1961), “The Ethics of Emergencies”(1963), “The Conflicts of Man’s Interests” (1962) (Rand, 1964) provided a code of values to guide human choices and actions. Discovery of man’s code of values and actions bring clarity to topics that were confused by the influence of altruism. Thus, a rational man is guided by his thinking (a process of reason) not by his feelings and desires. Self-sacrifice is rejected. The ultimate moral value of man is his concern for his own well being which leads him to experience a healthy, purposeful and fulfilling life. With moral guidance, selfishness is a virtue and becomes one’s way to individual triumph over life’s hardships. Purpose of the Article The purpose of this article is to discuss several of the most salient or penetrating ideas presented in The Virtue of Selfishness that impact people’s lives: “The Objectivist Ethics” (1961), “The Ethics of Emergencies”(1963), and “The Conflicts of Man’s Interests” (1962). The Objectivist Ethics Man’s way of life calls for him to discover what is right or wrong or good or evil for him. He has to choose what values that guide his life. How he gains knowledge to design a course of action is up to him. He has a will to choose what he wants to do with his life. The right choices are his life line. The wrong choices will cause him to perish. He will either sink or swim, progress or regress to a lower level of living; maybe even destruction. Man reasons within himself to do what he was purposed to do in his lifetime. His logic is in making choices with the knowledge he has acquired, which is based on what he values, not on what he perceives. If he
  • 12. 10108646 Page 12 of 20 values life, then he will make right decisions in faith. The choices he makes extends his life. He is the beneficiary of his own actions and must act for his own rational self-interest (Rand, 1964). On the other hand, the ethics of altruism enjoined man to renounce his own interests for the sake of others. In accepting the altruistic point of view, man had no moral guidance. The beneficiary of one’s actions would be anybody other than oneself. Ayn Rand’s philosophy was “the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute” (“Objectivism (Ayn Rand),” n.d.) . In learning anything in life, epistemologicallym a person learns and comprehends content in a manner that content can be learned. Metaphysically, ethics is what is real for man or man’s reality. It is a path he can follow for living. What man thinks about is who he actually is. “For as he thinketh in his heart, so is he” (Proverbs 23:7, Gideons International Holy Bible, p. ). Man reasons within himself daily on whether to make right decisions. If he consciously chooses not to make right decisions, then he is bound for destruction. If man finds his purpose in life, has high self-esteem, believes in himself, has a value system, and finds works that he enjoys; then life is worth living. Man can succeed in life, but he must discover his own way to success and happiness. Similar to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 1999 model, once man has found his purpose, he is able to become self actualized where he realizes his personal potential and thereby experience self-fulfillment, personal growth and peak experiences (“Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs,” 1999). In meeting his self-actualized needs, he can meet his transcendence needs by helping other people. He will value his life and the life of others.
  • 13. 10108646 Page 13 of 20 The Ethics of Emergencies No matter what type of emergency one is faced with, it is temporary. The response to any emergency is to survive. The trouble emergencies bring is for a while. Man’s primary goal is to combat the disaster. It can be an emergency, an ontological situation is when an emergency happens such as a flood, earthquake, fire or shipwreck. It is metaphysically possible for unforeseeable disasters to strike (Rand, 1964). One should volunteer to help strangers only in an emergency, but not at the expense of his own life. One should always act in accordance with his axiology. He should never sacrifice a greater value to a lesser one (Rand, 1964). Any action a man undertakes for the benefit of those he loves is not a sacrifice. It is something he values. The act is one of integrity and loyalty to one’s convictions and values is a must. Any help given to someone in trouble should be based on whether the person’s welfare is incorporated in to one’s rational hierarchy of values (Rand, 1964). For example, if a rational man helps his family when trouble, unemployment, sickness, or any natural disaster happens, then it is something that he values. He values his family. He will help family members, but not to the point of compromising his own health. He values his own health first, and then he seeks to aid others. His selfishness is a virtue. The “Conflicts” of Men’s Interests There are no conflicts of interest among rational men according to the Objectivist view of man’s nature. Reality, context, responsibility and effort are interrelated when considering a rational man’s view of his own interests. Man’s interests depend on what goals he pursues. His desires are dependent on what he values. His values are dependent on how he thinks. He will not get what he desires unless he applies effort to fulfill those desires (Rand, 1964). His thoughts
