The Effects of Student Engagement and Other Factors on The Retention of African American Freshman Students Attending a...
Dissertation Defense Committee Dr. William A. Kritsonis  Dissertation Chair   Dr. David Herrington   Dr. Lucian Yates, III...
Dissertation Defense Format <ul><li>  I.  Theoretical Framework </li></ul><ul><li>  II.  Purpose of the Study </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Theoretical Framework Tinto’s Institutional Student Departure Model Astin’s Student Involvement Theory </li></ul>J...
Purpose of the Study <ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of the study was to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>examine factors that may ...
Research Question 1 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between background </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics ( high school GPA...
Research Question 2 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between academic and social integration and retention of African Ameri...
Research Question 3 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between student </li></ul><ul><li>faculty interaction and retention of...
Research Question 4 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between student </li></ul><ul><li>financial solvency (ability to pay) ...
Research Question 5 Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009  10:30 AM Is there a relationship between student  engagement and th...
Null Hypotheses <ul><li>Ho 1  -   There is no statistically significant </li></ul><ul><li>  relationship between student’s...
Null Hypotheses <ul><li>Ho 2  -   There is no statistically significant </li></ul><ul><li>relationship between academic an...
Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009  10:30 AM Null Hypotheses H 03  -  There is no statistically significant relationship be...
Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009  10:30 AM Null Hypotheses H 04   - There is no statistically significant relationship be...
Null Hypotheses  <ul><li>Ho 5  -  There is no statistically significant </li></ul><ul><li>relationship between student </l...
Method
Methods <ul><li>Descriptive Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pearson’s r Correl...
Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009  10:30 AM Hypotheses Dependent  Variable Independent Variables Statistical Test Ho 1 Ret...
Method <ul><li>Subjects of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>  The analytic sample used in the study </li></ul><ul><li>is limite...
Method <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative research approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation research de...
Method <ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>2007 National Survey of Student Engagement Instrument  (NSSE) </li></ul><...
Method <ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>NSSE has 3 major components </li></ul><ul><li>College activities  </li></...
Descriptive Statistics <ul><li>Descriptive statistics and analyses were conducted to test the variables in each of the res...
Descriptive Statistics <ul><li>The means computed the average of all respondents’ scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard devia...
Correlational Statistics <ul><li>Each respondent included in the study, student background characteristics (high school GP...
Correlational Statistics <ul><li>Correlation statistical analysis was used to determine the relationship between variables...
Summary of Findings  Research Question 1 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between a student’s </li></ul><ul><li>background ...
Summary of Findings Research Question 1 <ul><li>Correlation Between High School GPA, Gender and Student Returned for Fall ...
Summary of Findings Research Question 2 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between academic </li></ul><ul><li>social integrat...
Summary of Findings Research Question 2  <ul><li>Correlation between academic and social integration measured by (*Student...
Summary of Findings Research Question 3 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between student-faculty interaction and retention ...
Summary of Findings Research Question 3 <ul><li>Correlational analysis was performed  using Pearson r coefficient. There w...
Summary of Findings Research Question 4 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between financial solvency (ability to pay) and re...
Summary of Findings Research Question 4 <ul><li>Correlation analysis was performed using Pearson r computation. There is a...
Summary of Findings Research Question 5 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between student engagement( Academic Challenge) (N...
Summary of Findings Research Question 5 <ul><li>Correlation analysis  was performed using the Pearson r coefficient indica...
Conclusion <ul><li>The study is guided by five research questions, which examine factors that may contribute to student re...
Conclusion <ul><li>Two student background characteristic variables( high school GPA and gender) has a statistically signif...
Conclusion <ul><li>A possible reason four of the variables failed to be significant predictors of retention could be due t...
Implications <ul><li>The findings from this study suggest some important implications for the theory and practice in highe...
Recommendations <ul><li>A new survey instrument be developed and administered to gain a better understanding of the relati...
Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted with a different instrument designed by HBCUs that ha...
Recommendations  for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted with a qualitative approach. This type of study coul...
Recommendations  for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted on the link between student financial difficulties a...
Recommendation for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted to examine the experiences of African American freshma...
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Dr. Janetta Gilliam, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Dr. Janetta Gilliam, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System.

