Dr. Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
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Dr. Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Dr. Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System.

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Dr. Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System.

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Dr. Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair Dr. Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair Presentation Transcript

  • An Examination of Factors Related to the Job Satisfaction and Retention of Alternatively Certified Teachers A Dissertation Defense by Jennifer T. Butcher Dissertation Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D. Prairie View A & M University Educational Leadership March 2009
  • Committee Members
    • William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.
    • Chair
    • Donald R. Collins, Ph.D.
    • Member
    • David Herrington, Ph.D.
    • Member
    • Ronald Howard, Ph.D.
    • Member
  • Dissertation Defense Format
    • I. Statement of the Problem
    • II. Theoretical Framework
    • III. Purpose of the Study
    • IV. Research Questions
    • V. Method
    • VI. Quantitative Major Findings
    • VII. Qualitative Major Findings
    • VIII. Review of Literature
    • IX. Recommendations
  • Statement of the Problem
    • Due to the influx of new teachers from alternative certification programs, it is important to address the problems of attrition and identify strategies that focus on the retention of alternatively certified teachers. There is a need to determine if current alternative certification programs and school districts are providing the training, support, and continued monitoring of alternatively certified teachers (Hill & Barth, 2004).
  • Theoretical Framework
    • One theory guiding this study is derived from the economic labor market theory of supply and demand.
    • I n the same vein, Frederick Herzberg’s theory of motivation and job satisfaction which was developed from his studies of engineers and accountants complements the supply and demand theory.
  • Theoretical Framework Supporting Literature
    • Numerous authors have described the application of the supply and demand theory to the specifics of teacher labor markets in detail (Haggstrom, Darling-Hammond, & Grissmer, 1988; Boardman, Darling-Hammond, & Mullins, 1982).
      • The supply for teachers is related to the number of qualified individuals willing to teach at a given level of overall compensation.
      • The demand can be defined as the number of teaching positions offered at a given level of overall compensation.
  • Purpose of the Study
    • The purpose of the study was two-fold.
    • To examine factors related to the job satisfaction and retention of alternatively certified teachers.
    • To examine factors related to alternatively certified teachers’ decision to enter and remain in the teaching profession.
  • Research Questions
    • Quantitative
    • 1. What is the profile of alternatively certified teachers in the selected urban school district included in this study?
    • 2. To what extent do alternatively certified teachers feel supported as novice public school teachers by the district and administrators?
  • Research Questions
    • Quantitative
    • 3. To what extent do alternatively certified teachers feel committed to remain in the teaching profession?
    • 4. Is there a relationship between alternatively certified teachers’ perception of support and their commitment to remain in the teaching profession?
  • Null Hypothesis
    • H 01 : There is no statistically significant relationship between alternatively certified teachers’ perception of support and their commitment to remain in the teaching profession?
  • Research Questions
    • Qualitative
    • 1.What do alternatively certified teachers report to be the reasons for entering the teaching profession?
    • 2. What do alternatively certified teachers perceive to be the factors that assisted in their development as teachers?
  • Research Questions
    • Qualitative
    • 3. What do alternatively certified teachers perceive to be the factors that hindered their development as teachers?
    • 4. What do alternatively certified teachers report to be the reasons that they have remained in the teaching profession?
  • Research Questions
    • Qualitative
    • 5. What do alternatively certified teachers report about their early educator preparation experiences?
    • 6. What strategies do the selected urban school district employ to identify and utilize factors that encourage teacher job satisfaction and retention?
  • Method Surveys Questionnaires Interviews Triangulation Design
  • Method
    • Quantitative Data was collected in the form of a researcher developed questionnaire and survey.
    • Descriptive statistics were used to acquire a profile of participants of the study.
    • Pearson’s Correlation was used to examine whether a statistical significant relationship existed between alternatively certified teachers’ perception of support and their commitment to remain in the teaching profession.
  • Method
    • Qualitative data was collected in the form of structured personal interviews.
    • Member checking was utilized to give the interview participants an opportunity to review and clarify their responses to the interview questions.
    • Data was reduced and extracted by clustering and coding.
    • Data was used to identify emergent themes.
  • Method
    • Subjects of the Study (Quantitative)
      • Alternatively Certified Elementary Teachers
      • Grades Kindergarten through fourth grade
      • One major urban school district in Texas
      • 85 alternatively certified teachers responded out of 150
        • 57% rate of return
  • Method
    • Subjects of the Study (Qualitative)
      • 5 alternatively certified elementary teachers
      • 2 Human Resources directors
      • 8 elementary administrators
      • 5 elementary mentors
  • Method
    • Instrumentation
      • Researcher developed questionnaire was used to collect data related to the demographics of respondents in the study.
