4Introduction• Shrinking revenues at the state and federal level hassignificantly affected the financial state of public highereducation (Riggs, 2005).• Public Historically Black College and University (HBCU)leaders have the challenge of identifying privatephilanthropists to support their institutions.• With decreasing endowments due to decreasing economicforces, it is a matter of survival that Black colleges increasetheir giving rates (Gasman, 2003).
5Background of the Problem• Disparities in private philanthropy between HBCUs andPredominantly White Institutions (PWIs) can be seen ashigh as 50% (Riggs, 2005).• PWIs have alumni giving rates that range between 20-60%,whereas, HBCU alumni giving rates typically fall below10% (Williams & Kritsonis, 2006).
6Statement of the Problem• Tindall (2007) asserts that fundraising efforts of bothprivate and public HBCUs linger significantly behind theestablished fundraising programs at PWIs.• There are 105 HBCUs across the nation, yet few of theseinstitution’s leaders have devoted time and effort tounderstanding the complexities and challenges associatedwith fundraising at these institutions.• Public HBCU institutional leaders face a growing dilemma– how to strengthen university resources in a climate thathas historically relied almost wholly on public funding.
7Research QuestionsRQ1 Is there a relationship between the Historically BlackCollege and University leaders’ entrepreneurialorientation and the financial stability of their institution?RQ2 To what extent do Historically Black College andUniversity leaders value and carry out entrepreneurialactivities?RQ3 At Historically Black Colleges and Universities, whatfactors are associated with best practices in fundraising?
8Research QuestionsRQ4 How do the institutions’ development practicesinfluence entrepreneurial activities in both the president’sand advancement offices?RQ5 What is the perception of the entrepreneurialorientation of the president’s role by the president andhis/her chief development officer?
9Null HypothesisHO1 There is no relationship between the Historically BlackCollege and University leaders’ entrepreneurialorientation and the financial stability of their institution.
10Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of the study will be to determine theentrepreneurial orientation of public HBCU leaders and todetermine if those orientations are related to the revenue-generating activities of their institutions and the institutions’financial stability.
11Significance of the Study• Since there is minimal research on fundraising at HBCUs, this studywill add to the existing body of literature and probe significant issuessurrounding entrepreneurial orientation and revenue generation atthese specialized institutions.• Results of the study will help university presidents to employ arational approach to developing and implementing a comprehensivefundraising program.• Identifying institutional needs, developing plans for achieving thoseneeds, beginning to implement those plans, and actually executingfund development will be critical to the survival of these institutions.
12Theoretical FrameworkAccording to Clark (1998), entrepreneurial activities comprise third-stream income sources that include:– innovative and profit-based, self-supporting operations that gobeyond traditional sources, such as business developmentactivities and innovative retail sales operations;– activities that develop and enhance traditional income streamssuch as endowment and tuition; and– activities that involve both traditional and nontraditional aspects,such as distance learning, which uses nontraditional methods ofteaching to gain tuition, a traditional source of income.
14Studies that Address Fundraising asEducational Entrepreneurialism• Cohen (2006) “Black College Alumni Giving: A Study of thePerceptions, Attitudes, and Giving Behaviors of Alumni Donors atSelected Historically Black Colleges and Universities”• Dingfelder (2007) “Exploring the Dimensions of EntrepreneurialCommunity Colleges”• Reaves (2006) “African-American Alumni Perceptions RegardingGiving to Historically Black Colleges and Universities”• Riggs (2005) “Entrepreneurial Activities in Independent College andUniversity Presidents: A View from the Top”• Scott (2000) “A Description of Successful Fund-raising Units at PublicHistorically Black Colleges and Universities “
15History of Educational Fundraising• The establishment of land grant institutions paved the wayfor the creation of some specialized public institutions,namely HBCUs.• Black colleges supported by Whites were generallyregarded as more prestigious than those colleges supportedby Blacks (Cohen, 2006).• Cohen (2006) confirms that between 1865 and 1915,Blacks contributed $25 million toward their owneducational efforts, almost half that contributed by Whites.
