Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Robert Marcel Branch, Dissertation Defense PPT.
Hispanic TeacherRecruitment and RetentionInitiatives in Texas SchoolsA Dissertation DefenseByRobert M. Branch
Dr. William A. Kritsonis(Dissertation Chair)Dr. David Herrington(Member)Dr. Douglas Hermond(Member)Dr. Camille Gibson(Member)Committee Members
OutlineI. The ProblemII. Purpose of the StudyIII. Research QuestionsIV. MethodV. Major FindingsVI. Review of LiteratureVII. Recommendations
The Problem The shortage of Hispanic educators plays a role inthe educational experiences of Hispanic students. 2006-2007 TEA data indicate that 21% ofteachers in Texas are Hispanic, but 46% of thestudents during the same year are Hispanic. Previous findings indicate that increasing thenumber of Hispanic educators positively affectsthe educational attainment of Hispanic students(Darder, Torres, & Gutierrez, 1997).
Purpose of the Study To establish whether the number ofHispanic teachers influence Hispanicstudent achievement and thenidentify methods to assist with therecruitment and retention of Hispanicteachers in Texas schools.
Conceptual FrameworkApproaches ofAdministrators & DistrictPersonnel to Recruit &Retain Hispanic TeachersInternal MotivationsOf Hispanic TeachersHispanic TeacherRecruitment & RetentionInitiatives in Texas SchoolsThe Impact of AcademicAchievement for HispanicStudents
Quantitative Research Questions1) Is there a corresponding increase in the percentof Hispanic teachers with the increase ofHispanic Students in Texas from school years2000 through 2007?2) Is there a relationship between the percent ofHispanic teachers and the percent of Hispanicstudents passing the TAKS Exit levelexamination in the core area of Mathematics?3) Is there a relationship between the percent ofHispanic teachers and the percent of Hispanicstudents passing the TAKS Exit levelexamination in the core area ofEnglish/Language Arts?
Qualitative Research Questions1) What factors influenced Hispanic teachersto go into and remain in the teachingprofession in the state of Texas?2) What is the value of increasing thenumber of Hispanic teachers in Texasschool districts?3) What are the approaches used by theschool districts to recruit and retainHispanic teachers?4) Which of these approaches appear to besuccessful in recruiting and retainingHispanic teachers?
Research Design Research Method – Mixed methodsusing a complementary design. Thisincludes descriptive and correlationalanalysis of existing data as well asdata obtained from open-endedinterview questions and surveys. Quantitative – Data was obtainedfrom the Texas Education Agency(TEA) Academic Excellence IndicatorSystem (AEIS) reports.
Research Design (continued) Qualitative – The qualitative datawas collected with a questionnairethat was given to Hispanic teachersand School/District Administrators.Data was also collected byinterviewing the Hispanic teachersand School/District Administrators.
Pilot Study Convenience Sampling20 Hispanic Teachers Test-RetestReliabilityTrustworthiness (Fair-Clear-Free ofBias)Changes based on inputs Participants Excluded
Subjects of the Study Sampling MethodPurposive sampling was used inorder to discover, understand, andgain insight from the school districtsand Hispanic teachers.
Quantitative Sixty-four high schools in SoutheastTexas were used in the study. Thesedistricts were selected based onhaving met a criteria of employing atleast 5% Hispanic teachers andserving at least 25% Hispanicstudents. This data was retrieved from the TEAdatabase.
Qualitative 40 Hispanic teachers employed in Texasschools with a teacher population of atleast 5% Hispanic teachers and at least25% Hispanic students as reported by TEAwill be surveyed. Of these 40 teachers surveyed, 23 wereinterviewed. 14 School and District Administrators wereasked open-ended questions andinterviewed.
Analysis of Data (Quantitative)ResearchQuestionsQuestionAddressed byDescriptiveStatisticsAnalysisMethodIs there acorrespondingincrease inthe percent ofHispanicteachers withthe increase ofHispanicStudents inTexas fromschool years2000 through2007?What is theaverageincrease and theaveragedecrease ofHispanicTeachers andHispanicStudents?Description ofaverageincreases anddecreases ofHispanicTeachers andHispanicStudents
Major Findings: Quantitative Question 1 The average annual percentage for Hispanicteachers ranged from 6.5% in SY 2001 – 2002 to8.2% in SY 2003 – 2004; the average annualincrease over the years under study was 0.15percentage points. The average percentage for Hispanic studentsranged from 27.8% in SY 2000 – 2001 to 35.2%in SY 2006 – 2007; the average annual increaseover the same years during the study was 1.78percentage points.
