REDUCING RECIDIVISM RATES FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES ENROLLED IN MIDDLE SCHOOL DISCIPLINARY ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMS...
Dissertation Committee Members <ul><li>Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. David E. Herr...
DAEP Structure  <ul><li>The structure of the  Disciplinary Alternative   Education Program  (DAEP) both physically (by loc...
Student Cultural Dynamics  <ul><li>When looking at structure on a variety of cultural levels, there may be an underlying i...
Student Cultural Dynamics <ul><li>Multiple researchers have indicated that there is an overrepresentation of African Ameri...
Institutionalization <ul><li>These issues specifically influence the African American male because of the culture of insti...
Statement of the Problem <ul><li>There are DAEP structural factors such as programming, operational styles and interventio...
Statement of the Problem  <ul><li>Disciplinary Alternative Education Program  (DAEP) literature related to overrepresentat...
Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that reduce or eliminate high rates of r...
Theories Guiding the Study Reciprocal Determinism  Symbolization   Logic  Abstract Thought  Problem Solving  Social & Cult...
Theories Guiding the Study <ul><li>Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior influences and is in...
Theories Guiding the Study <ul><li>Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory: Formal Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Begin...
Significance of the Study <ul><li>Data gathered in this study highlighted structural procedures and interventions that hel...
Assumptions <ul><li>Piaget and Bandura paradigms support the assumption that institutionalization impacts:  </li></ul><ul>...
Assumptions <ul><li>DAEP’s maintain institutional structure and programming by utilizing discipline measures that stagnate...
Limitations of the Study <ul><li>This study was limited to investigating African American male middle school students enro...
Sampling Methods <ul><li>Homogeneous cases: Specifically, only Alternative Education Programs were selected for this study...
Themes from Literature <ul><li>How DAEP’s were formed (Zweig 2003;TEA 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>DAEP Structure and Program (...
Research Design <ul><li>This was a exploratory qualitative study that allowed the researcher to first collect qualitative ...
Population and Sample <ul><li>The target population for this study were African American male 6 th -8 th  grade DAEP Middl...
Instrumentation and Pilot Study <ul><li>Permission was obtained from Dr. Anita Woolfolk Hoy to use the Teachers’ Sense of ...
Data Collection <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Interview Questions </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure confidentiality, e...
Data Analysis <ul><li>Quantitative data was collected on Teachers’ Sense of Teacher Efficacy retracted from their response...
Research Question #1 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy score, best practices, and Africa...
Research Question #2 <ul><li>How does each program structure model affect African American male student recidivism rates i...
Research Question #3 <ul><li>What aspect of parental involvement influences African American male student recidivism rates...
Research Question #4 <ul><li>What influence does the Social Skills Curriculum have on African American male student recidi...
Findings of the Study <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>Data was collected on DAEP program structure, best practices, teacher’s sense of efficacy...
Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>A Pearson r correlation coefficient was calculated to determine if a relationship existed...
Summary of Data Analysis  <ul><li>Data analyses were based on responses to TSES, interview questions, identified best prac...
Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>It was hypothesized that there will be no significant relationship in the structure of th...
Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>Forty 6 th  through 8 th  grade teachers, six building principals and three counselors pa...
Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>Data collected from the TSES were scored. Best practices were identified through the six ...
Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>All data received from the forty-nine participants of the DAEPs who agreed to participate...
Data Conclusions  <ul><li>RQ1 </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a relationship between Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy score, best pr...
Data Conclusions  <ul><li>The correlation between African American male recidivism data and Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Sc...
Data Conclusions  <ul><li>Although there were no statistically significant differences between these constructs, there was...
Data Conclusions
Data Conclusions  <ul><li>The more consistently best practices used at the participating DAEP the lower the DAEP recidivis...
Data Conclusions  <ul><li>Higher TSES scores were also found at schools with lower recidivism rates for African American M...
Data Conclusions  <ul><li>The school that had the least best practices had the lowest TSES scores and had the highest reci...
Data Conclusions  <ul><li>The correlation between Parental Education Training and African American male recidivism rates w...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>RQ2: How does each program structure model affect African American male student recidivism rates ...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>Program structure models that were implemented consistently included point systems, restrictive e...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>As stated by DAEP 5 representative “we make this school as uncomfortable as possible, we provide ...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>RQ3 What aspect of parental involvement influences African American male student recidivism rates...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>Regarding parental involvement and African American male student’s recidivism rates, most respond...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>DAEP 20 representative stated “parenting programs we have are done outside school hours, parents ...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>RQ4 What influence does the Social Skills Curriculum have on African American male student recidi...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>None of the respondents identified a specific social skills curriculum. However, the respondents ...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>Mentoring programs and individual counseling – both of which focus on building, maintaining and p...
