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Dr. Grace Thomas Nickerson, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
 

Dr. Grace Thomas Nickerson, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

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    Dr. Grace Thomas Nickerson, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair Dr. Grace Thomas Nickerson, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair Presentation Transcript

    • FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF MINORITY STUDENTS: A COMPARISON AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN, AND HISPANIC STUDENTS IN LARGE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICTS A Dissertation Defense By Grace Thomas Nickerson William Allan Kritsonis, PhD – Dissertation Chair
    • Committee Members
      • William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.
      • (Dissertation Chair)
      • Douglas Hermond, Ph. D.
      • (Member)
      • David Herrington, Ph.D.
      • (Member)
      • Camille Gibson, Ph.D.
      • (Outside Member)
    • Dissertation Defense Format
      • Theoretical Framework
      • Purpose of the Study
      • Research Question
      • Null Hypothesis
      • Methods: Subjects
      • Methods: Instrumentation
      • Methods: Quantitative
      • Quantitative Pilot Study
      • Major Findings
      • Review of Literature
      • Practical Recommendations
      • Recommendations for Further Study
    • Theoretical Framework FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF MINORITY STUDENTS: A COMPARISON AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN, AND HISPANIC STUDENTS IN LARGE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICTS FREQUENCY OF STUDY MODES PRACTICED (Group and individual) PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT TIME SPENT ON HOMEWORK ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF MINORITY STUDENTS (Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students)
    • Purpose of the Study
      • The purpose of the study is to determine the differences among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency group study modes .
    • Research Questions
      • How do Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students at selected high schools compare with respect to parental involvement, time spent homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes?
      • What are the differences when studying English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies among Asian American, Hispanic, and African students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes?
    • Null Hypothesis
      • H o1 : There are no statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on English homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes.
    • Null Hypothesis
      • H o2 : There are no statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Mathematics homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes.
    • Null Hypothesis
      • H o3 : There are no statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Science homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes.
    • Null Hypothesis
      • H o4 : There are no statistically significant difference among Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on Social Studies homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes.
    • METHODS
    • Methods
      • Subjects of the Study
      • 713 High School Seniors, 18 years old from 5 urban school districts in Southeast Texas
    • Method: Instrumentation
      • Six-Point,
      • Likert-type Instrument
      • What Influenced Your Academic Achievement Questionnaire
        • Five Sections with a total of 26 questions
      • Instrument measured the amount of Influence from
        • Parental Involvement
        • Time Spent on Homework
        • Frequency of Group Study Modes
        • Frequency of Individual Study Modes
    • Method: Instrumentation
      • Questionnaire Components
        • Demographics (4 questions)
        • Parental Involvement
        • (8 questions)
          • Range : 0 – 48
        • Time Spent on Homework
        • (6 questions)
          • Range: 0 – 36
        • Frequency of Individual Study Modes (4 questions)
          • Range: 0 – 24
        • Frequency of Group Study Modes (4 questions)
          • Range: 0 - 24
      • Weights of Responses
        • 1:Never/0-5 Hours,
        • 2: Rarely/5-10 Hours,
        • 3: Sometimes/10-25 Hours,
        • 4: Often/15–20 Hours,
        • 5: Very Often/ 20–25 Hours,
        • 6: Always/25+ Hours
    • Methods: Quantitative
      • Descriptive Statistics
      • One – Way ANOVA
    • Methods: Quantitative
      • Independent Variables – The academic Achievement of minority students: Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students
      • Dependent Variables – The influence of Parental Involvement, Time Spent on Homework, Frequency of Group Study Modes and Frequency of Individual Study Modes
    • Methods: Quantitative Pilot
      • The questionnaire was piloted to students that are high school seniors to ensure that the meanings of the questions on the questionnaire are clear and pertinent to the study, and the answers given by the respondents are the answers needed by the investigator.
        • The students that participated in the study were Asian American, African American and Hispanic high school seniors.
    • Major Findings 2006 – 2007 Campus Demographics Percentages for the Campuses involved in the Study. (TEA 2006 – 2007 AEIS Report) 54.1% 32.2% 2.1% Campus 4 87.1% 7.3% 0.2% Campus 5 5.5% 90.8% 1.5% Campus 3 11.5% 35.8% 6.0% Campus 2 14.5% 82.7% 0.2% Campus 1 HISPANIC AFRICAN AMERICAN ASIAN AMERICAN CAMPUS
    • Major Findings 2006 – 2007 Campus TAKS Passing Percentages for the Campuses involved in the Study. (TEA 2006 – 2007 AEIS Report)
      • * Indicates results are masked due to small numbers to protect student confidentiality
      35% 59% * 57% Campus 5 59% 59% 84% 62% Campus 4 57% 22% * 56% Campus 3 57% 63% 90% 73% Campus 2 46% 34% * 44% Campus 1 AFRICAN AMERICAN HISPANIC ASIAN AMERICAN CAMPUS SCORE CAMPUS
    • Major Findings : Research Question 1
      • How do Asian American, Hispanic, and African American students at selected high schools compare with respect to parental involvement, time spent homework, frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes?
