Historical Foundations Historical Foundations of Education William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Questions1. Identify a value issue or conflict in contemporary education and examine it from a [selected] philosophical perspective.2. Examine the concept of change from a [selected] perspective. What are the educational implications of such a view of change?3. Examine the impact of [selected] philosophy on education as we know it today.4. What impact, if any, has the role of religion in education during the colonial period through the Civil War had on the role of religion in schools today?5. What are some significant changes in curriculum, instruction, and assessment within the last century?6. How does the criteria for school success used during colonial times differ from the criteria used today?7. Describe the historical, cultural, and philosophical events that influenced public education in Texas.8. Analyze the reasons for changes in school organization, programs, and opportunities in the modern era in relation to historical, political and sociological events.9. Describe ways in which the curriculum became more standardized and more diversified.10.Identify issues related to educational evaluation in the modern era and describe the arguments related to those issues.11.Describe how each of [selected] modern philosophies influences Western education.12.Interpret how each of those philosophies might relate to ones own developing educational philosophy.
Historical Foundations13.Explain the history, evolution, and current status of three organizational structures of schooling in the United States. Key Terms1. Socrates 16. Francis Bacon2. Plato 17. John Calvin3. Idealism 18. Old Deluder Satan Law4. Realism 19. Dame Schools5. Thomas Aquinas 20. Town Schools6. Theistic Realism 21. Latin Grammar Schools7. Francis Petrach 22. Colonial Colleges8. Desiderius Erasmus 23. New England Primer9. Juan Luis Vives 24. Rene Descartes10.Sir Thomas More 25. John Amos Comenius11.Edmund Coote 26. Republicanism12. Northwest Ordinance of 1785 27. Friedrich Froebel13. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 28. Morrill Act of 186214. Nationalism 29. Morrill Act of 189015. John Locke 30. John Dewey31. Benjamin Franklin 45. Pragmatism32. Thomas Jefferson 46. Maria Montessori33. Noah Webster 47. Pestalozzi34. Jean Jacques Rousseau 48. Brown v. Topeka35. Naturalism 49. Civil Rights Act-196436. William McClure 50. Anna Freud37. Industrial Schools 51. Jean Piaget38. Monitorial Schools 52. Alfred Adler39. Robert Owen 53. Erik Erickson40. The Common School 54. Butler Statute41. Henry Barnard 55. Engel v. Vitale42. Horace Mann 56. U.S. National43. William Torrey Harris Education Goals-198944. Kalamazoo Case of 1874 57. Goals 2000
Historical Foundations Discussion In order to fully understand our educational systems, we should beaware of their evolutionary developments. An historical overview ofeducation, beginning with early philosphers and moving through theunfolding of events in America, is provided as a comprehensive review ofHistorical Foundations of Education. B.C. In ancient Athens, the social critic Socrates had attracted a circle ofstudents, one of whom was Plato. Socrates philosophy embraced an ethicthat asserted that human beings should seek to live lives that were morallyexcellent. Like Socrates, Plato rejected claims that ethical behavior wassituationally determined and that education could be reduced to specializedvocational or professional training. He asserted that human beings weregood and honorable when their conduct conformed to the ideal and universalconcepts of truth, goodness, and beauty. In his famous “Allegory of theCave’, Plato asserted that the information that comes to us through oursenses was not reality but merely a shadow or an imperfect copy of it. Senseimpressions gave us a reflected, but distorted, view of reality. Thisphilosophy of Idealism proclaimed the spiritual nature of the human beingand the universe and asserted that the good, true, and beautiful are
Historical Foundationspermanently part of the structure of a related, coherent, orderly, andunchanging universe. Unlike Idealists, Realists assert that objects exist regardless of ourperception of them. Realism can be defined as a philosophical position thatasserts the existence of an objective order of reality and the possibility ofhuman beings gaining knowledge about that reality. It further prescribesthat we should order our behavior in conformity with this knowledge.Drawing from its Aristotelian origins, it argues that the primary goal ofeducation is to contribute to the discovery, transmission, and use ofknowledge. Aristotle, a student of Plato, is known as the founder ofRealism. 1000-1099 The 11th century was a dark era for education. Few people in WesternEurope were receiving any kind of schooling. The knowledge of the ancientRomans was preserved in cathedrals and monasteries. Culture, which wascentered around the church, began to flourish again as the 1100’sapproached. Across the globe, contributions were being made to the future ofeducation. In China, printing by movable type was invented in 1045, andproved to be one of the most powerful inventions of this era. With future
Historical Foundationseducational systems focusing on the written word, the invention of typeprinting set the path for future publications. In Salerno Italy, the earliestItalian medical school opened in 1050. 1100-1199 An enlightened educational policy allows serfs to receive vocationaltraining. They also receive religious instruction so they can participate inthe church. Several universities were founded across Europe in the 12th Century. In1108, Bologna University was founded in Italy. It is known to be the mostancient in the world. The university was established mainly for the study ofRoman law. In 1150, Paris University was founded in France, and said to bethe greatest university in the Middle Ages. Undergraduate study followed,but had no prescribed hours or credit units. In 1167, Oxford University inEngland was founded. 1200-1299 In the 13th century, Latin was phased out as the language of theuniversity. For the first time, students were taught in their commonlanguage. Thomas Aquinas was born in 1225, and is known as a founder ofTheistic Realism. Thomas Aquinas came up with a "triangle of education."