Data Conclusions <ul><li>According to DAEP 5 assistance with transition is an important part of the socializing process “W...
Implications <ul><li>The major implications of this study were as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>To some extent recidivism of ...
Implications <ul><li>Program structure, which includes the extent to which DAEP best practices are incorporated and implem...
Implications <ul><li>A holistic approach to programming, which incorporates improved socialization processes along with te...
Implications <ul><li>Extensive DAEP setting specific training along with preparation should be provided for educators who ...
Implications <ul><li>DAEP setting specific training – should include verbal management of aggressive behaviors, mediation,...
Implications <ul><li>TSES should be considered when selecting educators for the DAEP setting.  </li></ul>
Implications <ul><li>Due to the special needs of DAEP students, it is important that an educator feel competent and confid...
Implications <ul><li>Teachers should be selected who score well on the TSES prior to placement.  </li></ul>
Implications <ul><li>DAEPs should incorporate individual counseling, mandatory parent education training and mentoring pro...
Implications <ul><li>Respondents in this study indicated that the African American male population tended to respond well ...
Implications <ul><li>DAEPs should encourage home campuses to partake in more active roles during the DAEP and home campus ...
Implications <ul><li>TEA should require improved reporting of DAEP data from school districts. </li></ul>
Implications <ul><li>TEA should offer improved accessibility of DAEP data for purposes of research, trend identification a...
Implications <ul><li>Individual DAEPs should record and track recidivism data  </li></ul>
Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted to further explore the extent of the relationship bet...
Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted using internet survey tool participation versus in pe...
Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted to explore TSES scores related to teaching DAEP Afric...
Summary  <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that reduce or eliminate high rates of recidivism fo...
References <ul><li>Aron, L. Y. (2003). Towards a Typology of Alternative Education  Programs: A Completion of Elements fro...
References <ul><li>McCreight, C. (1999).  Best practices for Disciplinary Alternative  Education Programs in Texas.  Lared...
References <ul><li>Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., & Abra , N. C. (2000). Sources of Racial  and Gender Disproportionality i...
References <ul><li>Texas Appleseed. (2007).  Projects : School-to-Prison Pipeline, Impact  of &quot;Zero Tolerance&quot; a...
Thank You! <ul><li>Donald R. Brown, Jr.  </li></ul>
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Dr. Donald Ray Brown, Jr., PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair/Major Professor

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Dr. Donald Ray Brown, Jr., PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System.

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  • Good morning my name is Mr. Brown and today we will discuss how you can get in the zone by making right choices
  • Can any one tell us what they are?
  • To begin with class. Let me ask you this question what does the word choice mean? The dictionary defines the word as: Now class what does this mean to us: Students this means that we have the power to choose
  • RQ1-RQ4 are guided by Bandura, reciprocal determinism, RQ1 and RQ4 Piaget Logic, Abstract thought and problem solving Specifically, Bandura’s Social Learning Theory components of reciprocal determinism and symbolizing (Bandura, 1986); along with Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development Theory concepts of logic, abstract thought and problem solving were used as a foundation to this research (Wadsworth, 2003). These concepts help to address the underlying rationale for the research questions of this study In the middle of the model
  • Example: Attitudes of disrespected staff impact interactions with those who are in trouble for being disrespectful. Fostered in the environment, attitudes and program structure of the DAEP
  • Fostered in the social skills training and curriculum and program structure of the DAEP
  • Reference Slide Below
  • When Parental Education Training is in place African American male recidivism rates are lower. If the training is not in place, then recidivism rates are higher. The Parental Education Training is a strong predictor of African American male recidivism rates.
  • Of the participant schools in this study, program structure models that were implemented consistently included point systems, restrictive environments, and a focus on improving social skills. Most respondents answered this question in general terms as described above. Quantitative findings and reoccurring themes indicate that program structure models that incorporate parental involvement mentoring and individual counseling positively affect African American male middle school students.
