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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Robert Marcel Branch, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU/The Texas A&M University System
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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Robert Marcel Branch, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU/The Texas A&M University System

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Robert Marcel Branch

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Robert Marcel Branch

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  • 1. Hispanic Teacher Recruitment and Retention Initiatives in Texas Schools A Dissertation Defense By Robert M. Branch
  • 2. Dr. William A. Kritsonis (Dissertation Chair) Dr. David Herrington (Member) Dr. Douglas Hermond (Member) Dr. Camille Gibson (Member) Committee Members
  • 3. Outline I. The Problem II. Purpose of the Study III. Research Questions IV. Method V. Major Findings VI. Review of Literature VII. Recommendations
  • 4. The Problem  The shortage of Hispanic educators plays a role in the educational experiences of Hispanic students.  2006-2007 TEA data indicate that 21% of teachers in Texas are Hispanic, but 46% of the students during the same year are Hispanic.  Previous findings indicate that increasing the number of Hispanic educators positively affects the educational attainment of Hispanic students (Darder, Torres, & Gutierrez, 1997).
  • 5. Purpose of the Study  To establish whether the number of Hispanic teachers influence Hispanic student achievement and then identify methods to assist with the recruitment and retention of Hispanic teachers in Texas schools.
  • 6. Conceptual Framework Approaches of Administrators & District Personnel to Recruit & Retain Hispanic Teachers Internal Motivations Of Hispanic Teachers Hispanic Teacher Recruitment & Retention Initiatives in Texas Schools The Impact of Academic Achievement for Hispanic Students
  • 7. Quantitative Research Questions 1) Is there a corresponding increase in the percent of Hispanic teachers with the increase of Hispanic Students in Texas from school years 2000 through 2007? 2) Is there a relationship between the percent of Hispanic teachers and the percent of Hispanic students passing the TAKS Exit level examination in the core area of Mathematics? 3) Is there a relationship between the percent of Hispanic teachers and the percent of Hispanic students passing the TAKS Exit level examination in the core area of English/Language Arts?
  • 8. Qualitative Research Questions 1) What factors influenced Hispanic teachers to go into and remain in the teaching profession in the state of Texas? 2) What is the value of increasing the number of Hispanic teachers in Texas school districts? 3) What are the approaches used by the school districts to recruit and retain Hispanic teachers? 4) Which of these approaches appear to be successful in recruiting and retaining Hispanic teachers?
  • 9. Research Design  Research Method – Mixed methods using a complementary design. This includes descriptive and correlational analysis of existing data as well as data obtained from open-ended interview questions and surveys.  Quantitative – Data was obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) reports.
  • 10. Research Design (continued)  Qualitative – The qualitative data was collected with a questionnaire that was given to Hispanic teachers and School/District Administrators. Data was also collected by interviewing the Hispanic teachers and School/District Administrators.
  • 11. Pilot Study  Convenience Sampling 20 Hispanic Teachers  Test-Retest Reliability Trustworthiness (Fair-Clear-Free of Bias) Changes based on inputs  Participants Excluded
  • 12. Subjects of the Study  Sampling Method Purposive sampling was used in order to discover, understand, and gain insight from the school districts and Hispanic teachers.
  • 13. Quantitative  Sixty-four high schools in Southeast Texas were used in the study. These districts were selected based on having met a criteria of employing at least 5% Hispanic teachers and serving at least 25% Hispanic students.  This data was retrieved from the TEA database.
  • 14. Qualitative  40 Hispanic teachers employed in Texas schools with a teacher population of at least 5% Hispanic teachers and at least 25% Hispanic students as reported by TEA will be surveyed.  Of these 40 teachers surveyed, 23 were interviewed.  14 School and District Administrators were asked open-ended questions and interviewed.
  • 15. Analysis of Data (Quantitative) Research Questions Question Addressed by Descriptive Statistics Analysis Method Is there a corresponding increase in the percent of Hispanic teachers with the increase of Hispanic Students in Texas from school years 2000 through 2007? What is the average increase and the average decrease of Hispanic Teachers and Hispanic Students? Description of average increases and decreases of Hispanic Teachers and Hispanic Students
  • 16. Major Findings: Quantitative Question 1  The average annual percentage for Hispanic teachers ranged from 6.5% in SY 2001 – 2002 to 8.2% in SY 2003 – 2004; the average annual increase over the years under study was 0.15 percentage points.  The average percentage for Hispanic students ranged from 27.8% in SY 2000 – 2001 to 35.2% in SY 2006 – 2007; the average annual increase over the same years during the study was 1.78 percentage points.