Historical FoundationsThe base of the triangle consists of the seven liberal arts; the middle sectionis "dialectic" (Platos style of debate by question and answer, and Aristotlesreasoning with syllogisms). The top of the triangle is divided into the studyof law and philosophy. Thomistic education rests upon premises that arefound in Artistotelian philosophy and Christian Scriptures. It asserts thateducation should aid human beings to merit supernatural life, and that itshould also facilitate every person’s active participation in his or her ownculture and history. Theistic Realism has sought to reconcile faith andreason, or religion and science, in a comprehensive synthesis. 1300-1399 The Renaissance introduced new ideas and leaders that influencededucation. Francis Petrach was born in 1304. He is known as the firstmodern scholar because he focused on classical Greek literature instead ofmedieval literature in his search for examples of human perfection. Thisinterest in classical antiquity is the defining feature of Renaissance artistsand thinkers. The first paper mill was built in France in 1338. Paper was a Chineseinvention (c. 600 AD), brought to Europe by the Arabs in the 11th century.There was a gradual shift from use of papyrus to paper, beginning in Spain,then Italy, then France. The Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry (1370),
Historical Foundationswas written for the instruction of the noblemans daughters. Education forwomen was otherwise limited to those in religious orders. 1400-1499 Education in the Renaissance was a very selective affair. Women andthe lower classes were still being excluded from education. At the sametime, the first secondary schools appeared in Italy. Desiderius Erasmus, in 1450, wrote about the need for play and gamesin childrens schoolwork. He believed it was a teachers role to encouragechildren to think, instead of to display his own learning and have the childlearn it verbatim. In 1456, the Gutenberg bible was printed. Approximately 40,000copies were printed between 1450 and 1500. In 1492, the profession ofbook publisher emerged. 1500-1599 During the 16th century, women started focusing less on needlepoint,and more on liberal arts education. In 1529, Juan Luis Vives published hisInstruction for a Christian Woman. Erasmus, and Sir Thomas More played akey role in introducing the new humanist learning into the great households.Some of the women of royal and noble families benefited from the humanistview that girls should receive an education in the liberal arts, as well as in
Historical Foundationsthe more usual fields of manners, housekeeping and basic religiousknowledge. Other pieces of literature published during this time period influencedschools of thought and general instructional philosophies. The firstcomplete edition of Aristotles works published by Erasmus in 1531.The English Schoole-Maister was published in 1596. This book, by EdmundCoote, was one of the first about teaching the English language.In 1597, Francis Bacon published his Essays of Counsels, Civil and Moral.Topics included parenting, marriage and single life, friendship, and the roleof custom in education. 1600-1699 Europeans settled in various regions, and influenced the creation andlack of educational systems. French settled from Canada down theMississippi River Valley to Louisiana. The Jesuit priests journeyed with thesettlers and educated the Indians and children of the settlers. The defeat ofthe French by the British in 1763 brought an end to French dreams of anempire and their educational efforts also diminished. The Spanish influencewas heaviest in California where a number of missions were established andthe Franciscan priests taught the Indians. The Dutch were influential in NewAmsterdam, which became New York when the British took over. It was