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  • Tinto’s Theory is a.early and influential model of student engagement. 2.Focused on students’ decisions to remain or depart from an institution come as a result of a series of interchanges (integration) between the student and members of the college environment. Astin’s Student Involvement Theory stemmed from a longitudinal investigation of factors that contributed to persistence. This theory surmised that factors important to college student development were synonymous to factors important to college student attrition and retention. Input represents student’s personal educational and background characteristics; environment represents the exposure to various experiences which influence change and outcomes represents the characteristics of the student following exposure to the environment
  • There are 103 institutions classified as HBCUs, represents 3% of all institutions of higher education in the United States , enrolling 15% of all African American students producing about one third of all African American graduates. According to Cuyjet (2005),this high propensity for African American students has societal implications due to the relationship between college degree attainment , occupational and economic attainment.
  • Retention Issues in Higher Education: (a) Past 100 years institutional graduation rates held at 50%
  • The 110 African American freshman students response were for the study, however 110 of the total number of respondents African American freshman student population, excluded freshman transfer students.
  • Descriptive research method permits researchers to describe the information contained in many scores with a few indices, such mean ands median. Survey research falls under the classification of description research. According to Kritsonis, surveys are applications of the scientific method to gather data from a relatively large number of cases in order to describe a particular population”.
  • NSSE is extensively used by many colleges and universities. With emphases on “student’s experiences and their perceptions of the experiences and environment. The use of self report survey are a common practice Using self- report surveys from students to assess the quality of their undergraduate education is common practice in higher education.
  • Using self report from students to assess the quality of their undergraduate education is common practice in higher The NSSE reliability coefficient is .85 and the alpha coefficient .84
  • Descriptive statistics analyses were used to test the variables in (H
  • Correlational statistical test is used for analyzing the quantitative data and the Pearson r coefficient used to determine the relationship of the variables.
  • Putting into question smaller HBCUs on the validity of their use for retention studies.
  • According to Pascarella and Terenzina, Dreams are expensive. Unmet debts and iability to pay reduces an individual’s chance of persistence. A student financial health affects all aspects of educational experience, carefully planned financial aid issues and personal financial matters all affect retention
  • In order to establish best practices or ways to encourage continuous improvement.
  • Dr. Janetta Gilliam, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

    1. 1. The Effects of Student Engagement and Other Factors on The Retention of African American Freshman Students Attending a Public Historically Black College and University in Texas A Dissertation Defense by Janetta C. Gilliam PhD Program in Educational Leadership Prairie View A&M University Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    2. 2. Dissertation Defense Committee Dr. William A. Kritsonis Dissertation Chair Dr. David Herrington Dr. Lucian Yates, III Dr. Camille Gibson Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    3. 3. Dissertation Defense Format <ul><li> I. Theoretical Framework </li></ul><ul><li> II. Purpose of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>III. Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li> V. Summary of Findings </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>VII. Recommendations </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    4. 4. <ul><li>Theoretical Framework Tinto’s Institutional Student Departure Model Astin’s Student Involvement Theory </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    5. 5. Purpose of the Study <ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of the study was to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>examine factors that may contribute to the retention of African American </li></ul><ul><li>freshman students attending a public </li></ul><ul><li>HBCU in Texas. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    6. 6. Research Question 1 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between background </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics ( high school GPA and gender) </li></ul><ul><li>and retention of African American freshman </li></ul><ul><li>students attending a public HBCU in Texas? </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    7. 7. Research Question 2 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between academic and social integration and retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas? </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    8. 8. Research Question 3 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between student </li></ul><ul><li>faculty interaction and retention of African </li></ul><ul><li>American freshman students attending a </li></ul><ul><li>public HBCU in Texas? </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    9. 9. Research Question 4 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between student </li></ul><ul><li>financial solvency (ability to pay) and the </li></ul><ul><li>retention of African American freshman </li></ul><ul><li>students attending a public HBCU </li></ul><ul><li>in Texas? </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    10. 10. Research Question 5 Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM Is there a relationship between student engagement and the retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas ?
    11. 11. Null Hypotheses <ul><li>Ho 1 - There is no statistically significant </li></ul><ul><li> relationship between student’s background </li></ul><ul><li> characteristics (high school GPA and </li></ul><ul><li> gender) and retention of African American </li></ul><ul><li> freshman students attending a public </li></ul><ul><li>HBCU in Texas. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    12. 12. Null Hypotheses <ul><li>Ho 2 - There is no statistically significant </li></ul><ul><li>relationship between academic and </li></ul><ul><li>social integration retention of African </li></ul><ul><li>American freshman students </li></ul><ul><li>attending a public HBCU in Texas. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    13. 13. Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM Null Hypotheses H 03 - There is no statistically significant relationship between student-faculty interaction and retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas.
