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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, Dissertation Defense PPT.

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, Dissertation Defense PPT.

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, Dissertation Defense PPT.

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  • 1. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 1FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE ACADEMICACHIEVEMENT OF MINORITY STUDENTS:A COMPARISON AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN,AFRICAN-AMERICAN, AND HISPANICSTUDENTS IN LARGE URBAN SCHOOLDISTRICTSA Dissertation DefenseByGrace Thomas Nickerson
  • 2. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 2Committee MembersWilliam Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.(Dissertation Chair)Douglas Hermond, Ph. D.(Member)David Herrington, Ph.D.(Member)Camille Gibson, Ph.D.(Outside Member)
  • 3. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 3Dissertation Defense FormatI. TheoreticalFrameworkII. Purpose of the StudyIII. Research QuestionIV. Null HypothesisV. Methods: SubjectsVI. Methods:InstrumentationVII. Methods: QuantitativeVIII. Quantitative PilotStudyIX. Major FindingsX. Review of LiteratureXI. PracticalRecommendationsXII. Recommendations forFurther Study
  • 4. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 4Theoretical FrameworkFACTORS THAT IMPACT THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OFMINORITY STUDENTS:A COMPARISON AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN, AND HISPANIC STUDENTS IN LARGE URBANSCHOOL DISTRICTSFREQUENCY OF STUDY MODESPRACTICED(Group and individual)PARENTAL INVOLVEMENTTIME SPENT ON HOMEWORKACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF MINORITY STUDENTS(Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students)
  • 5. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 5Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of the study is to determinethe differences among Asian American,Hispanic, and African American studentswith respect to parental involvement,time spent on homework, frequency ofindividual study modes, and frequencygroup study modes.
  • 6. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 6Research Questions1. How do Asian American, Hispanic, and AfricanAmerican students at selected high schools comparewith respect to parental involvement, time spenthomework, frequency of individual study modes, andfrequency of group study modes?2. What are the differences when studying English,Mathematics, Science and Social Studies among AsianAmerican, Hispanic, and African students with respectto parental involvement, time spent on homework,frequency of individual study modes, and frequency ofgroup study modes?
  • 7. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 7Null HypothesisHo1 : There are no statistically significantdifference among Asian American,Hispanic, and African Americanstudents with respect to parentalinvolvement, time spent on Englishhomework, frequency of individualstudy modes, and frequency of groupstudy modes.
  • 8. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 8Null HypothesisHo2 : There are no statistically significantdifference among Asian American,Hispanic, and African Americanstudents with respect to parentalinvolvement, time spent onMathematics homework, frequency ofindividual study modes, andfrequency of group study modes.
  • 9. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 9Null HypothesisHo3 : There are no statistically significantdifference among Asian American,Hispanic, and African Americanstudents with respect to parentalinvolvement, time spent on Sciencehomework, frequency of individualstudy modes, and frequency of groupstudy modes.
  • 10. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 10Null HypothesisHo4 : There are no statistically significantdifference among Asian American,Hispanic, and African Americanstudents with respect to parentalinvolvement, time spent on SocialStudies homework, frequency ofindividual study modes, andfrequency of group study modes.
  • 11. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 11METHODS
  • 12. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 12MethodsSubjects of the Study 713 High School Seniors, 18 years oldfrom 5 urban school districts inSoutheast Texas
  • 13. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 13Method: Instrumentation Six-Point,Likert-typeInstrument What InfluencedYour AcademicAchievementQuestionnaire Five Sections with atotal of 26 questions Instrumentmeasured theamount of Influencefrom1. Parental Involvement2. Time Spent onHomework3. Frequency of GroupStudy Modes4. Frequency ofIndividual StudyModes
  • 14. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 14Method: Instrumentation Questionnaire Components Demographics (4 questions) Parental Involvement(8 questions) Range : 0 – 48 Time Spent on Homework(6 questions) Range: 0 – 36 Frequency of Individual StudyModes (4 questions) Range: 0 – 24 Frequency of Group StudyModes (4 questions) Range: 0 - 24 Weights of Responses 1:Never/0-5 Hours, 2: Rarely/5-10 Hours, 3: Sometimes/10-25Hours, 4: Often/15–20 Hours, 5: Very Often/ 20–25Hours, 6: Always/25+ Hours
  • 15. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 15Methods: Quantitative Descriptive Statistics One – Way ANOVA
  • 16. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 16Methods: Quantitative Independent Variables – The academicAchievement of minority students: AsianAmerican, African American, andHispanic Students Dependent Variables – The influence ofParental Involvement, Time Spent onHomework, Frequency of Group StudyModes and Frequency of IndividualStudy Modes
  • 17. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 17Methods: Quantitative PilotThe questionnaire was piloted tostudents that are high school seniors toensure that the meanings of thequestions on the questionnaire are clearand pertinent to the study, and theanswers given by the respondents arethe answers needed by the investigator. The students that participated in the studywere Asian American, African American andHispanic high school seniors.
