Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Dr. Teresa Ann Hughes, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Dr. Teresa Ann Hughes, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

1,720

Published on

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System …

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

Dr. Teresa Ann Hughes was the first PhD recipient (2006) in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University/Member of the Texas A&M University System.

Dr. Hughes is currently (2009) Assistant Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,720
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
32
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Typically I would address the review of literature before the research questions and methods, but I am putting them with the major findings to make it clearer how the study meshes with the theoretical framework.
  • The PLC model flows from the assumption that the core mission of formal education is not simply to ensure that students are taught but to ensure that students learn. Educators realize they must work together to achieve their collective purpose of learning for all. Therefore, they create structures to promote a collaborative culture. PLC educators judge their effectiveness on the basis of results. If these 3 big ideas are properly implemented the result should be improved student performance.
  • The following research questions will guide the study…… Principals responding to the instrument, School Professional Staff as Learning Community, will answer this research question.
  • TAKS data was obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to answer this research question.
  • TAKS data was obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to answer this research question.
  • Descriptive Statistics were used to compile demographic information on each principal responding to the instrument. Pearson Correlation Coefficients were then calculated to establish whether or not a relationship existed between schools functioning as PLCs and student achievement. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine predictability for each of the 5 indicator items on the instrument as they related to student achievement.
  • PLC schools were obtained through 2 sources: Solution Tree – districts hosting PLC conferences in Texas Southwest Educational Development Laboratories (SEDL) – schools given grant money because of NCLB to implement learning communities. The response rate was low but is considered acceptable considering the population and time of year. The instrument was mailed in April and again in June to the non-respondents. Don Dillman’s Total Design Method was also used to increase the response rate. --short instrument --short and personal introduction letter --self-addressed stamped envelope --assured confidentiality by coding the instrument
  • The instrument used in this study is….. And was created by Shirley Hord at SEDL.
  • The majority of principals rated their campuses as mature professional learning communities. The mean length of time was 2.5 years. This would indicate that the professional learning communities were a relatively new approach.
  • This correlation is significant in that the length of time a campus is a professional learning community directly impacts the development level of the campus as perceived by the principal.
  • TAKS data will be obtained to answer this research question.
  • For the 2004 and 2005 school years,
  • It was not necessary to calculate stepwise multiple regression for Mathematics TAKS scores because the Pearson correlation coefficients for the total instrument scores and each indicator, did not reflect a relationship.
  • TAKS data will be obtained to answer this research question.
  • For the 2004 and 2005 school years,
  • Stepwise multiple regression analysis was calculated to determine predictability for each of the 5 indicators as they related to student achievement.
  • Predictor 2 continues to emerge as a predictor variable. While indicator 5 was included in the model of stepwise multiple regression analysis the analysis excluded it. This could be because indicator 5 is measuring the same constructs in indicator 2. In fact, when I ran a Pearson’s correlation coefficient between indicators 2 and 5, r = .608, p = .000 (p < .01).
  • Significant increases in student achievement did occur.
  • NCLB mandates have put a lot of pressure on schools to address student learning. Districts and/or schools could be implementing multiple initiatives while at the same time implementing PLCs.
  • This indicates that PLCs are a relatively new idea and might explain why a relationship between student achievement and PLC schools was not significant.
  • Thank you for your attention.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Relationship Between Professional Learning Communities and Student Achievement in High Schools A Dissertation Defense by Teresa Ann Hughes Major Professor: William Allan Kritsonis, PhD PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    • 2. Dissertation Defense Format
      • Theoretical Framework
      • Purpose of the Study
      • Research Questions
      • Method
      • Major Findings
      • Review of Literature
      • Recommendations
    • 3. Theoretical Framework 3 Big Ideas Richard and Rebecca DuFour and Robert Eaker Student Learning Student Performance Collaborative Culture Results
    • 4. Purpose of the Study
      • The purpose was two-fold:
      • 1. Identify the degree to which each school was functioning as a professional learning community as rated by the principal.
    • 5. Purpose of the Study
      • 2. Identify whether improved student achievement in Mathematics and Reading/English Language Arts Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores increased as a result of professional learning communities for the 2004, 2005, and 2006 school years.