    14. 14. Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM Null Hypotheses H 04 - There is no statistically significant relationship between student’s financial solvency (ability to pay) and retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas.
    15. 15. Null Hypotheses <ul><li>Ho 5 - There is no statistically significant </li></ul><ul><li>relationship between student </li></ul><ul><li>engagement and the retention of African </li></ul><ul><li>American freshman students attending </li></ul><ul><li>a public HBCU in Texas. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    16. 16. Method
    17. 17. Methods <ul><li>Descriptive Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pearson’s r Correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    18. 18. Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM Hypotheses Dependent Variable Independent Variables Statistical Test Ho 1 Retention Background Characteristics (High school and gender) Correlation Pearson r Ho 2 Retention Academic and Social Integration Correlation Pearson r Ho 3 Retention Student-Faculty Interaction Correlation Pearson r Ho 4 Retention Financial Solvency Correlation Pearson r Ho 5 Retention Student Engagement Correlation Pearson r
    19. 19. Method <ul><li>Subjects of the Study </li></ul><ul><li> The analytic sample used in the study </li></ul><ul><li>is limited to 129 first year, full-time, degree seeking African American freshmen. </li></ul><ul><li> The target sample size is 129, however, 110 students responded to all of the survey questions. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    20. 20. Method <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative research approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation research design was used to examine the relationships among the variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive research methods were utilized. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    21. 21. Method <ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>2007 National Survey of Student Engagement Instrument (NSSE) </li></ul><ul><li>A self-report survey </li></ul><ul><li>four-point Likert-type instrument </li></ul><ul><li>A 28 item instrument with multiple parts on most items that assess the experiences of college students through questions related their level of satisfaction. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    22. 22. Method <ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>NSSE has 3 major components </li></ul><ul><li>College activities </li></ul><ul><li> Educational and personal growth </li></ul><ul><li> Opinions about your school </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability and Validity </li></ul><ul><li>NSSE is recognized and has been tested as a survey instrument with strong psychometric properties (Pike, 2006). </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    23. 23. Descriptive Statistics <ul><li>Descriptive statistics and analyses were conducted to test the variables in each of the research questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The measure of central tendency was tabulated to summarize the entire set of the respondents’ scores in the frequency distribution. Respondent’s scores were added and divided by the number of scores (n-110). </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents’ data was entered in SPSS 16.0 software for analysis to determine the statistical significance of the variables and tested at the value of p<.05. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    24. 24. Descriptive Statistics <ul><li>The means computed the average of all respondents’ scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard deviation was used to measure the spread of the scores. </li></ul><ul><li>The range measured the difference between the highest and lowest respondents’ scores </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency distribution tables were developed to rank order the demographic characteristics of the study sample population. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    25. 25. Correlational Statistics <ul><li>Each respondent included in the study, student background characteristics (high school GPA and gender) was collected via NSSE. </li></ul><ul><li>Student background characteristics values were listed in a spreadsheet and entered into SPSS 16.0. </li></ul><ul><li>The arithmetic mean of each respondent’s rating scale were listed in a column in SPSS 16.0. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    26. 26. Correlational Statistics <ul><li>Correlation statistical analysis was used to determine the relationship between variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson r coefficient was calculated to determine whether a statistical significant relationship exists between each variable on the NSSE and retention. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    27. 27. Summary of Findings Research Question 1 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between a student’s </li></ul><ul><li>background characteristics (high school GPA </li></ul><ul><li>and gender) and retention of African </li></ul><ul><li>American freshman students attending </li></ul><ul><li>a public HBCU in Texas as measured by the </li></ul><ul><li>2007 NSSE instrument ? </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    28. 28. Summary of Findings Research Question 1 <ul><li>Correlation Between High School GPA, Gender and Student Returned for Fall 2007 Semester (Retention) using Pearson r showed no statistically significant relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>r = - .350 </li></ul><ul><li> p = .005, (p < .01) </li></ul><ul><li>The null hypothesis failed to reject. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    29. 29. Summary of Findings Research Question 2 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between academic </li></ul><ul><li>social integration and retention of African </li></ul><ul><li>American freshman students attending a public </li></ul><ul><li>HBCU in Texas as measured by Student- </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty Interaction and Active Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Learning on the NSSE instrument? </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    30. 30. Summary of Findings Research Question 2 <ul><li>Correlation between academic and social integration measured by (*Student-Faculty Interaction and **Active Collaborative Learning) and retention measured by (Student returned for Fall 2007 semester) using the Pearson r coefficient showed no statistically significant relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>* SFI items **ACL items </li></ul><ul><li> r = .641 r = 1.00 </li></ul><ul><li>p = .005 (p< .01) p = .005 (p< .01) </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis failed to reject </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    31. 