  • Regarding identified aspects of parental involvement and African American male student’s recidivism rates, most respondents indicated that it was important to educate parents regarding the expectations of DAEP placement during the initial placement period. Parent education training such as, being well informed on gang related behaviors, signs of addiction /drug abuse, current trends and ways parents can support their student (i.e. routines for completing home work, creating dialog with your child
  • None of the respondents identified a specific social skills curriculum, but rather, indicated the use of various techniques and philosophies focus on improving social interactions, decision making and communication. The common responses regarding the incorporation of social skills curriculum and training included mentoring and individual counseling – both of which focus on building, maintaining and practicing appropriate relationships.
  • These trainings can be advantageous skills to educators who deal with a room full of students who have disciplinary problems. Further, educators who feel competent utilizing these skills consistently during their teaching can practice brief interventions with African American males who seem to benefit from the one to one intervention model.
  • Teachers should be selected who score well on the TSES prior to placement.
  • This participation should encourage a smoother transition process for the student and both campuses, as all aspects involved in the education experience of the student are motivated and involved in the DAEP placement and the efforts to deter recidivism.
  • Dr. Donald Ray Brown, Jr., PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair/Major Professor

    1. 1. REDUCING RECIDIVISM RATES FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES ENROLLED IN MIDDLE SCHOOL DISCIPLINARY ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMS A Dissertation Defense by DONALD RAY BROWN, JR. Dissertation Chair William Allan Kritsonis, PhD PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    2. 2. Dissertation Committee Members <ul><li>Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. David E. Herrington, Committee Member </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Patricia A. Smith, Committee Member </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Lisa Hobson Horton, Committee Member </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Solomon G. Osho, Committee Member </li></ul>
    3. 3. DAEP Structure <ul><li>The structure of the Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP) both physically (by location separation) and operationally is intended to be a deterrent. </li></ul><ul><li>The average length of stay is between 16-45 days (Inter-Cultural Development Research Association, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Most DAEP’s Operate on a Point System that serves as an indicator of when the child might be ready to exit the program (TEA,2007 ). </li></ul>
    4. 4. Student Cultural Dynamics <ul><li>When looking at structure on a variety of cultural levels, there may be an underlying indication to the African American student that this setting is more culturally conducive to his learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>For the African American male, this environment may be an educational environment where they receive individualized education assistance in a smaller group setting. </li></ul><ul><li>The rigid structure of a DAEP can be difficult to transition out of when students return to their home campus/school of origin. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Student Cultural Dynamics <ul><li>Multiple researchers have indicated that there is an overrepresentation of African American males in DAEP settings and in our prison systems (Tobin & Sprague, 2000; TEA, 2007;). </li></ul><ul><li>There is a correlation between these disciplinary experiences for African American males (Parham & McDavis, 1987; Texas Appleseed, 2007). </li></ul>
    6. 6. Institutionalization <ul><li>These issues specifically influence the African American male because of the culture of institutionalization in the black community. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalization conveys the message of external locus of control, hopelessness and cyclical degradation of the individual experiencing it. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure and practices an African American male experiences in the DAEP can in some instances, be the expected cultural norm. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>There are DAEP structural factors such as programming, operational styles and intervention components that could contribute to the over representation of recidivism for African American Males in DAEP’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The recidivism rate of 6 th -8 th grade African American males returning to alternative school settings is a growing problem in education (IDRA, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Students who experience multiple transitions between DAEP’s and Regular Education Settings (RES’s) tend to have difficulty adjusting in America’s Public Education System and life’s challenges (Perkins, 1991). </li></ul>
    8. 8. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP) literature related to overrepresentation of African American male 6 th -8 th grade Middle School students does not adequately reflect structural factors that could reduce recidivism rates. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that reduce or eliminate high rates of recidivism for African American male students enrolled in middle school alternative education programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying best practices that produce low to no recidivism rates for African American male students enrolled in alternative education programs can be implemented to improve DAEP success outcomes. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Theories Guiding the Study Reciprocal Determinism Symbolization Logic Abstract Thought Problem Solving Social & Cultural Influence Bandura Piaget
    11. 11. Theories Guiding the Study <ul><li>Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior influences and is influenced by personal factors and social environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Most external influences affect behavior through cognitive processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is conditioned through the use of consequences. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Theories Guiding the Study <ul><li>Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory: Formal Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at age 12 and lasts through adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking hypothetically, conceptualization, outcomes and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Organized approach to problem solving </li></ul>