  • 18. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 18Major Findings2006 – 2007 Campus Demographics Percentages for theCampuses involved in the Study.(TEA 2006 – 2007 AEIS Report)CAMPUS ASIANAMERICANAFRICANAMERICANHISPANICCampus 1 0.2% 82.7% 14.5%Campus 2 6.0% 35.8% 11.5%Campus 3 1.5% 90.8% 5.5%Campus 4 2.1% 32.2% 54.1%Campus 5 0.2% 7.3% 87.1%
  • 19. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 19Major Findings2006 – 2007 Campus TAKS Passing Percentages for the Campusesinvolved in the Study. (TEA 2006 – 2007 AEIS Report)CAMPUS CAMPUSSCOREASIANAMERICANHISPANIC AFRICANAMERICANCampus 1 44% * 34% 46%Campus 2 73% 90% 63% 57%Campus 3 56% * 22% 57%Campus 4 62% 84% 59% 59%Campus 5 57% * 59% 35%*Indicates results are masked due to small numbers to protect student confidentiality
  • 20. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 20Major Findings :Research Question 11. How do Asian American, Hispanic, andAfrican American students at selectedhigh schools compare with respect toparental involvement, time spenthomework, frequency of individualstudy modes, and frequency of groupstudy modes?
  • 21. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 21Major Findings :Research Question 1FACTORS ASIANAMERICANHISPANIC AFRICANAMERICANPARENTALINVOLVMENT25.70 23.82 26.08TIME SPENT ONHOMEWORK9.90 9.18 9.86INDIVIDUALSTUDY MODES12.30 10.76 11.36GROUP STUDYMODES10.20 8.35 8.12 Descriptive Statistics (Compare Means) on Parental involvement, TimeSpent on Homework, Individual Study Modes, and Group Study Modesbased on Ethnicity (N=713)
  • 22. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 22Major Findings:Research Question 1(Parental Involvement)
  • 23. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 23Major Findings:Research Question 1(Time Spent on Homework)
  • 24. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 24Major Findings:Research Question 1(Frequency of Individual Study Modes)
  • 25. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 25Major Findings:Research Question 1(Frequency of Group Study Modes)
  • 26. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 26Major Findings :Research Question 1 and 2FACTOR ETHNICITY MEAN SIG.PARENTALINVOLVEMENTAsian AmericanHispanicAfrican American.54-1.71.99.93HispanicAsian AmericanAfrican American-.54-2.26*.99.03African AmericanAsian AmericanHispanic1.712.26*.93.03One-Way ANOVA (Compare Means)Parental involvement based on Ethnicity (N=713) Sig.: p≤0.05
  • 27. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 27Major Findings:Research Questions 1 and 2FACTOR ETHNICITY MEAN SIG.TIME SPENT ONHOMEWORK(English, Math,Science, and SocialStudies)Asian AmericanHispanicAfrican American.71.04.901.00HispanicAsian AmericanAfrican American-.71-.67.90.26African AmericanAsian AmericanHispanic-.04.671.00.16One-Way ANOVA (Compare Means)Time Spent on Homework (English, Math, Science, and Social Studies)based on Ethnicity (N=713) Sig.: p≤0.05
  • 28. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 28Major Findings:Research Questions 1 and 2FACTOR ETHNICITY MEAN SIG.FREQUENCY OFINDIVIDUAL STUDYMODES(English, Math,Science, and SocialStudies)Asian AmericanHispanicAfrican American1.53.94.87.97HispanicAsian AmericanAfrican American-1.53-.59.87.85African AmericanAsian AmericanHispanic-.94.59.97.85One-Way ANOVA (Compare Means)Frequency of Individual Study Modes (English, Math, Science, and SocialStudies) based on Ethnicity (N=713) Sig.: p≤0.05