      • Researcher developed survey was used to collect data related to the attitudes of alternatively certified teachers in regards to their retention in the field
        • Five point Likert type instrument
      • Researcher developed interview guide was used to collect data from selected alternatively certified teachers, mentors, administrators, and Human Resources directors
      • Pilot study was conducted using individuals that were not included in the study
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • What is the profile of alternatively certified teachers in the selected urban school district included in this study?
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Demographic Characteristics of Alternatively Certified Teachers
    • Gender
    • Years of Teaching Experience
    • Grade Level Taught
    • Career Goals
    • Reason for applying for alternative certification
    • Prior Teaching Experience
    • Undergraduate Degree
    • Undergraduate Major
    • Undergraduate University Attended
    • Graduate Degree
    • Graduate Major
    • Graduate University Attended
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Gender
    • Female 83.5%
    • Male 16.5%
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Teaching Experience
    • Years
    • 0-5 51.7%
    • 6-10 35.3%
    • 11-15 7.1%
    • 16-20 2.4%
    • More Than 20 3.5%
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Grade Level
    • Kindergarten 30.6 %
    • First Grade 20.0%
    • Second Grade 24.7%
    • Third Grade 17.6%
    • Fourth Grade 7.1%
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Career Goal
    • Remain a Classroom Teacher 34.1%
    • Educational Support System 41.2%
    • Administrator 20.0%
    • Remain in education until 4.7%
    • finding another job
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Reason for Applying for Alternative Certification
    • Retirement 1.2 %
    • Job Layoff 4.7 %
    • Job Dissatisfaction 15.2 %
    • Love of Teaching 42.4 %
    • Something that was 16.5%
    • always desired
    • Passion for working 17.6%
    • with children
    • Other 2.4%
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Prior Teaching Experience
    • None 14.1%
    • Trainer at previous job 14.1%
    • Teaching in a religious 27.1%
    • sector
    • Daycare Teacher 14.1%
    • Other 30.6%
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Undergraduate Degree
    • BA 68.2%
    • BS 31.8%
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Undergraduate Majors of Respondents
      • 22 different majors reported
      • Top 3 Undergraduate Majors
      • (28.2%) respondents majored in Psychology
      • (9.4%) respondents majored in Communications
      • (9.4%) respondents majored in Business
    • Universities Attended for Undergraduate Degree
      • 30 universities reported
      • Top 3 Universities attended for undergraduate degree
      • (27.1%) respondents attended University of Houston
      • (11.8%) respondents attended Sam Houston State University
      • (8.2%) respondents attended Stephen F. Austin University
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Graduate Degree
    • None 82.3%
    • MEd 5.9%
    • MA 5.9%
    • MBA 3.5%
    • MS 2.4%
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • Graduate Major
    • None 82.3 %
    • Curriculum and 4.7%
    • Instruction
    • Counseling 3.5%
    • Social Work 1.2%
    • Physics 3.5%
    • Business 2.4%
    • Administration
    • Criminal Justice 1.2%
    • Educational 1.2%
    • Administration
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 1
    • University Attended for Graduate Degree
    • None 82.3%
    • Texas Southern 1.2 %
    • Prairie View A&M 7.0%
    • University of Phoenix 3.5%
    • University of Texas 1.2%
    • Arlington
    • Center of Advance 1.2%
    • Research Mexico City
    • University of Central 1.2%
    • Florida
    • Lamar 1.2%
    • Georgetown University 1.2%
  • Review of Literature Quantitative Research Question 1
    • It is extremely difficult to create a profile of the typical alternative certification candidate. Alternative certification program participants are a diverse group of individuals who defy generalizations (Humphrey and Weschsler, 2007).
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 2
    • To what extent do alternatively certified teachers feel supported as novice public school teachers by the district and administrators?
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 2
    • 71.7% of the respondents agreed that the district offered professional development opportunities specifically designed for new alternatively certified teachers.
    • 85.9% of the respondents agreed that the quality of the professional development offered to new teachers supported the quality of instruction provided to their students.
    • 78.8% of the respondents agreed that as a new teacher they met with their mentor at least once a week.
    • 83.4% of the respondents agreed that their mentor provided emotional support during the first year.
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 2
    • 78.8% of the respondents agreed that their mentor provided instructional support during the first year.
    • 84.7% of the respondents agreed that the mentoring program at their school was beneficial.
    • 84.7% of the respondents agreed that the principal at their school supported and encouraged alternatively certified teachers.