Historical Foundationsthe English, however, who had the greatest influence on Americaneducation. Colonists came to America and set up schools exactly like the onesthey knew in Europe. They were run and supported by the church. Thecurriculum was centered on the learning of letters, numbers, and prayers.The strict learning environment did not allow for crafts nor recess breaks,and only one out of ten children attended school. There were commoncharacteristics shared by the 13 colonies: 1) Education was religious; itsmajor aim was personal salvation; 2) Education was centered on socialclass: dual system, 2-tract, or class system. The children of workers shouldhave minimal primary education in vernacular schools where they learnedthe 4 Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion); 3) The well-educatedperson would know the classical languages--Latin and Greek; 4) With theexception of Dame Schools (Kindergarten), education was only for boys;and 5) Most children in colonial times received their education throughinformal means such as the family, the farm, and the shop (where many boyswere apprenticed). The family was the most important social and economicunit, and frequently the most important source of education as well. The New England Colonies (Massachusetts, Connecticut, RhodeIsland, Vermont, and New Hampshire) were settled by the intensely-
Historical Foundationsreligious Puritans who followed the theology of John Calvin. They believedthat the righteous would be saved and sinners would be damned. Puritanswere supposed to be especially favored by God because they werehardworking, frugal, law-abiding, obedient to religious and civil authority,and literate (referred to as the Puritan or Protestant ethic). There was noseparation between Church and State. In fact, church, state, and schoolswere closely related and were frequently governed by the same men.Children were born in sin, and were seen as little savages that needed strongmeasures to keep them in line. They were expected to act like adults, andcorporal punishment was frequently used both at home and at school tocontrol childrens behavior. Schooling was very important as a means of educating children inreligion and obedience to the laws of the colony. As early as 1642, theMassachusetts General Court required parents and masters of apprentices tosee that their children could read and understand religious principles andlaws of the colony. In 1647, the General Court enacted the Old DeluderSatan Law which required every township of 50 households to appoint andpay for an elementary teacher, and every township of 100 households to hirea Latin (secondary) teacher. These laws of 1642 and 1647 were significantin that they demonstrated that the colonial government was concerned about
Historical Foundationsthe education of its citizens, gave civil authorities some control of theschools, and indicated that taxation was to be used to support the schools. There were four types of colonial schools in New England: 1) DameSchools were the equivalent of kindergarten. Classes were taught in a ladyskitchen while she did the chores. Both boys and girls learned the alphabetand numbers. Girls also learned cooking and sewing and householddomestic duties; 2) Town Schools were the equivalent of elementary school.They were taught in the vernacular (mother tongue) and offered a basiccurriculum of the 4 Rs. Memorization and recitation were commonteaching strategies found in town schools. Materials most commonly usedwere the Hornbook and the New England Primer. The teachers were all menand the students were all boys; 3) Latin grammar schools were secondaryschools whose curriculum was mainly Latin and Greek grammar. A fewboys who would go to Harvard attended them. The first Latin grammarschool was established in Boston in 1635. Boston helped support the schoolwith the income from a land sale, marking the beginning of public educationin America; and 4) Colonial colleges prepared young men for the ministryand government service. In 1636, Massachusetts founded Harvard College,the first institution of higher learning in the colonies. The college had anaverage enrollment of about 20 male students.