Major Findings: Quantitative Question 1Table 1 Average Percentages of Hispanic Teachers andHispanic Students in Selected Schools in TexasSchool Year % Hispanic Inc/Dec % Hispanic Inc/DecTeachers Students2002-2001 6.67 _ 27.79 _2001-2002 6.46 -0.21 29.04 1.252002-2003 7.56 1.10 34.46 5.422003-2004 8.24 0.68 32.06 -2.402004-2005 8.57 0.33 32.22 0.162005-2006 8.99 0.42 33.81 1.592006-2007 9.54 0.55 35.16 1.35Avg. Inc/Dec 0.48 1.23
Analysis of Data (Quantitative)ResearchQuestionsNullHypothesisIndependentVariablesDependentVariables StatisticsIs there arelationshipbetween thepercent ofHispanicteachers andthe percent ofHispanicstudentspassing theTAKS Exit levelexamination inthe corearea ofMathematics?There is nostatisticallysignificantcorrelationbetween thepercent ofHispanicteachers inTexas highschools and thepercent ofHispanicstudentspassing theTAKS Exit LevelMathematicsexamination.CorrelationusingPearson rPercentage ofHispanicTeachersin TexasSchoolsAchievementlevelsfor Hispanicstudentstakingthe TAKSExit levelMathematicsexamination
Major Findings: Quantitative Question 2 All Pearson r values were negative; theresults of r = – 0.372 for SY 2004 – 2005and r = - 0.418 for SY 2005 – 2006 weresignificant. The null hypothesis wasrejected for the results of these specificschool years.
Major Findings: Quantitative Question 2Table 2 Relationship of the Percent Hispanic Teachers and Percent ofHispanic Students Passing the TAKS Mathematics Exit Level Examination inSixty Four High Schools______________________________________________________________School Year % Hispanic % Hispanic Pearson rTeachers Students(N=64) Passing TAKS______________________________________________________________2004-2005 7.02 79.81 - 0.372*2005-2006 7.46 75.25 - 0.418 *2006-2007 7.56 75.61 - 0.229*** Significant at 0.05 level, two-tailed **Not Significant______________________________________________________________
Analysis of Data (Quantitative)ResearchQuestionsNullHypothesisIndependentVariablesDependentVariables StatisticsIs there arelationshipbetween thepercent ofHispanicteachers and thepercent ofHispanicstudents passingthe TAKS Exitlevelexamination inthe core area ofEnglish/Language Arts?There is nostatisticallysignificantcorrelationbetween thepercent ofHispanicteachers inTexas highschools and thepercent ofHispanicstudentspassing theTAKS Exit LevelEnglish/Language Artsexamination.CorrelationusingPearson rPercentage ofHispanicTeachersin TexasSchoolsAchievementlevelsfor Hispanicstudentstakingthe TAKSExit levelEnglish/LanguageArtsexamination
Major Findings: Quantitative Question 3 For SY 2004 – 2005, the relationship of r = -0.328, between the 7.02% average Hispanicteachers and the 84.56% average Hispanicstudents who passed the Exit Level examinationin ELA was significant. Similarly, the result of SY2005 – 2006, where obtained r = - 0.520, wasalso significant. The increase in the percentagesof Hispanic teachers did not significantly affectthe percentages of Hispanic students who passedthe ELA Exit Level TAKS examinations in SY 20042005 and SY 2006 – 2007. For the results of SY’s2004 – 2006, the null hypothesis was rejected.
Major Findings: Quantitative Question 3Table 4 Relationship of the Average Percent of Hispanic Teachers andPercent of Hispanic Students Passing the TAKS ELA Exit Level Examination______________________________________________________________School Year % Hispanic % Hispanic Pearson rTeachers Students(N=64) Passing TAKS______________________________________________________________2004-2005 7.02 84.56 - 0.328*2005-2006 7.46 85.19 - 0.520*2006-2007 7.56 86.50 - 0.098 *** Significant at 0.05 level, two-tailed **Not Significant______________________________________________________________
Analysis of Data (Qualitative)Surveys/Questionnaire& InterviewsData waspresented intabular to showcategories &frequencies.The weighedmean wascomputed forrecruitment &retentionfactors.Responses forquestions werecategorizedinto emergentthemes. Thesewere presentedin tabular formshowing thecategories withcorrespondingfrequencies andpercentages.Inputs from theadministrators wereidentified,summarized andexplained.
Major Findings: Qualitative Question 1 What factors influenced Hispanicteachers to go into and remain in theteaching profession in the state ofTexas?
Major Findings: Qualitative Question 1 Primary reasons given were: enjoyment inbeing a teacher and fulfilling (both17.4%); influenced by professor, enhancelives of young people, follow footsteps of aloved one, opportunity to help others andmake a difference – all mentioned by 13%of the respondents. Other reasons include:same schedule as children, an option afterbeing laid off from another job, joblocation and security and able to coach,the love of his life.
