A Study of the Factors Related to  the Academic Achievement of 8th Grade  Hispanic Limited English Proficient Students In ...
Dissertation Defense Format <ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Frame...
Background of Problem <ul><li>In Texas there is a increase of more than 55% of Hispanics making up the overall population ...
Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The study had a threefold purpose </li></ul><ul><li>First, it sought to determine school fact...
Academic Achievement of 8th Grade Hispanic LEP Students  Based on School and Individual Factors
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>School Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have identified the following characte...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Classroom Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s theory of a constructivist framewo...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Quality of LEP Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>LEP instruction improves the education...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Motivation To Achieve  </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation plays a fundamental role in a s...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Individual Social Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to socialize is a natural step t...
Research Questions <ul><li>Is there a significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2...
Research Questions (cont.) <ul><li>Is there a significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured b...
Research Questions (cont.) <ul><li>6.   What is the relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008...
Research Questions (cont.) <ul><ul><li>7.  Is there a significant relationship of the student’s academic achievement as me...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H0 1 : There is no statistically significant relationship between the students’ academic achieveme...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H0 3 :   There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement ...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H0 6 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H0 7 :  There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement a...
Subjects of the Study Quantitative Sample/Qualitative Sample (N=149): Campus Eligible Students Students w/Parent Consent C...
Research Method <ul><li>Quantitative: </li></ul><ul><li>Measured the relationship between student academic achievement as ...
Research Method <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay responses was collected from participants. </li></ul>...
Research Method <ul><li>Quantitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Achievement Survey   utilizing a 5 point Likert scal...
Hypotheses Dependent Variable Independent Variable Statistical Test Ho 1 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Rea...
Hypotheses Dependent Variable Independent Variable Statistical Test Ho 5 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Rea...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of school clima...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of a positive c...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of the quality ...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of the students...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of student’s so...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of combined res...
Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of students’ ed...
Conclusions <ul><li>The study was guided by seven research questions, which examined individual and school factors that ma...
Conclusions <ul><li>These factors had a statistically significant correlation with student’s academic achievement : </li><...
Conclusions <ul><li>Participants’ point of view was based on two principles:  </li></ul><ul><li>a) when constructing reali...
Recommendations <ul><li>Educational Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Educational leaders and administrators should create a share...
Recommendations <ul><li>Educational Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>3. Educational leaders and administrators should offer proje...
Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted at the state level or national level. </li></ul><ul><...
Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted that investigates a different school district and oth...
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Dr. Rebecca Duong, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Dr. Rebecca Duong, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

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Dr. Rebecca Duong, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

  1. 1. A Study of the Factors Related to the Academic Achievement of 8th Grade Hispanic Limited English Proficient Students In A Major Urban School District A Dissertation Defense Presented by Rebecca Duong Dissertation Committee William Allan Kritsonis, PhD., Dissertation Chair David Herrington, PhD., Member Donald R. Collins, PhD., Member Dr. Solomon Osho, Ph.D., Member May 11, 2009
  2. 2. Dissertation Defense Format <ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Frame of Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Research Method </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background of Problem <ul><li>In Texas there is a increase of more than 55% of Hispanics making up the overall population of middle school public school enrollment in 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>(National Center for Education Statistics. 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Administrators and teachers face new challenges as changing demographics have Texas educators and leaders finding new ways to implement federal and state policies concerning LEP (Limited English Proficient) education (Gulla, 2003). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The study had a threefold purpose </li></ul><ul><li>First, it sought to determine school factors that effect the academic achievement of 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, it sought to determine individual factors that effect the academic achievement of 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, it sought to identify how these identifiable factors were perceived by Hispanic limited English proficient 8 th grade middle school students as positively influencing their academic achievement. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Academic Achievement of 8th Grade Hispanic LEP Students Based on School and Individual Factors
  6. 6. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>School Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have identified the following characteristics that influence school climate: </li></ul><ul><li>Safe and orderly environment (Murphy, 1989; Jones, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for student participation and leadership (Rumberger et al., 2000; Wynne, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations for students (Edmunds, 1979; Rumberger et al., 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Student-staff cohesion and support of differences (Wynne, 1980; Martinez, 2001) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Classroom Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s theory of a constructivist framework was used in this investigation to describe a positive classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>(Fogarty, 1999; McMullen, 2004). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Quality of LEP Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>LEP instruction improves the education of LEP children, by assisting them to learn English and meet challenging state academic content and student academic achievement standards </li></ul><ul><li>(Cummins, 1980; 1981; 1996; Jones, 2005). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Motivation To Achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation plays a fundamental role in a students’ achievement ability </li></ul><ul><li>(Brophy, 1985; Dörnyei, 1994; Holden, 2001). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Individual Social Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to socialize is a natural step towards social development also an important factor for assimilation into society </li></ul><ul><li>(Deci & Ryan, 1985:116; Matthews, 2003). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Questions <ul><li>Is there a significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and their perceptions of the importance of a positive school climate ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and their perceptions of the importance of a positive classroom environment? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research Questions (cont.) <ul><li>Is there a significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and their perceptions of the importance of the quality instruction ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the students’ motivation to achieve ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the students’ social goals ? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Research Questions (cont.) <ul><li>6. What is the relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the combined responses to their perceptions of the importance of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>school climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality of LEP instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivation to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual social goals </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Research Questions (cont.) <ul><ul><li>7. Is there a significant relationship of the student’s academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the student’s educational aspirations ? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H0 1 : There is no statistically significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and their perceptions of the importance of a positive school climate as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul><ul><li>H0 2 : There is no statistically significant relationship between of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and their perceptions of the importance of a positive classroom environment as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H0 3 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and their perceptions of the importance of the quality of instruction measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul><ul><li>H0 4 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the students’ motivation to achieve as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul><ul><li>H0 5 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the students’ social goals as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H0 6 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the combined responses to their perceptions of the importance of: </li></ul><ul><li>school climate </li></ul><ul><li>classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>quality of LEP instruction </li></ul><ul><li>motivation to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>individual social goals </li></ul>
  18. 18. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H0 7 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the student’s educational aspirations as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Subjects of the Study Quantitative Sample/Qualitative Sample (N=149): Campus Eligible Students Students w/Parent Consent Completed Survey Percentage a Middle School #1 78 49 30 38% Middles School #2 63 37 29 46% Middle School #3 86 42 30 35% Middle School #4 73 51 30 41% Middle School #5 76 61 30 39%
  20. 20. Research Method <ul><li>Quantitative: </li></ul><ul><li>Measured the relationship between student academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and the three school factors selected for this study: school climate, classroom environment, and the quality of academic instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured the relationship between student academic achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS score and individual factors selected for this study: motivation to achieve and personal social goals. </li></ul><ul><li>A correlation research design was used to examine these relationships among the variables. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Research Method <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay responses was collected from participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent themes were used to identify common factors that 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students’ perceive as affecting his/her academic achievement. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Research Method <ul><li>Quantitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Achievement Survey utilizing a 5 point Likert scale- </li></ul><ul><li>Part I-52 item </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended essay questions for students to answer-Part II </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hypotheses Dependent Variable Independent Variable Statistical Test Ho 1 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS Scores Perceptions of the importance of a positive school climate Correlation Pearson r Ho 2 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS Scores Perceptions of the importance of a positive classroom environment Correlation Pearson r Ho 3 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS Scores Perceptions of the importance of the quality of instruction Correlation Pearson r Ho 4 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS Scores Perceptions of students’ motivation to achieve Correlation Pearson r
  24. 24. Hypotheses Dependent Variable Independent Variable Statistical Test Ho 5 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS Scores Perceptions of students’ social goals Correlation Pearson r Ho 6 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS Scores Perceptions of combined responses Correlation Pearson r Ho 7 Academic Achievement as measured by 2008-2009 Reading TAKS Scores Perceptions of student’s educational aspirations Correlation Pearson r
  25. 25. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of school climate and academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated Pearson coefficient was .194 </li></ul><ul><li>p = .018 (less than the criterion value of p < .05) </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis was rejected </li></ul><ul><li>There was a statistically significant relationship </li></ul>
  26. 26. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul><li>57% (N=86) perceived school climate as very important to their academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>42% (N=64) rated high the importance of teachers expressing high expectations for students </li></ul><ul><li>84% (N=125) rated very high an overall positive opinion of their teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers inspired students to be responsible, have a positive attitude and high self-esteem </li></ul>
  27. 27. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of a positive classroom environment and academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated Pearson coefficient was .188 </li></ul><ul><li>p = .022 (less than the criterion value of p < .05) </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis was rejected </li></ul><ul><li>There was a statistically significant relationship </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul><li>63% (N=96) believed a positive classroom environment had teachers who were sensitive to LEP students’ individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>78% (N=118) believed teachers who were effective were responsive to the individual needs of each student </li></ul>
  29. 29. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of the quality of academic instruction and academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated Pearson coefficient was .035 </li></ul><ul><li>p = .673 (greater than the criterion value of p < .05) </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis was not rejected </li></ul><ul><li>There was not a statistically significant relationship </li></ul>