    • 6. Research Questions
      • 1. To what degree do principals rate their school as functioning as a professional learning community as measured by the School Professional Staff as Learning Community instrument?
    • 7. Research Questions
      • 2. Is there a relationship between student achievement, based on change in Mathematics Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, and the degree to which the principals report that the school is functioning as a professional learning community?
    • 8. Research Questions
      • 3. Is there a relationship between student achievement, based on change in Reading/English Language Arts Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, and the degree to which the principals report that the school is functioning as a professional learning community?
    • 9. Null Hypotheses
      • H 01 - There is no statistically significant relationship between student achievement, as measured by Mathematics Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, and the degree to which a school is functioning as a professional learning community.
    • 10. Null Hypotheses
      • H 02 - There is no statistically significant relationship between student achievement, as measured by Reading/English Language Arts Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, and the degree to which a school is functioning as a professional learning community.
    • 11. Method
      • Descriptive Statistics
      • Correlational Statistics
        • Pearson’s Correlation
      • Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis
    • 12. Method
      • Independent Variable – The degree to which a school functions as a professional learning community as rated by the principal.
      • Dependent Variable – Student achievement based on change in Mathematics and Reading/English Language Arts TAKS scores.
    • 13. Method
      • Subjects of the Study
        • All accessible regular instruction public high schools that functioned as a PLC in Texas
        • Grades 9 through 12
        • Total student enrollment greater than 1,000
        • 64 principals responded out of 142
    • 14. Method
      • Instrumentation
        • School Professional Staff as Learning Community Instrument
        • five-point Likert-type instrument
        • Pilot Test and Field Test for reliability and validity conducted by Appalachia Educational Laboratories (AEL)
        • 5 Indicators (17 total questions)
    • 15. Method
      • Instrumentation – 5 Indicators
        • 1. School administrators participate democratically with teachers by sharing power, authority, and decision making.
        • 2. There is a shared vision for school improvement in which the school has an undeviating focus on student learning.
        • 3. Staff’s collective learning and application of the learning create high intellectual tasks and solutions to address student needs.
    • 16. Method
      • Instrumentation – 5 Indicators
      • 4. Peers review and give feedback
      • based on observing each other’s
      • classroom behaviors.
      • 5. Conditions and capacities support the
      • school’s arrangement as a
      • professional learning community.
    • 17. Major Findings Research Question 1
      • To what degree do principals rate their school as functioning as a professional learning community as measured by the School Professional Staff as Learning Community instrument?
    • 18. Major Findings Research Question 1
      • Mean PLC Score = 68.8
      • Possible Range: 17 to 85
      • Reported Range: 52 to 83
      • Mean Length of Time as a PLC = 2.5 years
    • 19. Major Findings Research Question 1
      • Correlation Between Total PLC Score on Instrument and Years as a PLC
      • r = .347,
      • p = .005, (p < .01)
    • 20. Review of Literature Research Question 1
      • Lezotte (1997) - The best way to build this broad-based commitment to the goals and strategies is through involvement of the staff and administrators.
      • Eaker, DuFour, & DuFour (2002) - In a professional learning community, collaboration is embedded into every aspect of the school culture. Every major decision related to the learning mission is made through collaborative processes.
    • 21. Review of Literature Research Question 1
      • Gale (1997) - For change to be sustained, it is essential that those in authority support the change and those at the site of change must be involved in decisions regarding the change.
      • Twadell (2006) - The seeds of change in our departmental culture were planted when teachers worked together to develop a shared vision of the department they hoped to become and the students they hoped to shape.
    • 22. Review of Literature Research Question 1
      • DuFour and Eaker (1998) - Teachers in professional learning communities recognize that teaching has not occurred until learning has occurred, and they act accordingly.
      • Hinman (2006) - Collaboration and collective inquiry are essential to the PLC concept, but only if teachers remain focused on the right issues.
    • 23. Review of Literature Research Question 1
      • Muhammad (2006) - They recognize students cannot continually learn at higher levels unless educators are continually developing their capacity to meet the needs of students.
      • Eaker, DuFour & DuFour (2002), Members of a PLC are not ‘invited’ to work with colleagues: they are called upon to be contributing members of a collective effort to improve the school’s capacity to help all students learn at high levels.
    • 24. Major Findings Research Question 2
      • Is there a relationship between student achievement, based on change in Mathematics Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, and the degree to which the principals report that the school is functioning as a professional learning community?
    • 25. Major Findings Research Question 2 2004-2005 2004-2006 2005-2006 Change in Mathematics TAKS Scores 26 38 Freq. 40.6 59.4 % % Freq % Freq. 90.6 58 85.9 55 Increase 9.4 6 14.1 9 Decrease
    • 26. Major Findings Research Question 2
      • Pearson’s “r” for the total PLC score and each indicator as they relate to Mathematics TAKS scores were not significant for any of the school years.
      • The null hypotheses was not rejected.
      • Stepwise multiple regression analysis was not calculated.
    • 27. Major Findings Research Question 3
      • Is there a relationship between student achievement, based on change in Reading/English Language Arts Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, and the degree to which the principals report that the school is functioning as a professional learning community?
    • 28. Major Findings Research Question 3 2004-2005 2004-2006 2005-2006 Change in Reading/English Language Arts TAKS Scores 63 1 Freq. 98.4 1.6 % % Freq % Freq. 98.4 63 56.3 36 Increase 1.6 1 43.7 28 Decrease
    • 29. Major Findings Research Question 3
      • For the 2004 and 2005 school years,
      • Indicator 2 (Undeviating focus on student learning):
      • r = .289, p = .021 (p < .05)
      • Indicator 5 (Conditions and capacities support the learning community school):
      • r = .252, p = .045 (p < .05)
    • 30. Major Findings Research Question 3
      • Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis
      • Excluded Variables
      • Sig. Partial Correlation
      • Total Score: .789 -.034
      • Indicator 1: .629 -.062
      • Indicator 3: .601 -.067
      • Indicator 4: .301 -.132
      • Indicator 5: .434 .100
      • The null hypotheses was not rejected.
    • 31. Review of Literature Research Questions 2 & 3
      • Descriptive Statistics
      • Muhammad (2006) - A school that lagged far behind state averages had surpassed the state and eliminated the achievement gap. This transformation occurred, not because of an influx of better, brighter students, but because of the increased capacity, skill, and confidence of the staff.
      • Thompson, Gregg & Niska (2004) - In the area of student learning, every principal said that they felt students were learning in their school and they know this by looking at various assessments, i.e. test scores, student work, and portfolios.
    • 32. Review of Literature Research Questions 2 & 3
      • Correlational Statistics
      • Schools could be implementing other initiatives.
      • Hatch (2000) refers to this excess of initiatives as “multiple innovations colliding.”
    • 33. Review of Literature Research Questions 2 & 3
      • Correlational Statistics
      • Time as a PLC = 2.5 years
      • Fullan (2000) - It takes about three years to achieve successful change in student performance in an elementary school. Depending on size, it takes about six years to do so in a secondary school.
    • 34. Conclusion
      • It can be concluded that while there are significant increases in all TAKS scores, the results from the instrument can not be used to predict change in TAKS scores. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that professional learning communities impact student achievement and it cannot be concluded that they do not impact student achievement.
    • 35. Recommendations
      • Principals should follow professional learning communities over the next few years to document further progress.
      • Principals should continue participating democratically with teachers sharing power, authority, and decision making.
      • Principals should continue working to share visions for school improvement that have an undeviating focus on student learning and are consistently referenced for the staff’s work.
    • 36. Recommendations
      • Principals should continue to support the staff’s collective learning and application of the learning to address student needs.
      • Principals should implement peer reviews and peers providing feedback based on observing each other’s classrooms in order to increase individual and organizational capacity.
      • Principals should continue to support the school’s arrangement as a professional learning community.
    • 37. Recommendations for Further Study
      • A study could be conducted to compare schools functioning as professional learning communities with schools not functioning as professional learning communities to determine if student achievement is impacted.
      • A study could be conducted to determine if a relationship exists between the number of years schools are professional learning communities and student achievement.
    • 38. Recommendations for Further Study
      • A study could be conducted to compare professional learning community schools with similar demographics to determine if student achievement is impacted. Schools could be identified by the campus group with which they are assigned.
      • A study could be conducted that includes both elementary and middle schools. This study only included high schools.
      • A study could be conducted where both principals and teachers are surveyed and interviewed to determine the perceptions of their schools as professional learning communities.
    • 39. Recommendations for Further Study
      • A study could be conducted with a different instrument that addresses the differences in the respondent’s mind between what should be present for a professional learning community to exist and what actually is occurring on the respondent’s campus.
      • A study could be conducted with a different instrument that has a wider range of choices within a Likert-type scale. This would provide a greater potential variance for each variable so that true differences would emerge during inferential statistical analysis .
    • 40. The Relationship Between Professional Learning Communities and Student Achievement in High Schools A Dissertation Defense by Teresa Ann Hughes

    ×