    13. 13. Significance of the Study <ul><li>Data gathered in this study highlighted structural procedures and interventions that helped to reduce or eliminate the percentage of African American males who return to the alternative education program after a successful completion. </li></ul><ul><li>This study provided information that can help improve alternative education for all students . </li></ul>
    14. 14. Assumptions <ul><li>Piaget and Bandura paradigms support the assumption that institutionalization impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Interpersonal communication </li></ul><ul><li>2. Worldviews </li></ul><ul><li>3. Social and cultural interactions </li></ul>
    15. 15. Assumptions <ul><li>DAEP’s maintain institutional structure and programming by utilizing discipline measures that stagnate development processes related to logic, abstract thought and problem solving skills that occur during adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying and improving upon structure, program components and Teachers’ Sense of Teacher Efficacy can only lead to improvements in DAEP visit outcomes. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Limitations of the Study <ul><li>This study was limited to investigating African American male middle school students enrolled in DAEP’s located in South East Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Several large school districts did not have data available through TEA regarding their districts DAEP. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics such as social economic status, parent marital status and TEA recognized schools were not taken into account for this study. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Sampling Methods <ul><li>Homogeneous cases: Specifically, only Alternative Education Programs were selected for this study. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the study, criterion case sampling was used in each alternative setting to identify the targeted population . </li></ul>
    18. 18. Themes from Literature <ul><li>How DAEP’s were formed (Zweig 2003;TEA 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>DAEP Structure and Program (Aron, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practice Guidelines (McCreight, 1999; TEA, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Overrepresentation of students in DAEP setting (IDRA,1999; Skiba, Michael & Abra 2000; Zweig, 2003) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Research Design <ul><li>This was a exploratory qualitative study that allowed the researcher to first collect qualitative data and use the findings to give direction to quantitative data collection (Frankel & Wallen, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews were coded for the emerging and contrasting themes. </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys were scored using a Likert scale. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Population and Sample <ul><li>The target population for this study were African American male 6 th -8 th grade DAEP Middle School students. </li></ul><ul><li>Active participants included six building principals, three counselors and forty teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants for the study were selected through purposive sampling-subjects because of some common characteristic (Patton 1990). </li></ul>
    21. 21. Instrumentation and Pilot Study <ul><li>Permission was obtained from Dr. Anita Woolfolk Hoy to use the Teachers’ Sense of Teacher Efficacy Scale. </li></ul><ul><li>A nine question pilot study was used to identify program structure characteristics and program practices. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Data Collection <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Interview Questions </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure confidentiality, each DAEP campus was coded with alpha and number </li></ul><ul><li>Existing TEA Data </li></ul>
    23. 23. Data Analysis <ul><li>Quantitative data was collected on Teachers’ Sense of Teacher Efficacy retracted from their responses to the instrument, Teachers’ Sense of Teacher Efficacy Scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale was designed to measure efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices and classroom management. </li></ul><ul><li>Each item was measured on a 9-point scale anchored with the notations: “nothing, very little, some influence, quite a bit, a great deal”. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Research Question #1 <ul><li>Is there a relationship between Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy score, best practices, and African American male student recidivism rates in disciplinary alternative education settings? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Self Efficacy Scale (TSES) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Practices being Utilized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TEA DAEP Data </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Research Question #2 <ul><li>How does each program structure model affect African American male student recidivism rates in an alternative setting? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator interview questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TEA DAEP Data </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Research Question #3 <ul><li>What aspect of parental involvement influences African American male student recidivism rates? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator interview questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TEA DAEP Data </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Research Question #4 <ul><li>What influence does the Social Skills Curriculum have on African American male student recidivism rates? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator interview responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best practices being utilized by DAEP </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Findings of the Study <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