Major Findings: Qualitative Question 2 What is the value of increasing thenumber of Hispanic teachers in Texasschool districts?
Major Findings: Qualitative Question 2 Of the fourteen respondents, 57%considered the Hispanic teachers as rolemodels whom the Hispanic students canemulate and 36% expect to have strongalignment between the Hispanic teachersand Hispanic students. Theseadministrators also envision a campuswhere there is better relationship betweenstudents and teachers; also, teachers areable to relate realities in life to what theyteach in and out of the classroom.
Major Findings: Qualitative Question 3 What are the approaches used by theschool districts to recruit and retainHispanic teachers?
Major Findings: Qualitative Question 3 School administrators assigned mentors to newHispanic teachers to guide them and monitortheir performance. Advice from mentors is offeredto mentees especially when difficulties arise.Fifty-seven percent (57%) or eight administratorsutilized this strategy to retain new Hispanicteachers. Other strategies advocated by 64% ofthe respondents include financial considerationslike competitive salary/benefits and stipends orincentive programs. Support systems and dialogmay also help Hispanic teachers to remain in thecampuses where they are currently employed.
Major Findings: Qualitative Question 4 Which of these approaches appear tobe successful in recruiting andretaining Hispanic teachers?
Major Findings: Qualitative Question 4 Forty-three percent or six of the fourteenadministrators considered monetary incentivesand benefits as successful factors to entice andretain Hispanic teachers in the teachingprofession. Taking care of them through thementoring program and making them feelimportant and of value are also considered aseffective strategies to invite and keep Hispanicteachers in the campuses. Administrators providethe fitting environment to help assure thecontinued presence of Hispanic teachersespecially in schools surrounded by high numberof Hispanic families.
Major Findings: Literature Review Much of the available research showed thatHispanic students had decided to enter theteaching profession for primarily altruisticreasons. Cabello, Eckimer, and Baghieri (1995)interviewed teacher candidates during their firstyears in teacher education programs. Themajority of the candidates remembered negativeexperiences while in school and reflected on theneed for more teachers who genuinely cared andwere willing to listen to students.
Major Findings: Literature Review Diverse groups of students requireattention from a diverse group of teacherswho can have alignment and rapport withthem, since they come from the sameculture and speak the same language. Howard (2003) suggests students willbenefit from having well-trained teacherswho come from similar racial/ethnic andlinguistic backgrounds. These teacherscan contribute to the students’ sense ofbelonging and academic achievement.
Major Findings: Literature Review The desire to be a role model was identified byHispanic educators in a study done by Darder(1995). Hispanic teachers realize theirsignificance in the lives of those they taught andthat it was important to help minority studentsexpress themselves and to appreciate theircultural heritage The interaction with minority teachers will resultin an increased familiarity with other cultures. Ina more globally-dependent world, students inclassrooms need to learn about world diversity,which includes racial diversity (Wehrman, 2002).
Recommendations Create an interactive orientation programwhere new Hispanic teachers meet theirveteran counterparts for a meaningfulexchange of questions and answers aboutthe challenges of teaching. The first yearcan be fighting for survival, but the yearsafter can be filled with joy and hope.
Recommendations Support the new Hispanic teachers with amentoring program where the mentorand mentee often meet to discussproblems and opportunities, so that theteacher finds his or her way through themaze of the teaching world and become achange agent for the benefit of studentsunder his or her care.
Recommendations New Hispanic teachers will not only needthe support and guidance of theirmentors. School administrators shouldalso give them support andunderstanding so that these neophyteswill feel they belong in a school culturethat allows growth and advancement.
Recommendations The path to teaching is not all rosy; newHispanic teachers may face certainrealities or difficulties that they could nothandle. They need the support ofadministrators and people at home.Families have influenced somebody in thefamily to go into teaching; now is thetime for them to show support.
Recommendations for Further Study A study could be conducted regardingother minority teachers (AfricanAmericans, Asians, and others) regardingfactors on how they were recruited andretained in school districts. A study could be conducted by increasingthe number of samples to include evenmore districts in various parts of Texas.
Recommendations for Further Study A study could be conducted by increasing thenumber of core areas in TAKS Exit LevelExaminations which Hispanic students have topass: Science, Mathematics, English/LanguageArts, and Social Studies. Also increase thenumber of years as scope of the study. A study could be conducted with Hispanicteachers who teach Math/ELA and drawing acomparison regarding the achievement ofHispanic students who are taking those subjectsbeing taught directly by Hispanic teachers.
Hispanic TeacherRecruitment and RetentionInitiatives in Texas SchoolsA Dissertation DefenseByRobert M. Branch