16History of African-American Philanthropy• Philanthropy among African-Americans can be witnessed in the BlackChurch throughout American History (Ellison, 1991).• African-Americans understand that the role of the Black Church –especially in the area of fundraising – is legendary (Carson, 2001).• Cohen (2006) points out that as Blacks became better educated andtheir churches grew in numbers and strength, their conviction beganto be expressed through the notion that Blacks ought to have schoolsunder their own management and control.
17Entrepreneurialism in Higher Education• Riggs (2005) posits that for most American institutions of highereducation, traditional academic ideology held that the institution hadno business in the marketplace. Today, these institutions areexpected to enter the marketplace, survive in the competitivemarket, and adapt the practices of their for-profit counterparts.• In the last two decades, the public funding landscape has changeddrastically, causing public institutions of higher education to embracethe entrance of private corporations into the business of highereducation (Cook, 1997).• Changes in the historical roles and responsibilities of collegepresidents have presupposed that these leaders possessentrepreneurial characteristics. A business-like orientation focusedon efficiency, accountability, and productivity is reshaping themanagement of higher education (Dingfelder, 2007).
18Entrepreneurialism in Higher Education• George C. Wright, President at Prairie View A&M University, notesthat the Booker T. Washington administration at Tuskeegee and Dr.Johnetta Cole’s leadership at both Spelman College and BennettCollege demonstrated evidence of entrepreneurialism through theirextraordinary fundraising results.• H. Patrick Swygert’s entrepreneurial attributes moved Howard to anunprecedented level, elevating Howard to its ranking among the 136institutions asked by the United States Finance Committee how theyspend their endowments. Swygert, a Howard alumnus, personallygave $2 million to the institution in a recent campaign that raised$275 million, the largest amount raised to-date by any HBCU(Masterson, 2008).
20Research DesignIn this mixed-methods study,• quantitative variables will be used to examine therelationship between HBCU leaders’ entrepreneurialorientation and the financial stability of their universities;and• qualitative variables will be used to explore the extent towhich HBCU leaders value and carry out entrepreneurialactivities, the factors associated with fundraising bestpractices, and the influence development practices have onentrepreneurial activities.
21Research Design• Descriptive research methods will also be used in this study.• Quantitative research will generate numerical data torepresent the variables, and statistical methods will be usedto analyze the data.• The qualitative research method will be used to analyze theresults of the open-ended questionnaire.
22Population and SampleThe Thurgood Marshall College Fund’s (TMCF) 47member schools will be asked to participate in this study.More than 80% of students attending HBCUs are enrolledin a TMCF college or university (Thurgood MarshallCollege Fund, 2007).
23Instrumentation• A 15-item instrument including background/demographicinformation, philanthropic cultivation activities, and philanthropyresults will be used to determine the engagement levels ofentrepreneurialism through fundraising among the specifiedpopulation.• Participants will be asked to sign the Participant Letter of ConsentForm.• Confidentiality will be maintained and guaranteed. Glense (1992)encourages researchers to provide participants with complete accessto the research and interview materials at all times which will givesubjects more power over documents and reports that may containinformation related to them.
24Pilot Study• A pilot study will be conducted with 5% of the 47 TMCFmember schools’ leaders. The survey will be reliable andvalid through recordkeeping accuracy that will authenticatethe findings of the researcher.• Upon completion of the pilot study, the instrument will besent electronically to the remaining TMCF memberschools’ presidents and chief development officers.
25Procedures• Presidents and chief development officers at each TMCFschool will receive the Interview Questions for Participantsthrough an electronic mail link.• Participants will be encouraged to complete open-endedsurvey online.