    29. 29. Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>Data was collected on DAEP program structure, best practices, teacher’s sense of efficacy scale scores, parental involvement and social skills curriculum for each school. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>A Pearson r correlation coefficient was calculated to determine if a relationship existed between the variables and African American male recidivism rates. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>Data analyses were based on responses to TSES, interview questions, identified best practices and recidivism data collected from TEA. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>It was hypothesized that there will be no significant relationship in the structure of the DAEP’s, the interventions used in the DAEP’s and the Teachers’ Sense of Teacher Efficacy of the teachers working in the DAEP’s and their impact on reducing the rate of recidivism for African American males in grades 6-8 enrolled in alternative education programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to reject the Null hypothesis. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>Forty 6 th through 8 th grade teachers, six building principals and three counselors participated in the study that involved six DAEP campuses. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>Data collected from the TSES were scored. Best practices were identified through the six administrators and three counselor interviews. Recidivism data was determined by data collected from TEA. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Summary of Data Analysis <ul><li>All data received from the forty-nine participants of the DAEPs who agreed to participate were analyzed and coded based on emerging themes of those involved. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Data Conclusions <ul><li>RQ1 </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a relationship between Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy score, best practices, and African American male student recidivism rates in disciplinary alternative education settings? </li></ul>
    37. 37. Data Conclusions <ul><li>The correlation between African American male recidivism data and Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale score was not significant at the .05 level (significance of .666>.05). </li></ul>
    38. 38. Data Conclusions <ul><li>Although there were no statistically significant differences between these constructs, there was a strong negative correlation between DAEP best practices and recidivism. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Data Conclusions
    40. 40. Data Conclusions <ul><li>The more consistently best practices used at the participating DAEP the lower the DAEP recidivism rates were for African American Males in grades 6-8 th . </li></ul>
    41. 41. Data Conclusions <ul><li>Higher TSES scores were also found at schools with lower recidivism rates for African American Males in grades 6-8 th . </li></ul>
    42. 42. Data Conclusions <ul><li>The school that had the least best practices had the lowest TSES scores and had the highest recidivism rates for the population studied. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Data Conclusions <ul><li>The correlation between Parental Education Training and African American male recidivism rates was significant at the .05 level (significance of .019>-.885). </li></ul>
    44. 44. Data Conclusions <ul><li>RQ2: How does each program structure model affect African American male student recidivism rates in an alternative setting? </li></ul>
    45. 45. Data Conclusions <ul><li>Program structure models that were implemented consistently included point systems, restrictive environments, and a focus on improving social skills. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Data Conclusions <ul><li>As stated by DAEP 5 representative “we make this school as uncomfortable as possible, we provide an environment of care but also an environment that’s uncomfortable. To not be able to go to basketball games and football games and participate in all the activities. Hopefully, all these goodies that have been taken way from the kids will encourage them to get out of here and stay out of here.” </li></ul>
    47. 47. Data Conclusions <ul><li>RQ3 What aspect of parental involvement influences African American male student recidivism rates? </li></ul>
    48. 48. Data Conclusions <ul><li>Regarding parental involvement and African American male student’s recidivism rates, most respondents indicated that it was important to educate parents regarding the expectations of DAEP placement during the initial placement period. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Data Conclusions <ul><li>DAEP 20 representative stated “parenting programs we have are done outside school hours, parents are invited, and we have some brochures. We really don’t have too much parent involvement. We try to call parents when they are doing good, and we try to call parents when we need some help from the parents.” </li></ul>
    50. 50. Data Conclusions <ul><li>RQ4 What influence does the Social Skills Curriculum have on African American male student recidivism rates? </li></ul>
    51. 51. Data Conclusions <ul><li>None of the respondents identified a specific social skills curriculum. However, the respondents preferred the use of various techniques and philosophies that focus on improving social interactions, decision making and communication. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Data Conclusions <ul><li>Mentoring programs and individual counseling – both of which focus on building, maintaining and practicing appropriate relationships were cited as being effective techniques to improve social skills for African American males. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Data Conclusions <ul><li>According to DAEP 5 assistance with transition is an important part of the socializing process “We implemented a transition plan...I implemented a transition class for the first five days that they set foot on this campus and the transition class allow them to kind of get in the front door, get a little comfortable with their surroundings they’re all in one classroom but they know they’ve crossed over from being where they were into a new place. We do some conflict resolution with them, we have them set goals.” </li></ul>
    54. 54. Implications <ul><li>The major implications of this study were as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>To some extent recidivism of African American Males was affected by the program structure, teacher sense of efficacy and DAEP best practices implemented at individual DAEP campuses. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Implications <ul><li>Program structure, which includes the extent to which DAEP best practices are incorporated and implemented at each campus seems to impact the DAEP experience for African American Male students. </li></ul>