    • 78.8% of the respondents agreed that as a new teacher, the principal met with them to discuss their progress.
  • Review of Literature Quantitative Research Question 2
    • Staff development must be implemented by each school system in order to maintain a skilled and knowledgeable staff (Rebore, 2007).
    • The benefits of mentorship programs not only reduce attrition rates among new teachers, but also improve teaching capabilities (Mullinix, 2002).
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 3
    • To what extent do alternatively certified teachers feel committed to remain in the teaching profession?
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 3
    • 92.9% of the respondents agreed that they are committed to teaching as a career.
    • 89.4% of the respondents agreed that they are satisfied with their teaching career.
    • 82.3% of the respondents agreed that they are satisfied with the degree of administrative support they receive at their school.
    • 77.6% of the respondents agreed that they are satisfied with the duties required for their work.
    • 83.5% of the respondents agreed that they intend to stay in teaching more than five years.
  • Review of Literature Quantitative Research Question 3
    • Teachers’ feelings about administrative support, resources for teaching, and teacher input into decision making are strongly related to their plans to stay in teaching and to their reasons for leaving (Darling-Hammond, 2007; Ingersoll, 2001).
  • Major Findings Quantitative Research Question 4
    • Is there a relationship between alternatively certified teachers’ perception of support and their commitment to remain in the teaching profession?
    • Null Hypothesis:
    • H 01 : There is no statistically significant relationship between alternatively certified teachers’ perception of support and their commitment to remain in the teaching profession.
      • Pearson’s r = .236 is significant at the p<.05 level of
    • significance.
      • Correlation is significant at the .05 level (2-tailed). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected.
      • There was a statistically significant relationship between
    • alternatively certified teachers’ perception of support and
    • commitment to remain in the teaching profession.
  • Review of Literature Quantitative Research Question 4
    • Lack of administrative support can impact a teacher’s decision to leave the profession (Busch, Pederson, Espin, and Weissenburger, 2001).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 1
    • What do alternatively certified teachers report to be the reasons for entering the teaching profession?
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 1
    • Always wanting to teach
      • “ Some always wanted to be a teacher, but for financial reasons did something else or family told them that it was not the best profession” (HR1).
    • Parents and family members were teachers
      • “ I have always had a desire to become a teacher. This desire may have been influenced by having a mother in the profession; however, I have always viewed teaching as an opportunity to make a difference” (T2).
  • Review of Literature Qualitative Research Question 1
    • Studies demonstrate that people do not start looking for new jobs because of money; rather they seek careers in organizations that increase their sense of value and offer them an opportunity for empowerment, career mobility, personal growth, and opportunities to acquire new skills. This may include alternatively certified teachers (Rosenow, 2005).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 2
    • What do alternatively certified teachers perceive to be the factors that assisted in their development as teachers?
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 2
    • Observance of teachers
      • “ My development as a teacher has been mainly from my classroom experience and observance of my fellow teachers” (T4 ).
    • Professional development
      • “ Staff development is provided in areas such as classroom management, subject area, dealing with special populations, technology, and communication with parents” (ADM2).
    • Mentor program
      • “ Mentors are chosen based on strength. I match mentors with mentees according to grade level and subjects taught” (ADM1).
  • Review of Literature Qualitative Research Question 2
    • Staff development must be implemented by each school system in order to maintain a skilled and knowledgeable staff (Rebore, 2007).
    • Teacher mentors should be selected based on their ability to develop curriculum, personal interests, educational philosophies, and compatible personalities (Mullinex, 2002).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 3
    • What do alternatively certified teachers perceive to be the reasons that hindered their development as teachers?
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 3
    • Lack of classroom management
    • Not having contact with children prior to the first year teaching
      • “ They did not have the student teaching experience. They lack student management. They did not have the opportunity to watch veteran teachers. They did not have the opportunity to accumulate prior classroom observation hours while they were in college” (ADM2).
  • Literature Review Qualitative Research Question 3
    • Alternatively certified teachers’ limited preparation impacts their sense of efficacy as well as job satisfaction (Easley, 2006).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 4
    • What do alternatively certified teachers perceive to be the reasons that they have remained in the teaching profession?
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 4
    • Love for children
    • Love for teaching
      • “ I have a love for teaching, and I find joy in the students I work with every day. It’s amazing to see their light bulbs go off and to see them grow” (T1).
    • Found their niche
    • Rewarding field
  • Review of Literature Qualitative Research Question 4
    • The main contributors to high levels of teacher job satisfaction are working with children particularly where teachers can develop strong professional relationships (Spear, Gould, and Lee, 2000).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 5
    • What do alternatively certified teachers report about their early educator preparation experiences?