26Statistical AnalysisResearch Question 1Is there a relationship between theHistorically Black College andUniversity leaders’ entrepreneurialorientation and the financialstability of their institution?Corresponding Interview Question6. Please circle the following words you feel bestdescribe you: (RQ 1)innovativerisk takerproactivecreativechange agentpersuasiveteam buildercompetitiveopportunistvisionary
27Statistical AnalysisResearch Question 1Is there a relationship between theHistorically Black College andUniversity leaders’ entrepreneurialorientation and the financialstability of their institution?Corresponding Interview Question14. In the last three years, howmuch money has been raisedfrom private philanthropicsources? (RQ1)15. When was the last time yourinstitution engaged in a capitalcampaign? (RQ1)
28Statistical AnalysisResearch Question 2To what extent do HistoricallyBlack College and Universityleaders value and carry outentrepreneurial activities?Corresponding Interview Question13. What general differences doyou perceive between yourrole as a universityleader/executive and the roleof traditional businessexecutives? (RQ2)
29Statistical AnalysisResearch Question 3At Historically Black Colleges andUniversities, what factors areassociated with best practices infundraising?Corresponding Interview Question12. What strategies would you liketo employ to seek resourcesfrom private philanthropistsbut are unable to do so becauseof forces outside your locus ofcontrol (i.e. financialconstraints, policy restraints,etc.)? (RQ3)
30Statistical AnalysisResearch Question 4How do the institutions’development practices influenceentrepreneurial activities in boththe president’s and advancementoffices?Corresponding Interview Question10. How does private philanthropyimpact institutional initiatives?(RQ4)11. What strategies do you employto seek resources from privatephilanthropists? (RQ4)
31Statistical AnalysisResearch Question 5What is the perception of theentrepreneurial orientation of thepresident’s role by the presidentand his/her chief developmentofficer?Corresponding Interview Question8. What is your philosophy of funddevelopment? (RQ 5)
32Conclusion• Bowen and Shapiro (1998) suggest that if public HBCUs do notbecome aggressive about their fundraising practices and engage inentrepreneurial practices to increase institutional revenue, they maynot survive.• Waddell (1992) confirms that “empirical research is limited withrespect to fund-raising in public colleges and universities, particularlypublic black institutions” (p. 3).• In Scott’s (2000) study on successful fundraising units at publichistorically black colleges and universities, there are severalreferences to the lack of research conducted related to fundraising atHBCUs. In retrospect, adding to the current scarce body ofliterature regarding HBCU fundraising is much needed and theprimary intent of this study.
33Bowen, W. & Shapirio, H. (1998). Universities and their leadership. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Carson, E. D. (2001). Giving strength: Understanding philanthropy in the Black community. Philanthropy Matters, 2, 4.Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: Organizational pathways of transformation. Oxford, UK: PergamonPress.Cohen, R. T. (2006). Black college alumni giving: A study of the perceptions, attitudes, and giving behaviors of alumnidonors at selected historically black colleges and universities. Retrieved April 15, 2008, from ProQuest Informationand Learning Company http://www.lib.umi.com/dissertations/search.Cook, W. B. (1997). Fundraising and the college presidency in an era of uncertainty: From 1975 to the present. Journalof Higher Education, 1/1/1997.Dingfelder, D. C. (2007). Exploring the dimensions of entrepreneurial community colleges. Retrieved May 9, 2008,from ProQuest Information and Learning Company http://www.lib.umi.com/dissertations/search.Ellison, C. G. (1991). Identification and separatism: Religious involvement and racial orientation of Black Americans.Sociological Quarterly, 32, 4.Gasman, M. (2003). Fund raising from Black-College alumni: Successful strategies for supporting alma mater. Councilfor the Advancement and Support of Education, 22.Glesne, C. & Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. White Plains, NY: Longman.History of Thurgood Marshall College Fund. Retrieved June 10, 2007, from Thurgood Marshall College Fund Web site:http://thurgoodmarshallfund.orgReferences
34Reaves, N. (2006). African-American alumni perceptions regarding giving to historically Black colleges and universities. RetrievedJanuary 21, 2007, from ProQuest Information and Learning Company http://www.lib.umi.com/dissertations/search.Riggs, D. G. (2005). Entrepreneurial activities in independent college and university presidents: A view from the top. RetrievedMay 5, 2006, from ProQuest Information and Learning Company http://www.lib.umi.com/dissertations/search.Scott, L. V. (2000). A description of successful fund-raising units at public historically black colleges and universities. RetrievedDecember 12, 2007, from ProQuest Information and Learning Company http://www.lib.umi.com/dissertations/search.Tindall, N. T. J. (2007). Fund-raising models at public historically Black colleges and universities. Public Relations Review33 (2): 201-5.WaddellWilliams, M. G. & Kritsonis, W. A. (2006). Raising more money at the nation’s historically black colleges and universities.National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research 3 (1).References
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