Historical Foundations The Southern Colonies (Maryland, Virginia, Georgia and theCarolinas) were made up of settlers who considered themselves descendantsof the Cavaliers, the English aristocrats who had supported the Stuart Kingsagainst Cromwell. These landed gentry, unlike the Puritans, did not come tothe colonies because they were persecuted. They came for economicreasons--to improve their family fortunes. Southern Colonists established the plantation system and ahierarchical social system. Plantation owners hired tutors to teach their sonsand daughters. However, the children of poor rarely had any opportunity forformal education. Some were able to attend schools run by the SPG(Society for the Propagation of the Gospel) for paupers. Many wereapprenticed. Generally, however, Southern colonies left the responsibility ofeducation to parents and churches. The Middle Atlantic Colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,and Delaware) had a great diversity of settlers with no common language,religion, or cultural heritage. Many parochial (denominational) schools wereestablished, while private venture schools prepared students for commercialtrades. In 1637, French philosopher René Descartes proposed mathematics asthe perfect model for reasoning and invented analytic geometry. In 1658,
Historical FoundationsJohn Amos Comenius published the first-ever childrens picture book, OrbisPictus (The World Illustrated). The book became a best seller in every majorEuropean language. Comenius was a kind teacher, who thought that childrenwere born with a natural goodness and craving for knowledge. He is nowknown by many as the father of modern education. 1700-1799 Schools in the colonies began to teach more practical subjects, likebookkeeping, navigation, and algebra. After the Revolutionary war andtoward the end of the century, church control over schools declined in theU.S. and in most other western countries. Between 1776 and 1830, a number of new trends and patternsemerged in American education. Education became a state responsibility:the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1788, did not mention education;consequently, the states became responsible. However, the federalgovernment showed an interest in the development of state educationalsystems by passing the Northwest Ordinances of 1785 and 1787. TheOrdinance of 1785 required each territory to set aside the income from the16th section of each township for the support of education (a township was 6square miles, subdivided into 36 sections). The Ordinance of 1787 includeda statement of the federal governments philosophy of education, saying that
Historical Foundationsit was "necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind." Education for citizenship became more important than education forpersonal salvation. Men like Franklin, Webster, and Jefferson, realized thatfor the new Republic to survive, the citizens had to have an education inorder to become intelligent voters. The concepts of republicanism, science,and nationalism became key elements in American education:1) Republicanism: John Locke’s assertion that government arises from theconsent of the governed. Education for republican citizenship impliedimparting those skill, knowledge, and attitudes that would help the newrepublic endure and flourish.2) Science: An Enlightenment concept based on the belief that individualscould discover the laws of the universe. The scientific outlook called forexperimentation and reexamination of accepted beliefs.3) Nationalism: This concept stressed a sense of American identity andloyalty. There were many important contributors to educational thought duringthe 18th century. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), was the founder of theAmerican Philosophical Society. His Poor Richards Almanac emphasizedvalues such as frugality, hard work, and inventiveness. In 1731, he foundedthe first public library in America, and chartered it as the Philadelphia
Historical FoundationsLibrary in 1742. Franklin advocated a utilitarian and scientific education,and founded the Philadelphia Academy in 1749. This was significantbecause it presented an alternative to the Latin Grammar School andanticipated the rise of academies and high schools. The school offered areligion-based curriculum, like its Latin School counterpart, but it alsotaught courses that applied to everyday life, such as history, merchantaccounts, algebra, surveying, modern languages, and navigation. In 1779,the academy became the University of Pennsylvania. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), was president of the AmericanPhilosophical Association. He was also author of the "Bill for the MoreGeneral Diffusion of Knowledge," 1779 which was based on the followingassumptions: a) Schools should produce a literate citizenry; b) State wasresponsible for providing schools; c) Schools should be secular rather thanreligious; and d) Schools should identify the academically talented Noah Webster (1758-1843) was an important influence on thedevelopment of American English and American culture. He wrote theAmerican Spelling Book, also known as the blue-back speller, whichsimplified and standardized the language, and imparted "American" values.He also wrote the American Dictionary, which we know as Websters. Interest in state control of education was on the rise. An ordinance
Historical Foundationspassed in 1785, declaring that the income gained from the sale of the land atthe center of each township was to be used for public elementary schools.In 1787, another ordinance confirmed this land policy, insuring theestablishment of elementary schools in the Northwest Territory. It set a newstandard of federal aid to education. In France, Jean Jacques Rousseau was publishing literary worksreflecting his school of thought, Naturalism. Central to his political andeducational philosophy was his belief that human character should beformed according to nature. In Emile, Rousseau’s didactic novel, a boy, inexperiencing a natural education, has his character develop naturally, in acountry estate, away from corrupting social institutions and conventions. Inthe novel, he identified stages of human growth and development, andorganized education according to Emile’s stages of development. Accordingto Rousseau, the child is a noble savage, a primitive unspoiled by the nicesof a corrupting society. The child’s needs, instincts and impulses are to betrusted and relied upon as the raw ingredients of further education. Whenthese impulses are acted upon, they lead to sensory experience that provide adirect relationship with the environment—thus, leading to clear ideas andreflection.