  • 29. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 29Major Findings:Research Questions 1 and 2FACTOR ETHNICITY MEAN SIG.FREQUENCY OFGROUPS STUDYMODES(English, Math,Science, and SocialStudies)Asian AmericanHispanicAfrican American1.842.07.47.33HispanicAsian AmericanAfrican American-1.84.23.47.98African AmericanAsian AmericanHispanic-2.07-.23.33.98One-Way ANOVA (Compare Means)Frequency of Group Study Modes (English, Math, Science, and SocialStudies) based on Ethnicity (N=713) Sig.: p≤0.05
  • 30. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 30Major Findings:One-Way ANOVA(Research Questions 1 & 2) Parental Involvement Statistically Significant difference between Hispanic and African Americanstudents(Reject the Null Hypothesis) Time Spent on Homework(English, Math, Science, And Social Studies) No statistically significant differences among the minority groups(Accept the Null Hypothesis) Frequency of Individual Study Modes(English, Math, Science, And Social Studies) No statistically significant differences among the minority groups(Accept the Null Hypothesis) Frequency of Group Study Modes(English, Math, Science, And Social Studies) No statistically significant differences among the minority groups(Accept the Null Hypothesis)
  • 31. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 31Conclusions There are no statistically significantdifferences among Asian American, Hispanicand African American students with respectto parental involvement, time spent onhomework, frequency of individual studymodes and frequency of group study modes. There is, however, a statistically significantdifference among Hispanics and AfricanAmericans with regard to parentalinvolvement.
  • 32. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 32Review of Literature
  • 33. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 33Review of Literature:The Model Minority Ellington (2005) - Not only are the academic achievement levels higherthan other minorities, but Asians out-perform their peers inalmost every arena… Recent statistics indicate that well over95% of Japanese are literate. Currently, over 95% of Japanesehigh school students graduate compared to the 89% of Americanstudents. Doan (2006) - The stereotype of being the model minority hurts at-riskAsian American students. At-risk Asian American studentscontinue to be ignored or undeserved because of the success of theentire group. When success of the Asian American group ishighlighted, educators and the general public direct their attentionto at-risk students of other ethnicities, forgetting that AsianAmerican students can also be at-risk. Shimahara(2001) - Asian Americans, see the United States as a land ofopportunity compared to their situation back home. They aregenerally optimistic and trusting of U.S. society, and work hard inschool and in their jobs to succeed.
  • 34. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 34Review of Literature:Social Factors that Impact the Academic Achievement of AfricanAmerican Students Lew (2006) - Involuntary minorities who were forcefully incorporatedinto the U. S. tend to attribute academic success with “whiteness”and thus reject school success with their own ethnic and racialidentities. Chubb (2002) - Social scientists confidently predicted that after theSupreme Court decision, Brown v. Board of Education, 1954, thatthe academic gap among minorities would soon be eliminated.However, this did not occur. Academic success of AfricanAmericans went from abysmal to merely terrible Bennett (2004) - African American students in particular are likely toexperience doubts about their acceptance in educationalinstitutions and such concerns are likely to be accentuated inacademic environments that high achieving minority students strivefor.