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 5
    • Enrolled in Alternative Certification Program
      • “ I think that they should complete all class work and receive certification before being placed in a classroom. The state should have set standards for all programs. The basic classes should be like universities. They should have more classroom management and lesson cycle information incorporated in their program. They should receive all necessary training before being placed in the classroom to deal with children” (ADM 5).
    • Working as a substitute teacher
    • Volunteered in an after school program
    • Taught pre-school
  • Review of Literature Qualitative Research Question 5
    • Considering that No Child Left Behind is calling for a qualified teacher in every classroom, a concern with nontraditional teachers is that they are actually the teacher of record who may not yet have a high degree of confidence in their teaching ability (Desjean-Perrotta, Flores, and Steinmetz, 2004).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 6
    • What strategies do the selected urban school district employ to identify and utilize factors that encourage teacher job satisfaction and retention?
  • Major Findings Qualitative Research Question 6
    • Mentors/Campus Mentor Programs
      • “ The district assigns experienced teachers to mentor our incoming teachers. I feel this is a good program, because it gives the new teachers someone to lean on for guidance” (M1).
    • Staff Development
      • “ The district offers several professional development opportunities that have benefited me in several ways. I have attended training on classroom management, learning styles, and organization. These types of workshops have helped me tremendously” (T3).
  • Review of Literature Qualitative Research Question 6
    • Studies found that districts that provided established pre-service, induction and staff development programs that factored in the professional background and personal histories of alternatively certified teachers tended to retain more of these teachers (Wang, 2007).
  • Recommendations from the Study
    • Alternative teacher certification programs should provide opportunities for classroom observations and field experiences in teaching environments prior to entering the classroom as the teacher of record.
    • Alternative teacher certification programs should provide training preparedness in the areas of designing classroom instruction, assessment, and classroom management.
  • Recommendations from the Study
    • Principals should provide opportunities for alternatively certified teachers to observe novice teachers.
    • Principals should conduct a needs assessment of first year alternatively certified teachers to determine their confidence of preparedness for the classroom.
  • Recommendations from the Study
    • Principals should ensure that mentoring supports are in place for alternatively certified teachers, and provide time for collaboration between mentors and mentees.
    • Principals should provide professional development opportunities for alternatively certified teachers in classroom management, technology, and areas based on needs assessment.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study could be conducted with middle schools and/or high schools in examining factors related to the job satisfaction and retention of alternatively certified teachers.
    • A study could be conducted in examining the impact of mentoring on the retention of alternatively certified teachers.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study could be conducted in examining the impact of student academic achievement on the retention of alternatively certified teachers.
    • A study could be conducted evaluating selected Alternative Certification Programs and teacher retention.
  • References
    • Boardman, A., Darling-Hammond, L., and Mullin, S. (1982). A framework
    • for the analysis of teachers’ demand and supply. Economics of Education Review , 2(2), 127-155.
    • Busch, T.W., Pederson, K., Espin, C.A. & Weisenburger, J.W. (2001).
    • Teaching students with learning disabilities: perceptions of a first-year
    • teacher. Journal of Special Education, 35 , 100-104.
    • Darling-Hammond, L. (2007b). Evaluating no child left behind. The Nation , 11-18.
    • Desjean-Perrotta, B., Flores, B., and Steinmetz, L. (2004). Teacher efficacy: A comparative study of university certified and alternatively certified teachers. Action in Teacher Education, 26 (2), 37-46.
    • Easley, J. (2006). Alternative route urban teacher retention and implication for principals’ moral leadership. Educational Studies, 32 (3), 241-249.
    • Haggstrom, G., Darling-Hammond, L., and Grissmer, D. (1988). Assessing teacher supply and demand . Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
  • References
    • Humphrey, D. and Wechsler, M. (2007). Insights into alternative certification: Initial findings from a national study. Teachers College Record, 109 (3), 483-530.
    • Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: an organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal , 38 (3), 499-534.
    • Mullinix, B.B. (2002). Selecting and retaining teacher mentors .
    • Washington, DC. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No.
    • ED477728).
    • Rebore, W. (2007). Human resources administration in education . Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    • Rosenow, D. (2005). Stress, burnout and self-esteem among educators. Journal of Border Educational Research, 4 , 87-90.
    • Spear, M., Gould, K., and Lee, B. (2000). Who would be a teacher? A review of factors motivating and demotivating prospective and practicing teachers (Slough, UK, NFER).
  • An Examination of Factors Related to the Job Satisfaction and Retention of Alternatively Certified Teachers A Dissertation Defense by Jennifer T. Butcher