    • Major Findings : Research Question 1
      • Descriptive Statistics (Compare Means) on Parental involvement, Time Spent on Homework, Individual Study Modes, and Group Study Modes based on Ethnicity (N=713)
      8.12 8.35 10.20 GROUP STUDY MODES 11.36 10.76 12.30 INDIVIDUAL STUDY MODES 9.86 9.18 9.90 TIME SPENT ON HOMEWORK 26.08 23.82 25.70 PARENTAL INVOLVMENT AFRICAN AMERICAN HISPANIC ASIAN AMERICAN FACTORS
    • Major Findings: Research Question 1 (Parental Involvement)
    • Major Findings: Research Question 1 (Time Spent on Homework)
    • Major Findings: Research Question 1 (Frequency of Individual Study Modes)
    • Major Findings: Research Question 1 (Frequency of Group Study Modes)
    • Major Findings : Research Question 1 and 2
      • One-Way ANOVA (Compare Means)
      • Parental involvement based on Ethnicity (N=713) Sig.: p ≤0.05
      .93 .03 1.71 2.26* African American Asian American Hispanic .99 .03 -.54 -2.26* Hispanic Asian American African American .99 .93 .54 -1.71 Asian American Hispanic African American PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT SIG. MEAN ETHNICITY FACTOR
    • Major Findings: Research Questions 1 and 2
      • One-Way ANOVA (Compare Means)
      • Time Spent on Homework (English, Math, Science, and Social Studies) based on Ethnicity (N=713) Sig.: p ≤0.05
      1.00 .16 -.04 .67 African American Asian American Hispanic .90 .26 -.71 -.67 Hispanic Asian American African American .90 1.00 .71 .04 Asian American Hispanic African American TIME SPENT ON HOMEWORK (English, Math, Science, and Social Studies) SIG. MEAN ETHNICITY FACTOR
    • Major Findings: Research Questions 1 and 2
      • One-Way ANOVA (Compare Means)
      • Frequency of Individual Study Modes (English, Math, Science, and Social Studies) based on Ethnicity (N=713) Sig.: p ≤0.05
      .97 .85 -.94 .59 African American Asian American Hispanic .87 .85 -1.53 -.59 Hispanic Asian American African American FREQUENCY OF INDIVIDUAL STUDY MODES (English, Math, Science, and Social Studies) .87 .97 1.53 .94 Asian American Hispanic African American SIG. MEAN ETHNICITY FACTOR
    • Major Findings: Research Questions 1 and 2
      • One-Way ANOVA (Compare Means)
      • Frequency of Group Study Modes (English, Math, Science, and Social Studies) based on Ethnicity (N=713) Sig.: p ≤0.05
      .33 .98 -2.07 -.23 African American Asian American Hispanic FREQUENCY OF GROUPS STUDY MODES (English, Math, Science, and Social Studies) .47 .98 -1.84 .23 Hispanic Asian American African American .47 .33 1.84 2.07 Asian American Hispanic African American SIG. MEAN ETHNICITY FACTOR
    • Major Findings: One-Way ANOVA (Research Questions 1 & 2)
      • Parental Involvement
        • Statistically Significant difference between Hispanic and African American students
        • (Reject the Null Hypothesis)
      • Time Spent on Homework
      • (English, Math, Science, And Social Studies)
        • No statistically significant differences among the minority groups
        • (Accept the Null Hypothesis)
      • Frequency of Individual Study Modes
      • (English, Math, Science, And Social Studies)
        • No statistically significant differences among the minority groups
        • (Accept the Null Hypothesis)
      • Frequency of Group Study Modes
      • (English, Math, Science, And Social Studies)
        • No statistically significant differences among the minority groups
        • (Accept the Null Hypothesis)
    • Conclusions
      • There are no statistically significant differences among Asian American, Hispanic and African American students with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes.
      • There is, however, a statistically significant difference among Hispanics and African Americans with regard to parental involvement.
    • Review of Literature
    • Review of Literature: The Model Minority
      • Ellington (2005) - Not only are the academic achievement levels higher than other minorities, but Asians out-perform their peers in almost every arena… Recent statistics indicate that well over 95% of Japanese are literate. Currently, over 95% of Japanese high school students graduate compared to the 89% of American students.
      • Doan (2006) - The stereotype of being the model minority hurts at-risk Asian American students. At-risk Asian American students continue to be ignored or undeserved because of the success of the entire group. When success of the Asian American group is highlighted, educators and the general public direct their attention to at-risk students of other ethnicities, forgetting that Asian American students can also be at-risk.