  • 14. 10108646 Page 14 of 20 on fulfilling his desires must be in context of how he thinks about everything else in his life. He must accept full responsibility for his actions; whether he succeeds or whether he fails. Concluding Remarks In conclusion, by the metaphysical nature of man and of existence, man has to maintain his life by his own effort. The purpose of this article is to discuss several of the most salient or penetrating ideas presented in The Virtue of Selfishness that impact people’s lives: “The Objectivist Ethics” (1961), “The Ethics of Emergencies”(1963) and “The Conflicts of Man’s Interests” (1962) (Rand, 1964). Discovery of man’s code of values and actions bring clarity to topics that were confused by the influence of altruism. Thus, a rational man is guided by his thinking (a process of reason) not by his feelings and desires. Self-sacrifice is rejected. The ultimate moral value of man is his concern for his own well being, which leads him to experience a healthy, purposeful and fulfilling life. The values he needs, such as wealth or knowledge, are not given to him automatically, as a gift of nature, but have to be discovered and achieved by his own thinking and work. One’s sole obligation toward others is to maintain a social system that leaves man free to achieve, gain and keep his values. The moral purpose of a man’s life is the achievement of his own happiness. This does not mean that others are indifferent to him. It means that one does not resolve himself to alleviate the suffering of others. Any help rendered is being generous. Man’s values and goals are the motivating factors in his life. A successful life is descriptive of a man with high self- esteem, who has discovered his purpose in life and takes pride in his work. It is only when man values selfishness and sees it as a virtue that he truly rises to the occasion of self actualization and transcendence.
  • 15. 10108646 Page 15 of 20 References Maslow's hierarchy of needs (1999). Retrieved September 19, 2010 from http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm Objectivism (Ayn Rand) (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved September 19, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objectivism_(Ayn_Rand) Rand, A. (1964). The virtue of selfishness. New York: Penquin Group USA, Incorporate The National Publishing Company (1970). The Holy Bible (Gideons International). Nashville: Author.
  • 16. 10108646 Page 16 of 20 4. Transformational Leadership and Postmodern Principles ABSTRACT There are multiple forms of truth emanating from multiple sources as revealing the complexity and mystery to make sense of things (English, 2003). Science is one way of going about seeking out things. Postmodernism reexamines the approach to understand leadership by ripping away the veil that covered and disguised leadership. Introduction In expansion of the emerging leadership theories, leaders no longer needed to measure work and ensure that the most effective person did it in the most efficient manner. Critically, this did not always increase the organization’s profitability and production. Leaders now needed active involvement from the followers to achieve the organization’s goals. Transformational leadership and servant leadership evolved. Both were high-order evolutions in leadership paradigms. The extent to which leaders were able to shift the primary focus of their leadership from the organization to the follower was the distinguishing factor in determining whether the leader would be a transformational or servant leader. In transformational leadership vision and collaboration were important characteristics of effective leadership. Transformational leadership, an extension of transactional leadership became a focus on progress and development. Yukl (1998) stated that transformational leadership focused on a leader’s
  • 17. 10108646 Page 17 of 20 understanding of their effect on how followers feel trust, admiration, loyalty, respect toward the leader, and how followers were motivated to do more than expected. The leader models the expected behavior and stirred followers to look beyond their own immediate personal needs to embrace the needs of others. The leader built followers commitment and empowered followers to accomplish objectives resulting in at least theory, enhanced follower performance (Yukl, 1998) . Purpose of the Article The purpose of the article is to discuss leader behavior/traits. Leader Behavior/Traits In the first realm of symbolics, a complete person should be skilled in everyday language with the use of speech, symbol, and gesture, able to study math and learn one to two foreign languages. “Language contains its own logic and rules which define and mold thinking” (English, 2003, p. 52). Metaphysically, the complete person is skilled in everyday living. Educational reforms includes the role of the principal as one who must be able to make what has to happen very clear to all parties, tract the performance, and report the progress publically. The principal teaches the organization’s point of view about socialization and training. He/she models the organizational values. The epistemology of followers learning from his example motivates others to learn teaching and core values that brings others to collaborate among themselves is to differentiate learning for recognition of deficit perspectives. Fullan (2007) reported that in order for successful change to occur, the principal must be able to work with all kinds of personalities. Self learning is encouraged. Planning and the ability to have vision are traits and skills needed by the principal who would have a high performing school. Receiving mandates from state and federal authorities