  • 35. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 35Review of Literature:Social Factors that Impact the Academic Achievement ofHispanic Students Ramirez (2005) - Hispanic students tend to be poorer,attend more segregated schools and live in urban areas.However, current guidelines and educational practicesmandated for Hispanic students are built on such assumptionsand have had the unintended consequence of damaging thestudents’ futures, education and otherwise. Cammarota (2006) - According to some Hispanic youth, theassumption of their intellectual inferiority is the mostsignificant obstacle in their academic pursuits Sparks (2002) - studies have shown lower academic attainmentfor second- and third- generation Latino students, so recentimmigration or limited English language proficiency cannotbe responsible for the entire gap
  • 36. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 36Review of Literature:Parental Involvement (Research Question 1 & 2) Stewart (2007) - Parents can promote children’s cognitivedevelopment and academic achievement directly bybecoming involved in their children’s educational activities. Gregory (2000) - The more involved parents are in theirchildren’s education, at home and at school, the moresuccessful children will be academically and socially.Teachers report more positive feelings about their teachingand schools when there is a greater degree of parentinvolvement. Epstein (2002) – Strong academic outcomes among middle leveland high school students were associated withcommunication between parents and school personnel aboutthe child’s schooling and future plans.
  • 37. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 37Review of Literature:Time Spent on Homework(Research Question 1 & 2) Wong (1986) - An interesting, and for some a discouraging feature ofcontemporary high school education, is the finding that moreHispanic and African American students and between 1 to 8 % ofthe Asian students report not doing any homework or spendingless than one hour per week on it. Freeman (1995) - The amount of school hours is different between theUnited States and Asian nations. Japanese students, for example,spend more days in school and study more hours studying afterschool. Thus, having more hours of instruction and practice in agiven subject than American students of the same age, theJapanese students naturally tend to score higher. Xu (2004) - Doing homework often can create a foundation fordeveloping desirable work habits since “regardless of thehomework’s intellectual content, there is a need to deal withdistractions, and a role for emotional coping, task force, andpersistence.”
  • 38. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 38Review of Literature:Frequency of Group and Individual Study Modes(Research Question 1 & 2) Lambert (2006) - The way a student studies determines whatknowledge is retained and learned, what concepts areunderstood and how a student can apply what is learned.Although secondary level teachers often assume that allstudents have acquired sufficient study skills by the timethey reach high school, many have not Slavin (1980) - Learning team techniques have generally hadpositive effects on such student outcomes as academicachievement and mutual attraction among students. Groupforms of study habits increase academic achievement. Decoker (2002) - Rapid learners can help those who are slower,and students who do not understand the lesson can askquestions of the fast learners
  • 39. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 39RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 40. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 40Practical Recommendations1. Teachers may need to implement the use ofeffective study habits in order for students tolearn content at their optimal level.2. Parents need to take an active, participatory rolein the education of their child. When schoolsattempt to reach out to parents, parents need tobe willing to meet schools half way.3. Policies and standards that are created andimplemented on the state and district levels needto accommodate the students and not theinterest or agendas of lobbyists, bureaucrats, orunions.
  • 41. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 41Practical Recommendations4. Also when creating state test, theunderstanding that not all students comefrom like backgrounds or experiences need tobe taken into account.5. When donating money, educationalfoundations that award grants need to ensurethat the programs that they fund enhance theeducation of all students.6. The standardized tests that are used ineducation need to be modified to adequatelytest all students of every race andbackground.
  • 42. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 42Recommendations for Further Study A study should be conducted to investigateindividual test scores to be compared to theimpact of parental involvement, time spent onhomework, frequency of individual studymodes and frequency of group study modeson individual students. The study should also include a qualitativecomponent such as interviews to introducethe importance of cultural and social beliefsand values on minority students’ education.
  • 43. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 43Recommendations for Further Study A study could be conducted to investigate a difference amongminority groups in urban and rural school districts with respectto parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency ofindividual study modes and frequency of group study modeswith a comparison of cultural and social beliefs and valuesbetween the students enrolled in the urban and suburbanschool districts. A study could also be conducted to include a qualitativecomponent of parents and their children and their insight onwhat impacts the academic achievement of their child based onparental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency ofindividual study modes, frequency of group study modes,cultural and social beliefs and values.
  • 44. September 17, 2008 Grace Thomas Nickerson 44FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE ACADEMICACHIEVEMENT OF MINORITY STUDENTS:A COMPARISON AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN, ANDHISPANIC STUDENTS IN LARGE URBANSCHOOL DISTRICTSA Dissertation DefenseByGrace Thomas Nickerson