  • 17. Major Findings: Quantitative Question 1 Table 1 Average Percentages of Hispanic Teachers and Hispanic Students in Selected Schools in Texas School Year % Hispanic Inc/Dec % Hispanic Inc/Dec Teachers Students 2002-2001 6.67 _ 27.79 _ 2001-2002 6.46 -0.21 29.04 1.25 2002-2003 7.56 1.10 34.46 5.42 2003-2004 8.24 0.68 32.06 -2.40 2004-2005 8.57 0.33 32.22 0.16 2005-2006 8.99 0.42 33.81 1.59 2006-2007 9.54 0.55 35.16 1.35 Avg. Inc/Dec 0.48 1.23
  • 18. Analysis of Data (Quantitative) Research Questions Null Hypothesis Independent Variables Dependent Variables Statistics Is there a relationship between the percent of Hispanic teachers and the percent of Hispanic students passing the TAKS Exit level examination in the core area of Mathematics? There is no statistically significant correlation between the percent of Hispanic teachers in Texas high schools and the percent of Hispanic students passing the TAKS Exit Level Mathematics examination. Correlation using Pearson r Percentage of Hispanic Teachers in Texas Schools Achievement levels for Hispanic students taking the TAKS Exit level Mathematics examination
  • 19. Major Findings: Quantitative Question 2  All Pearson r values were negative; the results of r = – 0.372 for SY 2004 – 2005 and r = - 0.418 for SY 2005 – 2006 were significant. The null hypothesis was rejected for the results of these specific school years.
  • 20. Major Findings: Quantitative Question 2 Table 2 Relationship of the Percent Hispanic Teachers and Percent of Hispanic Students Passing the TAKS Mathematics Exit Level Examination in Sixty Four High Schools ______________________________________________________________ School Year % Hispanic % Hispanic Pearson r Teachers Students (N=64) Passing TAKS ______________________________________________________________ 2004-2005 7.02 79.81 - 0.372* 2005-2006 7.46 75.25 - 0.418 * 2006-2007 7.56 75.61 - 0.229** * Significant at 0.05 level, two-tailed **Not Significant ______________________________________________________________
  • 21. Analysis of Data (Quantitative) Research Questions Null Hypothesis Independent Variables Dependent Variables Statistics Is there a relationship between the percent of Hispanic teachers and the percent of Hispanic students passing the TAKS Exit level examination in the core area of English/ Language Arts? There is no statistically significant correlation between the percent of Hispanic teachers in Texas high schools and the percent of Hispanic students passing the TAKS Exit Level English/ Language Arts examination. Correlation using Pearson r Percentage of Hispanic Teachers in Texas Schools Achievement levels for Hispanic students taking the TAKS Exit level English/ Language Arts examination
  • 22. Major Findings: Quantitative Question 3  For SY 2004 – 2005, the relationship of r = - 0.328, between the 7.02% average Hispanic teachers and the 84.56% average Hispanic students who passed the Exit Level examination in ELA was significant. Similarly, the result of SY 2005 – 2006, where obtained r = - 0.520, was also significant. The increase in the percentages of Hispanic teachers did not significantly affect the percentages of Hispanic students who passed the ELA Exit Level TAKS examinations in SY 2004 2005 and SY 2006 – 2007. For the results of SY’s 2004 – 2006, the null hypothesis was rejected.
  • 23. Major Findings: Quantitative Question 3 Table 4 Relationship of the Average Percent of Hispanic Teachers and Percent of Hispanic Students Passing the TAKS ELA Exit Level Examination ______________________________________________________________ School Year % Hispanic % Hispanic Pearson r Teachers Students (N=64) Passing TAKS ______________________________________________________________ 2004-2005 7.02 84.56 - 0.328* 2005-2006 7.46 85.19 - 0.520* 2006-2007 7.56 86.50 - 0.098 ** * Significant at 0.05 level, two-tailed **Not Significant ______________________________________________________________
  • 24. Analysis of Data (Qualitative) Surveys/Questionnaire & Interviews Data was presented in tabular to show categories & frequencies. The weighed mean was computed for recruitment & retention factors. Responses for questions were categorized into emergent themes. These were presented in tabular form showing the categories with corresponding frequencies and percentages. Inputs from the administrators were identified, summarized and explained.
  • 25. Major Findings: Qualitative Question 1  What factors influenced Hispanic teachers to go into and remain in the teaching profession in the state of Texas?
  • 26. Major Findings: Qualitative Question 1  Primary reasons given were: enjoyment in being a teacher and fulfilling (both 17.4%); influenced by professor, enhance lives of young people, follow footsteps of a loved one, opportunity to help others and make a difference – all mentioned by 13% of the respondents. Other reasons include: same schedule as children, an option after being laid off from another job, job location and security and able to coach, the love of his life.