  • 18. 10108646 Page 18 of 20 while allowing for accountability and local autonomy brings about successful change (Fullan, 2007). Allowing for successful change in educational reform requires good leadership where learning is a priority (Pisapia, 2009). The climate of high performing schools is one where dialogue is promoted and interrelationship of all parties (students, teachers, parents, community, the district administrator, and external agencies) is encouraged. Teacher isolation is discouraged. A sharing of experience, being truthful, honest and open is promoted. Continuous learning, thinking strategically, and psychological safety are “levers to success” (Pisapia, 2009). Another lever to success is the principals’ ability to empower members in his school. These persons take initiative to make decisions without referring them to someone else. People are put at the center of things. The principal as a strategic leader emphasizes “person-culture fit and person-job fit” (Pisapia, 2009, p. 171). He looks for people who have high aspirations, make decisions, and who can take prompt action while embracing the strategic intent of the principal. The principal has a meaningful team approach to a reward system that has immediate payouts. Individuals are rewarded for results, individual growth, capability, and contributions to the school. The second realm of empirics would allow the student to study several of the social sciences such as sociology, psychology, anthropology or physical science, biology, psychology (Kritsonis, 2007). These areas are seen as abstractions in structure (English, 2003). The mission and purpose of an organization give guidance and direction to what people work on a daily basis. This realm is the science of living things, the physical work, and of man (Kritsonis, 2007). What students learn, must also me measured. Data must be concise and measureable. Among the four disciplines in the third realm of esthetics, music, art, literature and the arts of movement in physical education could be studied. “Literature is one of the best sources of insight into
  • 19. 10108646 Page 19 of 20 personality and culture” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 366). The student would be factually well informed, displaying logical thinking, capable of creating and appreciating objects of esthetic significance. The first three realms require detachment as the knower (Kritsonis, 2007). The knower stands apart from what he knows. This view is held by the modernist. The modernist divorces the knower (English, 2003). In the fourth realm of synnoetics, the student could gain personal insight through working with skilled guidance counselors or thorough a social activity. The student is endowed with a rich and disciplined life in relation to self and others. Synnoetics requires active participation and engagement. To know and to be are one and the same in personal existence. Ethics or moral knowledge is the fifth realm where a student is able to make wise decisions and to judge between right and wrong. His moral conduct is a universal responsibility. It is what ought to be done and it is right action. Students must be able to relate to others and oneself in acceptance and love to act deliberately and with responsibility, and to incorporate these meanings into an integrated vision and mission and commitment. In this realm, programs on character education would be beneficial. In the sixth realm of synoptics, the student would possess an integral outlook of which epistemology - the theory of knowledge, and metaphysics - what is real, are the primary basis for its function (Kritsonis, 2007). Concluding Remarks In conclusion, postmodernism is the culture of postmodernity (Sarup, 1993). The purpose of the article is to discuss leader behavior/trait. Metaphysically, the complete person is skilled in everyday living. The ontology of the success of the leader equaled the academic achievement of students.Power has the last word. Once abandoned truth, you feel free to plan, and to carry out those plans, as if there were no constraints such as those of either economics or
  • 20. 10108646 Page 20 of 20 the desires of indigenous peoples to rule themselves. Character education can include lessons on the axiology of values. References Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change. (4th ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press Kritsonis, W. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, TX: National FORUM Journals. Pisapia, J. (2009). The strtegic leader: New tactics for a globalizing world. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing Incorporated Sarup, M. (1993). An introductory guide to post-structuralism and postmodernism. Atlanta: University of Georgia Press. Yukl, G. (1998). Virtue: Confucius and aristole. Philosophy East and West, 48, 323.

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