      • Shimahara(2001) - Asian Americans, see the United States as a land of opportunity compared to their situation back home. They are generally optimistic and trusting of U.S. society, and work hard in school and in their jobs to succeed.
    • Review of Literature: Social Factors that Impact the Academic Achievement of African American Students
      • Lew (2006) - Involuntary minorities who were forcefully incorporated into the U. S. tend to attribute academic success with “whiteness” and thus reject school success with their own ethnic and racial identities.
      • Chubb (2002) - Social scientists confidently predicted that after the Supreme Court decision, Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 , that the academic gap among minorities would soon be eliminated. However, this did not occur. Academic success of African Americans went from abysmal to merely terrible
      • Bennett (2004) - African American students in particular are likely to experience doubts about their acceptance in educational institutions and such concerns are likely to be accentuated in academic environments that high achieving minority students strive for.
    • Review of Literature: Social Factors that Impact the Academic Achievement of Hispanic Students
      • Ramirez (2005) - Hispanic students tend to be poorer, attend more segregated schools and live in urban areas. However, current guidelines and educational practices mandated for Hispanic students are built on such assumptions and have had the unintended consequence of damaging the students’ futures, education and otherwise.
      • Cammarota (2006) - According to some Hispanic youth, the assumption of their intellectual inferiority is the most significant obstacle in their academic pursuits
      • Sparks (2002) - studies have shown lower academic attainment for second- and third- generation Latino students, so recent immigration or limited English language proficiency cannot be responsible for the entire gap
    • Review of Literature: Parental Involvement (Research Question 1 & 2)
      • Stewart (2007) - Parents can promote children’s cognitive development and academic achievement directly by becoming involved in their children’s educational activities.
      • Gregory (2000) - The more involved parents are in their children’s education, at home and at school, the more successful children will be academically and socially. Teachers report more positive feelings about their teaching and schools when there is a greater degree of parent involvement.
      • Epstein (2002) – Strong academic outcomes among middle level and high school students were associated with communication between parents and school personnel about the child’s schooling and future plans.
    • Review of Literature: Time Spent on Homework (Research Question 1 & 2)
      • Wong (1986) - An interesting, and for some a discouraging feature of contemporary high school education, is the finding that more Hispanic and African American students and between 1 to 8 % of the Asian students report not doing any homework or spending less than one hour per week on it.
      • Freeman (1995) - The amount of school hours is different between the United States and Asian nations. Japanese students, for example, spend more days in school and study more hours studying after school. Thus, having more hours of instruction and practice in a given subject than American students of the same age, the Japanese students naturally tend to score higher.
      • Xu (2004) - Doing homework often can create a foundation for developing desirable work habits since “regardless of the homework’s intellectual content, there is a need to deal with distractions, and a role for emotional coping, task force, and persistence.”
    • Review of Literature: Frequency of Group and Individual Study Modes (Research Question 1 & 2)
      • Lambert (2006) - The way a student studies determines what knowledge is retained and learned, what concepts are understood and how a student can apply what is learned. Although secondary level teachers often assume that all students have acquired sufficient study skills by the time they reach high school, many have not
      • Slavin (1980) - Learning team techniques have generally had positive effects on such student outcomes as academic achievement and mutual attraction among students. Group forms of study habits increase academic achievement.
      • Decoker (2002) - Rapid learners can help those who are slower, and students who do not understand the lesson can ask questions of the fast learners
    • RECOMMENDATIONS
    • Practical Recommendations
      • Teachers may need to implement the use of effective study habits in order for students to learn content at their optimal level.
      • Parents need to take an active, participatory role in the education of their child. When schools attempt to reach out to parents, parents need to be willing to meet schools half way.
      • Policies and standards that are created and implemented on the state and district levels need to accommodate the students and not the interest or agendas of lobbyists, bureaucrats, or unions.
    • Practical Recommendations
      • Also when creating state test, the understanding that not all students come from like backgrounds or experiences need to be taken into account.
      • When donating money, educational foundations that award grants need to ensure that the programs that they fund enhance the education of all students.
      • The standardized tests that are used in education need to be modified to adequately test all students of every race and background.
    • Recommendations for Further Study
      • A study should be conducted to investigate individual test scores to be compared to the impact of parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes on individual students.
      • The study should also include a qualitative component such as interviews to introduce the importance of cultural and social beliefs and values on minority students’ education.
    • Recommendations for Further Study
      • A study should also be conducted to investigate a difference among minority groups in urban and rural school districts with respect to parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes and frequency of group study modes with a comparison of cultural and social beliefs and values between the students enrolled in the urban and suburban school districts.
      • A study should also be conducted to include a qualitative component of parents and their children and their insight on what impacts the academic achievement of their child based on parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, cultural and social beliefs and values.
    • FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF MINORITY STUDENTS: A COMPARISON AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN, AND HISPANIC STUDENTS IN LARGE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICTS A Dissertation Defense By Grace Thomas Nickerson