Historical Foundations 1800-1899 The industrial revolution took hold, changing both the U.S. economyand its educational system. Public schools, kindergarten, and teacher trainingwere all introduced in this century. American society changed from a rural-agricultural society to anurban-industrial society, which required workers with at least basic literacyskills. Educational responses to this need included: 1) Industrial schoolsbased on the ideas of William Maclure (1763-1840) which taught basicscience and its industrial and agricultural applications. He supportedPestalozzian methods, and believed that schools should be used to bringabout social change (philosophy of Social Reconstructionism);2) Monitorial schools based on the ideas of Joseph Lancaster (LancasterianSchools) who claimed it was possible to educate large numbers of childreneffectively and cheaply. Essentially, a master teacher would train aids ormonitors who, in turn, would teach the other students; 3) Sunday schools:Children who worked 6-day weeks in the factories were taught the basics ofreading, writing, and religion on Sundays; 4) Infant schools were a prototypeof the modern day-care center, devised by Scottish industrialist, RobertOwen, for the young mothers who worked in his factories.
Historical Foundations These efforts were not sufficient to meet the needs of Americansociety. Consequently, the Common School, the forerunner of the Americanpublic school came into existence between 1830 and 1850. The CommonSchool idea grew out of New Englands locally controlled schools.Supporters of the common school included political and educationalreformers like Horace Mann, James Carter, Thaddeus Stevens, HenryBarnard, and Wm. T. Harris. These men were believers in the Jeffersonianideal in education (the concept that the republic could not survive and thrivewithout an educated citizenry); advocates of public education as a means ofsocial and economic advancement for their children; and nationalists whowanted the schools to cultivate common values, loyalties, and a sense ofAmericanness in children from different ethnic backgrounds. Opponents of the common school included owners of factories, mines,and plantations who did not want to lose cheap child labor; pluralistic groupswho wanted their children taught in their own language, religion, andtraditions; and those who did not want to raise taxes (legislators), as well asthose who did not want to pay taxes for the support of education. The common school included grades 1-8, eventually each in its ownclassroom with its own teacher. It was free, because it was supported bytaxes. Eventually, the common school was compulsory, universal, non-
Historical Foundationssectarian, and staffed by trained teachers. The movement was firstsuccessful in the New England states, with Massachusetts leading the way.The Middle Atlantic states were slower, with Lancasterianism holding on.The Southern states did not have public school systems until after the CivilWar. After 1850, the common school was found in 2 major versions: theurban public school found in large cities like Boston and New York, and thecountry school, commonly referred to as the "one-room school house." Thelocally-elected school boards established and ran virtually every aspect ofthe school. One simply-furnished room held all the children in the schooldistrict, each working at his or her own level (ungraded) with one teacher incharge. Both males and females, with varying degrees of professionaleducation were teachers. The standard curriculum included the 3 Rs,Spelling and perhaps history, geography, or elocution (public speaking). Thestandard methods were memorization and recitation. Henry Barnard (1811-1900) was one of the founders of the commonschool movement, along with Horace Mann. He worked both in Connecticutand Rhode Island to establish a public school system, and then went on tohead the University of Wisconsin and to serve as the first U.S.Commissioner of Education (1867-1870). He edited 2 of the first journals
Historical Foundationsrelated to education-The Connecticut Common School Journal and theAmerican Journal of Education. He proposed that the common school teachthe basic skill, civic values, the principles of health and diet, and carefulobservation and reflection (thinking skills). He supported the establishmentof normal schools for teacher education and higher pay for teachers. William Torrey Harris (1835-1909) was a major educational leaderafter the Civil War as superintendent of schools in St. Louis, and then asU.S. Commissioner of Education (1889-1906). He advocated that schoolstransmit the cultural heritage to the young through a carefully designedcurriculum, stressing such values as self-discipline, obedience, respect forproperty, and good citizenship. Under Harris, St. