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Dr. Roselia Alaniz Salinas, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
 

Dr. Roselia Alaniz Salinas, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Dr. Roselia Alaniz Salinas, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Dr. Roselia Alaniz Salinas, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

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  • Before beginning: This journey begun 3 ½ years could not have been possible without the support of my husband Eddie, and understanding of my children David & Carlie. I would like to introduce them to you and recognize them. In addition, I must recognize my Committee Chair Dr. Kritsonis for not giving up on me when I encountered valleys through this journey. Recognition is also given to my Committee Dr. Hermond, Dr. Herrington and Dr. Gibson for their time and support of my study. Finally, I would like to acknowledge a doctoral cohort colleague – Dr. Teresa Hughes, who made sure I did not stay behind. Thank you. Finally, I would like to recognize my extended family members who came from the Rio Grande Valley, San Antonio, and Houston to be here today. Thank you!
  • The title of my dissertation is … R W F W This topic became of interest because at the time I began exploring my options for the study, I served as the primary bilingual teacher recruiter in a major urban school district where bilingual teachers are a critical shortage.
  • The format for today’s presentation will be as follows: R W F W
  • This is the theoretical framework that guided this study. Explain in own words.
  • R W F W
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  • The following quantitative research questions will guided the study…… R W F W
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  • Two null hypotheses were formulated from Research Questions 2 & 3 and are as follows: R W F W
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  • The Qualitative Research Questions were: R W F W
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  • BOTH DESCRIPTIVE AND SURVEY RESEARCH METHODS WERE UTILIZED IN THIS MIXED METHODS STUDY Descriptive Statistics were used to illustrate the percentages for bilingual teacher certification route and years of teaching experience. In addition, frequencies and percentages were calculated to represent participant responses from the Survey on Competencies Learned Through the Certification Route instrument. Independent T-Tests were performed on the data to produce results for the Null Hypotheses. Data were measured at a 95% level of significance. Independent t-test to compare the means.
  • Qualitative data were explained through the use of a cross-sectional instrument containing two-open ended questions on teacher preparedness as expressed by the teacher participants. Validation of the findings was done through triangulation. R W F W
  • The independent variables were… R W F W
  • The subjects of the study were comprised of alternative and traditional certified elementary bilingual teachers. Purposive Sampling was used to yield a sample population consisting of 3 rd & 5 th grade bilingual education students and their classroom teachers from 25 demographically similar elementary school representing 5 major urban school districts in Texas. 116 bilingual teachers responded out of 206 producing a 56% rate of return.
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  • The closed-ended component of the instrument contained the 13 teacher competencies listed as factors. A four-choice Likert-type scale was included to identify the level of preparation provided to meet the teacher competency as deemed by the participant. The level responses included: No preparation/None; Minimal/Little preparation; Some/Moderate preparation; and Significant preparation.
  • The instrument titled, Survey of Competencies Learned Through the Certification Route featured 3 components: R W F W
  • R W F W The pilot test form of the instrument allowed for participants to review for clarity; make criticisms; and state recommendations for improving the instrument. All 40 participants responded for a 100% return rate. No recommendations for changes were provided by the expert panel. Therefore, the instrument is trustworthy.
  • R W F W
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  • As a reminder, the first Quantitative Research Question was … R W F W
  • 50% or more of the Traditional certified participants rated teacher preparedness as Significantly Prepared in 11 of the 13 teacher competencies. They were…. R W F W This would indicate that Traditional certified teachers believed they WERE Significantly Prepared to enter the classroom upon completing their preparation program.
  • Traditional certified teachers reported they were not significantly prepared to enter the classroom in ONLY 2 of the 13 teacher competencies. They are… R W F W
  • 50% or more of the Alternative certified participants rated teacher preparedness as significantly prepared in ONLY 5 of the 13 teacher competencies. They were… R W F W
  • Less than 50% of ALTERNATIVE CERTIFIED teachers reported they WERE NOT Significantly Prepared in 8 of the 13 teacher competencies. They were … R W F W ** THE EVIDENCE THAT ONLY 5 of THE TEACHER COMPETENCY CATEGORIES reaped 50% or more responses of “Significantly Prepared” from Alternative Certified Teacher Participants allows one to conclude… that alternative certification programs NEED to make improvements in their training components so that they are aligned with the TExES state standards.
  • The following is the review of literature that support these findings… R W F W
  • R W F W
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  • The 2 nd Quantitative Research Question was… R W F W
  • To answer Research Question 2, a T-test for independent means was calculated and analyzed. The “% Met Standard” on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Reading mean scale for Alternative certified teachers was 54.31 and 67.84 for traditional certified teachers. The mean difference was 13.524. The t-test indicated that the mean difference of 13.524 was statistically significant since the significance level was less than .05 Therefore, the null hypotheses is rejected. Optional: There are no statistically significant differences in the academic performances of 3 rd and 5 th grade students taught in a bilingual classroom setting by traditional certified teachers compared to those taught by alternative certified teachers based on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in Reading .
  • R W F W
  • To answer Research Question 3, a T-test for independent means was calculated and analyzed. The “% Met Standard” on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Mathematics mean scale for Alternative certified teachers was 52.65 and 69.51 for traditional certified teachers. The mean difference was 16.862 The t-test indicated that the mean difference of 16.862 was statistically significant since the significance level was less than .05 Therefore, the null hypotheses is rejected. Optional: There are no statistically significant differences in the academic performances of 3 rd and 5 th grade students taught in a bilingual classroom setting by traditional certified teachers compared to those taught by alternative certified teachers based on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in Mathematics .
  • The following is the review of literature that support these findings…. R W F W
  • R W F W
  • Research Question 4 was Qualitative and asked the following… R W F W
  • R W F W
  • Bilingual teacher participant responses are as follows… R W F W
  • R W F W
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  • The following is the review of literature that support these findings… R W F W
  • R W F W
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  • Participant responses are as follows… R W F W
  • R W F W
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  • The following is the review of literature that support these findings… R W F W
  • R W F W
  • Research Question 5 was Qualitative and asked the following…. R W F W
  • R W F W
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  • Participant responses are as follows… R W F W
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  • The following is the review of literature that support these findings… R W F W
  • R W F W
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  • The following recommendations are directed to campus principals whose role as instructional leaders are responsible for student achievement at their campuses. R W F W
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  • Finished.

Dr. Roselia Alaniz Salinas, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair Dr. Roselia Alaniz Salinas, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair Presentation Transcript

  • Dissertation Defense Prairie View A & M University Educational Leadership Candidate: Roselia Alaniz Salinas Dissertation Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D. Dissertation Committee: Douglas Hermond, Ph.D. David Herrington, Ph.D. Camille Gibson, Ph.D.
  • A Comparison of Alternatively and Traditionally Certified Bilingual Elementary Teachers’ Student Achievement Scores in Selected Major Urban Texas Schools A Dissertation Defense by Roselia Alaniz Salinas Dissertation Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D. Prairie View A & M University Educational Leadership
  • Dissertation Defense Format
    • Theoretical Framework
    • Purpose of the Study
    • Research Questions
    • Method of Procedure
    • Quantitative Major Findings
    • Qualitative Major Findings
    • Review of Literature
    • Recommendations
  • Theoretical Framework TAKS READING TAKS MATH Certification Routes Student Performance TRADITIONAL ALTERNATIVE 001. Human Development Processes 002. Student Diversity 003. Instruction & Assessment 004. Learning Processes 005. Classroom Climate 006. Student Behavior 007. Communication 008. Student Engagement 009. Technology 010. Monitors Feedback/ Flexibility 011. Family Involvement 012. Professional Development 013. Legal & Ethical Teacher Competencies
  • Purpose of the Study
    • The purpose was threefold:
    • It sought to examine whether teacher
    • certification route (i.e., alternative or traditional) made a difference in the performance of elementary bilingual students in selected major urban school districts in Texas as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS).
  • Purpose of the Study
    • It attempted to distinguish if similarities or differences exist in teacher preparation routes.
    • It intended to identify the extent classroom teachers were prepared by their certification program in the 13 teacher competencies outlined in the Texas Examinations of Educator Standards (TExES).
  • Quantitative Research Questions
    • 1. How do bilingual elementary teachers rate their preparedness for the teaching profession as determined by the 13 teacher competencies measured by the Survey on Competencies Learned Through Certification Routes instrument?
  • Quantitative Research Questions
    • 2 . What are the differences in the academic performance of 3 rd and 5 th grade students taught in a bilingual classroom setting by traditional certified teachers compared to those taught by alternative certified teachers based on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in Reading ?
  • Quantitative Research Questions
    • 3. What are the differences in the academic performance of 3 rd and 5 th grade students taught in a bilingual classroom setting by traditional certified teachers compared to those taught by alternative certified teachers based on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in Mathematics ?
  • Null Hypotheses
    • H 01 - There are no statistically significant differences in the academic performances of 3 rd and 5 th grade students taught in a bilingual classroom setting by traditional certified teachers compared to those taught by alternative certified teachers based on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in Reading .
  • Null Hypotheses
    • H 02 - There are no statistically significant differences in the academic performances of 3 rd and 5 th grade students taught in a bilingual classroom setting by traditional certified teachers compared to those taught by alternative certified teachers based on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in Mathematics .
  • Qualitative Research Questions
    • 4. What do bilingual elementary teachers who received either traditional or alternative certification describe as factors that helped or hindered them during their preparation to enter the classroom?
  • Qualitative Research Questions
    • 5. What are some specific skills that alternative or traditional certified bilingual elementary teachers wished their preparation program had exposed them to before entering the classroom?
  • Mixed Methods Study
    • Quantitative Data
    • Descriptive Statistics
        • Demographic data
        • 13 teacher competencies
    • Independent t-test
        • Comparison of Means
  • Mixed Methods Study
    • Qualitative Data
    • Two-open ended questions
    • Triangulation – Validation of the Findings
      • Categorized the teacher participant questionnaire responses to the 13 teacher competencies;
      • Performed an analysis of the quantitative data collected; and
      • Conducted a qualitative analysis of the study.
  • Method
    • Independent Variables – Teacher certification routes ( alternative or traditional )
    • Dependent Variable – Student achievement based on “Percent Met Standard” in Mathematics and Reading TAKS scores by teacher.
  • Method
    • Subjects of the Study
      • Alternative and traditional certified elementary bilingual teachers
      • Grades 3 and 5
      • 5 major urban school districts
      • 25 demographically similar schools
      • 116 teachers responded out of 206
        • 56% rate of return
  • Method
    • Subjects of the Study
      • Traditional Certified: 53.4%
      • Alternative Certified: 46.6%
      • Years of Experience
      • 0-3 years 31.0%
      • 4-7 years 25.0%
      • 8-12 years 20.7%
      • 13-20 years 12.1%
      • > 20 years 11.2%
  • Method
    • Instrumentation
      • Four-choice Likert-type scale:
        • No Preparation/None
        • Minimal/Little Preparation
        • Some/Moderate Preparation
        • Significant Preparation
  • Method
    • Instrumentation
      • Survey on Competencies Learned Through the Certification Route
      • Instrument components:
        • 13 closed-ended responses taken from the Texas Examination for Educator Standards (TExES).
        • 2 multiple choice questions about demographic data.
        • 2 open-ended questions soliciting responses about level of teacher preparedness.
  • Method
      • Pilot test conducted in an urban district with similar demographics consisting of 40 participants.
  • Method
    • Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
    • Domain I – Designing Instruction and Assessment to Promote Student Learning
      • 001. The teacher understands human development processes and applies this knowledge to plan instruction and ongoing assessment that motivate students and are responsive to their development characteristics and needs.
      • 002. The teacher understands student diversity and knows how to plan learning differences and design assessments that are responsive to differences among students and that promote all students’ learning.
  • Method
    • Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
    • Domain I – Designing Instruction and Assessment to Promote Student Learning
    • 003. The teacher understands procedures for designing effective and coherent instruction and assessment based on appropriate learning goals and objectives.
      • 004. The teacher understands learning processes and factors that impact student learning and demonstrates this knowledge by planning effective, engaging instruction and appropriate assessments.
  • Method
    • Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
    • Domain II – Creating a Positive, Productive Classroom Environment
      • 005. The teacher knows how to establish classroom climate that fosters learning, equity, and excellence and uses this knowledge to create a physical and emotional environment that is safe and productive.
      • 006. The teacher understands strategies for creating an organized and productive environment for managing student behavior.
  • Method
    • Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
    • Domain III – Implementing Effective, Responsive Instruction
    • and Assessment
      • 007. The teacher understands and applies principles and strategies for communicating effectively in varied teaching and learning contexts.
      • 008. The teacher provides appropriate instruction that actively engages students in the learning process.
  • Method
    • Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
    • Domain III – Implementing Effective, Responsive Instruction
    • and Assessment
    • 009. The teacher incorporates the effective use of technology to plan, organize, deliver, and evaluate instruction for all students.
    • 010. The teacher monitors student performance and achievement ; provides students with timely, high-quality feedback; and responds flexibly to promote learning for all students.
  • Method
    • Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
    • Domain IV – Fulfilling Professional Roles and Responsibilities
    • 011. The teacher understands the importance of family involvement in children’s education and knows how to interact and communicate effectively with families.
    • 012. The teacher enhances professional knowledge and skills by effectively interacting with other members of the educational community and participating in various types of professional activities.
  • Method
    • Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
    • Domain IV – Fulfilling Professional Roles and Responsibilities
    • 013. The teacher understands and adheres to legal and ethical requirements for educators and is knowledgeable of the structure of education in Texas.
  • Major Findings Research Question 1
    • How do bilingual elementary teachers rate their preparedness for the teaching profession as determined by the 13 teacher competencies measured by the Survey on Competencies Learned Through Certification Routes instrument?
  • Major Findings Research Question 1
    • Traditional certified participants
    • > 50% rated teacher preparedness as
    • “ significantly prepared ”
    • in 11 of the 13
    • teacher competencies.
    • 001-Human Development Processes
    • 002-Student Diversity
    • 003-Instruction and Assessment
    • 004-Learning Processes
    • 005-Classroom Climate
    • 006-Student Behavior
    • 008-Student Engagement
    • 010-Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
    • 011-Family Involvement
    • 012-Professional Development
    • 013-Legal and Ethical
  • Major Findings Research Question 1
    • Traditional certified participants
    • <50% rated teacher preparedness as
    • “ significantly prepared”
    • in 2 of the 13
    • teacher competencies.
    • 007-Communication
    • 009-Technology
  • Major Findings Research Question 1
    • Alternative certified participants
    • > 50% rated teacher preparedness as
    • “ significantly prepared ”
    • in 5 of the 13
    • teacher competencies.
    • 004-Learning Processes
    • 005-Classroom Climate
    • 010-Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
    • 012-Professional Development
    • 013-Legal and Ethical
  • Major Findings Research Question 1
    • Alternative certified participants
    • <50% rated teacher preparedness
    • as “not significantly prepared”
    • in 8 of the 13
    • teacher competencies.
    • 001-Human Development Processes
    • 002-Student Diversity
    • 003-Instruction and Assessment
    • 006-Student Behavior
    • 007-Communication
    • 008-Student Engagement
    • 009-Technology
    • 011-Family Involvement
  • Review of Literature Research Question 1
    • Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Classroom teachers appear to
    • perform better in their teaching abilities if they have fulfilled a
    • teacher preparation program that concentrates on content
    • knowledge, pedagogical coursework including learning theories,
    • developmental theories, theories of motivation and issues of
    • student assessment and practice teaching.
    • Glass (2002) – Teachers must know teaching methods, curriculum
    • design, learning theory and child adolescent development before
    • they get in front of a class of students and be a successful teacher.
  • Review of Literature Research Question 1 Darling-Hammond (1999) – A growing body of literature confirms that effective teachers are those who comprehend their subject matter, understand student learning and development, know a wide range of teaching methods, and have developed their skills under expert guidance.
  • Review of Literature Research Question 1
    • Lannie & McCurdy (2007) – Classroom management is seen as an
    • important component of effective teaching. For classroom teachers
    • to be successful in urban schools, they must embed classroom
    • management in every phase of classroom life, making the teaching
    • of social skills an automatic component of daily instruction.
    • Ingersoll & Smith (2004) – Scores of educational research have
    • recognized that the existence of a sense of community and
    • cohesion among teachers, parents, and students through
    • professional development and growth is critically important for the
    • success of schools.
  • Major Findings Research Question 2
    • What are the differences in the academic performance of 3 rd and 5 th grade students taught in a bilingual education classroom setting by traditional certified teachers compared to those taught by alternative certified teachers based on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in Reading ?
  • Major Findings Research Question 2 TAKS Reading *p≤0.05 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Reading Scores t-test 67.84 110 Traditional certified 54.31 80 Alternative certified _ x n 13.524 .008* 188 2.689 Equal variances assumed TAKS Reading Mean Difference Sig. (2-tailed) df t
  • Major Findings Research Question 3
    • What are the differences in the academic performance of 3 rd and 5 th grade students taught in a bilingual education classroom setting by traditional certified teachers compared to those taught by alternative certified teachers based on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in Mathematics ?
  • Major Findings Research Question 3 TAKS Mathematics *p≤0.05 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Mathematics Scores t-test 69.51 63 Traditional certified 52.65 65 Alternative certified _ x n 16.862 .006* 126 2.775 Equal variances assumed TAKS Math Mean Difference Sig. (2-tailed) df t
  • Review of Literature Research Questions 2 & 3
    • Darling-Hammond, Holtzman, Gatlin, & Vasquez Heilig (2005) –
    • Results might be due to the specific knowledge classroom teachers
    • need to know to effectively teach English learners.
    • Darling-Hammond (2000) – Studies show that measures of teacher
    • preparation and certification of classroom teachers are the strongest
    • connections of student achievement in reading and mathematics.
  • Review of Literature Research Questions 2 & 3
    • Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Alternatively certified teachers
    • tend to have a narrow viewpoint of curriculum and a lack of
    • understanding of their student’s ability.
    • Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Alternatively certified teachers
    • face difficulty translating content knowledge into meaningful
    • information for their students to understand; they are less effective
    • planners of instruction; and they tend not to learn about teaching
    • through their experiences.
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • What do bilingual elementary teachers who received either traditional or alternative certification describe as factors that helped or hindered them during their preparation to enter the classroom?
  • Major Findings Research Question 4 Factors that helped teacher preparedness: 39.1% 63.0% 012 - Professional Development 21.7% 13.0% 008 - Student Engagement 15.2% 9.3% 006 - Student Behavior 19.6% 7.4% 003 - Instruction and Assessment Alternative Traditional Competency
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ Student teaching was a wonderful experience- it really helped
    • expose me to the classroom setting.”
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ The main thing that helped to prepare me for teaching was the
    • experience provided in my field based classes. That allowed me
    • to interact first-hand with what would be our potential future
    • careers.”
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ I was a teacher assistant for the entire time I was in college. By the
    • time I became a teacher, I was ready. I had the knowledge to run a
    • classroom more smoothly.”
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ The teaching experience and my love for teaching.”
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ My self-enthusiasm has helped and desire to perform the job has
    • kept me in the profession.”
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ Observation of veteran educators in action with their class at
    • several grade levels helped me a great deal. Tutoring children while
    • in college helped prepare me also.”
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ Inservices and different institutes because they gave me some
    • ideas and strategies to implement in the classroom.”
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ I had a lot of help during my ACP training especially with the
    • development of lesson plans, lesson cycles, and classroom
    • management.
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ Classroom management workshops. Lesson cycle workshops.”
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ Previous life experiences, plus student teaching helped prepare me.”
  • Review of Literature Research Question 4
    • Darling-Hammond (1999) – A growing body of literature confirms
    • that effective teachers are those who comprehend their
    • subject matter, understand student learning, know a wide range of
    • teaching methods, and have developed their skills under expert
    • guidance in clinical settings.
    • Ingersoll & Smith (2004) – Scores of educational research have
    • recognized that the existence of a sense of community and cohesion
    • among teachers, parents, and students through professional
    • development and growth is critically important for the success of
    • schools.
  • Review of Literature Research Question 4
    • Menken & Antunez (2001) – Teacher preparation and professional
    • development of teachers has become a focus to the problem of
    • teacher quality in today’s schools as a way to cultivate a pool of
    • teachers able to effectively teach the students.
    • Darling-Hammond, Holtzman, Gatlin & Vasquez Heilig (2005) – A
    • good quality teacher preparation program provides experiences for
    • the preservice teacher to convert information gained from
    • coursework in order to learn in the context of the real world of
    • teaching in the classroom.
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
    • Traditional certified
    • Competency 002 (1.9%) - Student Diversity
    • Competency 003 (5.6%) - Instruction and Assessment
    • Competency 005 (1.9%) - Classroom Climate
    • Competency 006 (9.3%) - Student Behavior
    • Competency 010 (3.7%) - Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
    • Competency 012 (9.3%) - Professional Development
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
    • Alternative certified
    • Competency 002 (7.7%) - Student Diversity
    • Competency 003 (3.8%) - Instruction and Assessment
    • Competency 004 (1.9%) - Learning Processes
    • Competency 006 (1.9%) - Student Behavior
    • Competency 008 (5.8%) - Student Engagement
    • Competency 010 (3.8%) - Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
    • Competency 012 (3.8%) - Professional Development
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Non-category factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
    • Traditional certified
    • Program structure (5.6%)
    • Unrealistic teacher preparation (5.6%)
    • Teaching experience (3.7%)
    • Alternative certified
    • Program structure (7.8%)
    • Unrealistic teacher preparation (2.0%)
    • Expectation of “knowing how to teach” (2.0%)
    • More hands-on preparation (2.0%)
    • Mentoring (2.0%)
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ I think most education degrees and alternative certification
    • programs do a great job of preparing a teacher for an ideal teaching
    • situation. The problem is 99% of schools are not ideal situations.
    • Also, the larger number of minority students in Texas and their
    • learning and communication styles is not addressed in most
    • education classrooms. The truth is, the minority is the majority in
    • Texas, so why isn’t that truth really addressed in preparing teachers
    • to teach mostly Hispanic and African-American students?”
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ The educational programs found in undergraduate
    • programs are based on theories for which there is no
    • practical application of them. The issues that a classroom
    • teacher is faced with today aren’t covered in any depth for
    • the unsuspecting educator. Ways and tactics to deal with
    • these issues are discussed even less.”
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ College cannot fully prepare you for what a teacher has in store in
    • the classroom. It is learned through experience.”
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ When I started teaching, my university courses had done nothing
    • for me.”
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ I was expected to know how to teach since I had accepted the
    • position.
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ ACPs do a great job preparing a teacher for the
    • ideal teaching situation. The problem is, schools
    • are not ideal situations.”
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ There is nothing that can ever prepare you than your first day in
    • the classroom seeing different kinds of behavior that sets the tone
    • of planning especially how you teach.”
  • Major Findings Research Question 4
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ Some things that hindered my teaching were not knowing exactly
    • what things were due/procedures or doing
    • grades/referrals/basic classroom need to know things.”
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ Not knowing how to handle children with special needs was a
    • hindrance.”
  • Review of Literature Research Question 4
    • Imig (1997); Wong & Glass (2005) - Colleges and universities need
    • to continue to transform every feature of their teacher preparation
    • program in response to preparing students for realistic teaching
    • environments which consist of economically disadvantaged,
    • culturally and linguistically diverse student learners.
  • Review of Literature Research Question 4
    • Hawley (2002) -Subject-matter content and subject-matter
    • methods, as well as skills and pedagogy, need to be
    • learned prior to teaching.
    • Darling-Hammond (2004) - Classroom teachers admitted
    • through alternative certification programs have difficulty
    • with curriculum development, pedagogy content
    • knowledge, teaching to students’ different learning styles
    • and levels, classroom management, instructional delivery
    • methods and assessment tools, and student motivation.
  • Major Findings Research Question 5
    • What are some specific skills that alternative or traditional certified bilingual teachers elementary teachers wished their preparation program had exposed them to before entering the classroom?
  • Major Findings Research Question 5 Skills wished exposed to in teacher preparation: 5.6% 19.2% 003 - Instruction and Assessment 16.7% 23.0% 008 - Student Engagement 26.0% 27.0% 006 - Student Behavior 37.0% 21.1% 002 - Student Diversity Traditional Alternative Competency
  • Major Findings Research Question 5
    • Non-category skills wished exposed to for teacher preparedness:
    • Traditional certified
    • Program structure (5.6%)
    • Realistic experiences (5.6%)
    • Teaching experience (3.7%)
    • Teaching trends (1.9%)
    • Alternative certified
    • Program structure (11.8%)
    • Realistic experiences (2.0%)
    • Teaching experience (2.0%)
  • Major Findings Research Question 5
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ Different kinds of behavior and how to deal with situations as it
    • happens.”
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ Needed to know how to motivate the unmotivated student.
    • Helping students who fail but have the potential to perform. ARD
    • process, modifying assignments for student with special needs;
    • addressing the needs of the homeless students; students of trauma
    • (separation from parents; Katrina).
  • Major Findings Research Question 5
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ I strongly believe that the best way to implement the competencies is
    • to use them in the classroom. Internships and student teaching is
    • probably the best way to actually prepare an educator. I now can see
    • and realize that many who did not have prior experience in the
    • classroom tend to actually harm the system, and most importantly,
    • the students. Their hearts may be in the right place, but skills must
    • be learned through practice.”
  • Major Findings Research Question 5
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ How to organize, plan for flexible groups and
    • individual instruction.”
    • Traditional certified participant
    • “ I wish that my university had placed me in a school where I could
    • get real experience, practice, observations, speakers (teachers).”
  • Major Findings Research Question 5
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ DISCIPLINE. DISCIPLINE. DISCIPLINE. For example,
    • dealing with one rowdy student is no big deal. I was taught how to
    • handle that. But no one ever addressed what to do when half of
    • your students don’t want to be in your class and are determined to
    • act out in order to show you this.”
  • Major Findings Research Question 5
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ Spend at least one month in a real-life classroom to get familiar.”
    • Alternative certified participant
    • “ Some of the difficulties one would come to face in the classroom
    • environment. Immerse for a week or so in the real teaching
    • environment. Expose the prospective teacher to the learning
    • environment longer than just casual observations. Share ideas,
    • lesson plans, etc.
  • Review of Literature Research Question 5
    • Howard (2003) – Teacher preparation programs must clearly
    • educate its students about the social framework of education in
    • urban schools, and by being realistic on how they prepare teachers
    • for the classroom. The majority of students in urban schools endure
    • a life outside of the school walls that are unfamiliar to most of the
    • classroom teachers teaching in those schools.
  • Review of Literature Research Question 5
    • McKibben (2001) – In their efforts to provide their students with
    • positive teaching field experiences, most universities assign students
    • to complete class observation hours and fulfill student teaching
    • assignments at schools whose student populations are not the same
    • type of schools that these students get teaching jobs upon
    • graduation.
  • Review of Literature Research Question 5
    • Weiner (2003) – Urban schools tend to hire significant numbers of
    • teachers who have never had formal preparation to teach. When this
    • occurs, the school becomes the training ground for classroom
    • teachers to learn to teach. For these teachers, “the workplace is their
    • classroom, as their classroom becomes their workplace.”
    • Darling-Hammond & Youngs (2002) - A teacher’s sense of
    • preparedness has been reported to be a prevailing predictor of
    • teaching efficacy.
  • Conclusions
    • It can be concluded that the level of teacher preparedness is critical to the impact of student achievement.
    • Teacher preparation programs must construct programs that prepare teachers for realistic teaching environments comprised of economically disadvantaged, culturally and linguistically diverse student learners.
    • Alternative certification programs are not adequately preparing 3 rd and 5 th grade bilingual teachers to enter the classroom.
  • Recommendations
    • Alternative teacher preparation programs should provide rigorous training preparedness in the areas of designing classroom instruction and assessment to promote student learning; creating a positive, productive classroom environment; and implementing effective, responsive instruction and assessment.
    • Alternative teacher preparation programs should provide opportunities for classroom observations and field experiences in realistic classroom teaching environments prior to entering the classroom as the teacher of record.
  • Recommendations
    • Principals should provide ongoing professional development opportunities for traditional certified teachers to understand and apply principles and techniques and strategies for communicating effectively in varied teaching and learning contexts.
    • Principals should provide ongoing professional development opportunities for traditional certified teachers to apply and incorporate the use of technology to plan, organize, deliver and evaluate instruction for all students.
  • Recommendations
    • Principals should not assume that alternative certified teachers “know how to teach.”
    • Principals should provide “hands-on” training opportunities for alternative certified teachers.
    • Principals should conduct needs assessment of all its alternative certified teachers to determine their confidence of preparedness for the classroom.
  • Recommendations
    • Principals should determine the level of support based on the needs assessment so that a plan of support can be developed to support alternative certified teachers.
    • Principals should provide and encourage time for collaboration between alternative certified teachers and master teachers within grade level planning meetings and other campus teams.
  • Recommendations
    • Principals should ensure that mentoring supports are in place for alternative certified teachers by holding those involved accountable for providing the support (i.e. mentor and assigned campus administrator) needed.
    • Principals should provide ongoing professional development opportunities for alternative certified teachers on student diversity to include planning for learning experiences, and designing assessments that are responsive to student differences that promote student learning.
  • Recommendations
    • Principals should provide ongoing professional development opportunities for alternative certified teachers on strategies for creating an organized and productive learning environment and for managing student behavior.
    • Principals should provide ongoing professional development opportunities for alternative certified teachers to learn appropriate instructional strategies that actively engage students in the learning process.
  • Recommendations
    • Principals should engage the assistance of district curriculum teams to aid alternative certified teachers with implementation of curriculum and assessment.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study could be conducted to compare first-year alternatively certified bilingual classroom teachers with first-year traditional certified bilingual classroom teachers to determine whether there is a difference in student achievement based on the annual student assessment.
    • A study could be conducted to compare experienced alternatively certified bilingual classroom teachers with experienced traditional certified bilingual classroom teachers to determine whether there is a difference in student achievement based on the annual student assessment.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study could be conducted to compare alternatively certified bilingual classroom teachers and traditional certified bilingual classroom teachers to determine whether there is a difference in student achievement by matching identical or similar teacher preparation program characteristics.
    • A study could be conducted to see if a difference exists in student achievement among elementary bilingual students in small urban schools.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study could be conducted to see if a difference exists in student achievement among elementary bilingual students in small rural schools.
    • A study could be conducted to see if a difference exists in student achievement among elementary bilingual students from different regions in the United States.
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  • A Comparison of Alternatively and Traditionally Certified Bilingual Elementary Teachers’ Student Achievement Scores in Selected Major Urban Texas Schools Dissertation Defense Candidate: Roselia Alaniz Salinas