  30. 30. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul><li>58% (N=87) rated an overall positive opinion of academic programs offered at their schools </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons were meaningful and connected with their personal experiences </li></ul><ul><li>On the contrary, 15% (n=23) felt an overall negative opinion of academic programs </li></ul><ul><li>Students felt teachers’ classrooms were boring and uninviting, feelings of boredom and confusion </li></ul>
  31. 31. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of the students’ motivation to achieve and academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated Pearson coefficient was .226 </li></ul><ul><li>p = .006 (less than the criterion value of p < .05) </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis was rejected </li></ul><ul><li>There was a statistically significant relationship </li></ul>
  32. 32. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul><li>60% (N=89) based their motivation to attend school on their belief that education was necessary for success in life </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to achieve in participants was personal pleasure and satisfaction of learning new, interesting, and useful things </li></ul><ul><li>64% (N=95) also expressed they were attending school to pursue personal academic goals </li></ul><ul><li>48% (N=72) of participants expressed their willingness to fulfill their parent’s expectations as well as becoming role models for siblings </li></ul>
  33. 33. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of student’s social goals and academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated Pearson coefficient was .037 </li></ul><ul><li>p = .650 (greater than the criterion value of p < .05) </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis was not rejected </li></ul><ul><li>There was not a statistically significant relationship </li></ul>
  34. 34. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay rendered significant trends </li></ul><ul><li>53% (N=79) regarded peers and friends as very influential in their lives and decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Participants chose friends who had similar characteristics students admire, which in turn motivates students to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>38% (N=25) viewed academic conflict due to peer pressure, negative influences from friends hinder students’ academic attainment and personal goals </li></ul><ul><li>76% (N=51) self determination helped guide their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors towards education </li></ul><ul><li>Self determination gave participants a sense of accomplishment, a sense of independence and a sense of control over their personal life decisions </li></ul>
  35. 35. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of combined responses to their perceptions of the importance of school/individual factors and academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated Pearson coefficient was .298 </li></ul><ul><li>p = .001 (less than the criteria value of p < .05) </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis was rejected </li></ul><ul><li>There was a statistically significant relationship </li></ul>
  36. 36. Summary of Findings <ul><li>Research Question 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between perceived importance of students’ educational aspirations and academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated Pearson coefficient was .023 </li></ul><ul><li>p value of .018 (less than the criteria value of p < .05) </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis was rejected </li></ul><ul><li>There was a statistically significant relationship </li></ul>
  37. 37. Conclusions <ul><li>The study was guided by seven research questions, which examined individual and school factors that may affect the academic achievement of 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students. </li></ul><ul><li>The study developed an awareness of the perceptions of factors that affected the academic achievement of middle school 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students while impacting future policy decisions related to services to LEP students in middle school. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Conclusions <ul><li>These factors had a statistically significant correlation with student’s academic achievement : </li></ul><ul><li>-school climate </li></ul><ul><li>-positive classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>-student motivation </li></ul><ul><li>-combined responses of both individual and school factors </li></ul><ul><li>-student’s educational aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>These factors did not have a statistically significant correlation with student’s academic achievement : </li></ul><ul><li>-quality of academic instruction </li></ul><ul><li>-student’s individual social goals </li></ul>
  39. 39. Conclusions <ul><li>Participants’ point of view was based on two principles: </li></ul><ul><li>a) when constructing reality as perceived by the participants the researcher must take into consideration all the participants’ views rather than to select and disregard opinions, or to only include the view of the majority. </li></ul><ul><li>b) the perceptions of the few students are equally important as the majority opinion due to the belief that education should follow the criterion for “No Child Left Behind,” a zero tolerance level for failure when promoting academic achievement of all students. </li></ul><ul><li>The study helps influence program decisions that will maximize the learning outcomes of 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students in the future. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Recommendations <ul><li>Educational Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Educational leaders and administrators should create a shared vision where the education for limited English proficient students is a priority. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational leaders and administrators should provide curriculum that incorporates limited English proficient students’ experiences and background in the classrooms in order to make subject content relevant and meaningful to LEP students. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Recommendations <ul><li>Educational Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>3. Educational leaders and administrators should offer project-based programs that align themselves with workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Educational leaders and administrators should create connections between the school and community showcasing community leaders and college students who have the same ethnic/linguistic background as the LEP students. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted at the state level or national level. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted to involve another minority group in a similar study. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted at the elementary school level. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted at the secondary school level. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted that investigates the perceptions of newly arrived Hispanic limited English proficient students. The length of time in U.S. schools may be related to student motivation and the perceived importance of the variables. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted on a different language group to investigate school and individual factors that contribute to the academic achievement of the particular group. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted that investigates a different school district and other individual factors that may affect the perceptions of eighth grade Hispanic limited English proficient students. </li></ul><ul><li>A replication of this study could be conducted if a formulated construct for achievement could be used rather than Reading TAKS scores. A revised version of the questionnaire could also be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, it would be useful for administrators in schools with limited English proficient students to implement the recommendations from the study and observe its impact on LEP students’ academic achievement over a period of time. </li></ul>

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