    56. 56. Implications <ul><li>A holistic approach to programming, which incorporates improved socialization processes along with teachers who feel effective in their abilities to teach students in the DAEP setting allow for some rehabilitation and reflection on the part of the student. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Implications <ul><li>Extensive DAEP setting specific training along with preparation should be provided for educators who work in the DAEP environments. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Implications <ul><li>DAEP setting specific training – should include verbal management of aggressive behaviors, mediation, reflective listening, empathetic responses and modeling appropriate assertive communication. </li></ul>
    59. 59. Implications <ul><li>TSES should be considered when selecting educators for the DAEP setting. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Implications <ul><li>Due to the special needs of DAEP students, it is important that an educator feel competent and confident in teaching. </li></ul>
    61. 61. Implications <ul><li>Teachers should be selected who score well on the TSES prior to placement. </li></ul>
    62. 62. Implications <ul><li>DAEPs should incorporate individual counseling, mandatory parent education training and mentoring programs as interventions to deter recidivism for African American Male 6-8th grade students. </li></ul>
    63. 63. Implications <ul><li>Respondents in this study indicated that the African American male population tended to respond well to individual counseling and mentoring – with speculation leaning towards the individualized interactions of these types of interventions. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Implications <ul><li>DAEPs should encourage home campuses to partake in more active roles during the DAEP and home campus transition processes. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Implications <ul><li>TEA should require improved reporting of DAEP data from school districts. </li></ul>
    66. 66. Implications <ul><li>TEA should offer improved accessibility of DAEP data for purposes of research, trend identification and policy recommendations. </li></ul>
    67. 67. Implications <ul><li>Individual DAEPs should record and track recidivism data </li></ul>
    68. 68. Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted to further explore the extent of the relationship between African American Male DAEP participants and African American Males who become involved with the Criminal Justice System. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted which focuses on the DAEP experience and African American male DAEP student characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted to determine more trends and outcomes regarding DAEP recidivism. </li></ul>
    69. 69. Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted using internet survey tool participation versus in person interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted to explore DAEP African American Males grades 6-8 th personal characteristics (for example: self esteem, social class, resiliency) and the impact on recidivism. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted to include more district DAEPs. </li></ul>
    70. 70. Recommendations for Further Study <ul><li>A study could be conducted to explore TSES scores related to teaching DAEP African American males, grades 6-8 th . </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted to explore the impact of DAEP specific trainings on TSES scores of teachers in DAEP settings. </li></ul>
    71. 71. Summary <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that reduce or eliminate high rates of recidivism for African American male students enrolled in alternative education programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Data gathered in this study indicates that structural procedures and interventions such as parent training, mentoring and individual counseling help to reduce or eliminate the percentage of African American males who return to the disciplinary alternative education program after a successful completion. </li></ul>
    72. 72. References <ul><li>Aron, L. Y. (2003). Towards a Typology of Alternative Education Programs: A Completion of Elements from the Literature. The Urban Institute , 3 , 1-30. </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social- cognitive theory . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortez, A. (1999). Intercultural Development Research Association </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs in Texas – What is Known; What is Needed. Forest Ecology and Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education Sixth Edition. 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul>
    73. 73. References <ul><li>McCreight, C. (1999). Best practices for Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs in Texas. Laredo, TX: Texas A&M International University. </li></ul><ul><li>Parham, T.A., & Mc Davis, R.J. (1987). Black men, an endangered species: Who’s really pulling the trigger? Journal of Counseling and Development, 66 , 24-27. </li></ul><ul><li>Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Perkins, K. R. (1991). The Influence of Television Images on Black Females' Self-Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness. Journal of Black Psychology , 22 (4), 453-469. </li></ul>
    74. 74. References <ul><li>Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., & Abra , N. C. (2000). Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment. The Color of Discipline , , 1-21. </li></ul><ul><li>Tobin, T. & Sprague, J. (2000). Alternative Education Strategies: Reducing Violence in School and the Community. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders , 8 (3), 1-22. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Education Agency, . (2007). Commissioner's Rules Concerning the Standards for the Operation of School District Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs. DAEP Standards Proposed , , 1- 6. </li></ul>
    75. 75. References <ul><li>Texas Appleseed. (2007). Projects : School-to-Prison Pipeline, Impact of &quot;Zero Tolerance&quot; and Discretionary School Discipline Policies in Texas. Retrieved Mar. 23, 2008, from http://www.texasappleseed.net/projects_school-to-prison.shtml . </li></ul><ul><li>Wadsworth B. J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive and Affective Development: Foundations of Constructivism. : Pearson . </li></ul><ul><li>Zweig, J.M. (2003). Vulnerable youth: Identifying their need for alternative educational settings. Washing-ton, DC: The Urban Institute. </li></ul>
    76. 76. Thank You! <ul><li>Donald R. Brown, Jr. </li></ul>

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