31. Summary of Findings Research Question 3 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between student-faculty interaction and retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas as measured by the NSSE ? </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    32. 32. Summary of Findings Research Question 3 <ul><li>Correlational analysis was performed using Pearson r coefficient. There was no statistically significance relationship between student-faculty and retention. </li></ul><ul><li>r = -.113 </li></ul><ul><li>p = . 005 (p< .05) </li></ul><ul><li>The null hypothesis failed to reject. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    33. 33. Summary of Findings Research Question 4 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between financial solvency (ability to pay) and retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas as measured by students receiving/not receiving financial aid and student returning for fall 2007 semester ? </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    34. 34. Summary of Findings Research Question 4 <ul><li>Correlation analysis was performed using Pearson r computation. There is a statistically significance relationship between financial solvency and retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas </li></ul><ul><li> r = .222 </li></ul><ul><li> p = .005 (p<.05) </li></ul><ul><li>The null hypothesis is rejected. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    35. 35. Summary of Findings Research Question 5 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between student engagement( Academic Challenge) (NSSE) and retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas as measured by the NSSE survey instrument. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    36. 36. Summary of Findings Research Question 5 <ul><li>Correlation analysis was performed using the Pearson r coefficient indicate that there is no statistically significance relationship between student engagement and retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas as measured by NSSE survey instrument </li></ul><ul><li>r = .009 </li></ul><ul><li> p = .005 (p>.05) </li></ul><ul><li>The null hypothesis failed to reject. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    37. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>The study is guided by five research questions, which examine factors that may contribute to student retention at a selected HBCU. A correlational analysis was performed and the Pearson r coefficient calculated. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic questions on the survey instrument was used to test for statistical significance and reported using descriptive statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Financial solvency is the only variable that is a significant predictor of student retention for first-year African American students attending a pubic HBCU in Texas. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    38. 38. Conclusion <ul><li>Two student background characteristic variables( high school GPA and gender) has a statistically significance relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither variables has any statistically significance relationship to retention of African American freshman students attending a public HBCU in Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>A possible reason four of the variables failed to be significant predictors of retention could be due to the data distribution. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    39. 39. Conclusion <ul><li>A possible reason four of the variables failed to be significant predictors of retention could be due to the data distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Other reasons why background variables were not significant predictors of retention in this study: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More female respondents ( N = 69) than male respondents (N = 41) in this study, this disparity could have affected the impact gender on student retention. </li></ul></ul></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    40. 40. Implications <ul><li>The findings from this study suggest some important implications for the theory and practice in higher education. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than merely looking at the margins of academic and social life, institution personnel need to direct their attention to providing assistance to students encountering financial difficulties, during the foundational first year of college. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    41. 41. Recommendations <ul><li>A new survey instrument be developed and administered to gain a better understanding of the relationship between student financial solvency and retention </li></ul><ul><li>This institution and other HBCUs need to be more proactive in promoting policies, programs, and individual help for African American freshman students who need it to overcome financial difficulties which correlates with persistence. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    42. 42. Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted with a different instrument designed by HBCUs that has a wider range of choices within a Likert-type scale. This could provide a greater potential variance for each variable so that true difference would emerge. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted to examine the students’ perceptions of financial aid services and an assessment of it’s customer service needs. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    43. 43. Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted with a qualitative approach. This type of study could provide an opportunity to interview respondents. Thereby gaining meaningful insight recorded in the respondent’s own words. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted that included both on and off campus African American freshman students at HBCUs. This study only included on-campus freshman students. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    44. 44. Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted on the link between student financial difficulties and not returning to school. An examination of factors that are financial aid related that may contribute to student departure. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM
    45. 45. Recommendation for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted to examine the experiences of African American freshman students attending various institutional types and sizes to provide a more comprehensive understanding of African American college students’ financial concerns and dilemmas. </li></ul>Janetta C. Gilliam March 23, 2009 10:30 AM

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