  • 27. Major Findings: Qualitative Question 2  What is the value of increasing the number of Hispanic teachers in Texas school districts?
  • 28. Major Findings: Qualitative Question 2  Of the fourteen respondents, 57% considered the Hispanic teachers as role models whom the Hispanic students can emulate and 36% expect to have strong alignment between the Hispanic teachers and Hispanic students. These administrators also envision a campus where there is better relationship between students and teachers; also, teachers are able to relate realities in life to what they teach in and out of the classroom.
  • 29. Major Findings: Qualitative Question 3  What are the approaches used by the school districts to recruit and retain Hispanic teachers?
  • 30. Major Findings: Qualitative Question 3  School administrators assigned mentors to new Hispanic teachers to guide them and monitor their performance. Advice from mentors is offered to mentees especially when difficulties arise. Fifty-seven percent (57%) or eight administrators utilized this strategy to retain new Hispanic teachers. Other strategies advocated by 64% of the respondents include financial considerations like competitive salary/benefits and stipends or incentive programs. Support systems and dialog may also help Hispanic teachers to remain in the campuses where they are currently employed.
  • 31. Major Findings: Qualitative Question 4  Which of these approaches appear to be successful in recruiting and retaining Hispanic teachers?
  • 32. Major Findings: Qualitative Question 4  Forty-three percent or six of the fourteen administrators considered monetary incentives and benefits as successful factors to entice and retain Hispanic teachers in the teaching profession. Taking care of them through the mentoring program and making them feel important and of value are also considered as effective strategies to invite and keep Hispanic teachers in the campuses. Administrators provide the fitting environment to help assure the continued presence of Hispanic teachers especially in schools surrounded by high number of Hispanic families.
  • 33. Major Findings: Literature Review  Much of the available research showed that Hispanic students had decided to enter the teaching profession for primarily altruistic reasons. Cabello, Eckimer, and Baghieri (1995) interviewed teacher candidates during their first years in teacher education programs. The majority of the candidates remembered negative experiences while in school and reflected on the need for more teachers who genuinely cared and were willing to listen to students.
  • 34. Major Findings: Literature Review  Diverse groups of students require attention from a diverse group of teachers who can have alignment and rapport with them, since they come from the same culture and speak the same language.  Howard (2003) suggests students will benefit from having well-trained teachers who come from similar racial/ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. These teachers can contribute to the students’ sense of belonging and academic achievement.
  • 35. Major Findings: Literature Review  The desire to be a role model was identified by Hispanic educators in a study done by Darder (1995). Hispanic teachers realize their significance in the lives of those they taught and that it was important to help minority students express themselves and to appreciate their cultural heritage  The interaction with minority teachers will result in an increased familiarity with other cultures. In a more globally-dependent world, students in classrooms need to learn about world diversity, which includes racial diversity (Wehrman, 2002).
  • 36. Recommendations  Create an interactive orientation program where new Hispanic teachers meet their veteran counterparts for a meaningful exchange of questions and answers about the challenges of teaching. The first year can be fighting for survival, but the years after can be filled with joy and hope.
  • 37. Recommendations  Support the new Hispanic teachers with a mentoring program where the mentor and mentee often meet to discuss problems and opportunities, so that the teacher finds his or her way through the maze of the teaching world and become a change agent for the benefit of students under his or her care.
  • 38. Recommendations  New Hispanic teachers will not only need the support and guidance of their mentors. School administrators should also give them support and understanding so that these neophytes will feel they belong in a school culture that allows growth and advancement.
  • 39. Recommendations  The path to teaching is not all rosy; new Hispanic teachers may face certain realities or difficulties that they could not handle. They need the support of administrators and people at home. Families have influenced somebody in the family to go into teaching; now is the time for them to show support.
  • 40. Recommendations for Further Study  A study could be conducted regarding other minority teachers (African Americans, Asians, and others) regarding factors on how they were recruited and retained in school districts.  A study could be conducted by increasing the number of samples to include even more districts in various parts of Texas.
  • 41. Recommendations for Further Study  A study could be conducted by increasing the number of core areas in TAKS Exit Level Examinations which Hispanic students have to pass: Science, Mathematics, English/Language Arts, and Social Studies. Also increase the number of years as scope of the study.  A study could be conducted with Hispanic teachers who teach Math/ELA and drawing a comparison regarding the achievement of Hispanic students who are taking those subjects being taught directly by Hispanic teachers.
  • 42. Hispanic Teacher Recruitment and Retention Initiatives in Texas Schools A Dissertation Defense By Robert M. Branch

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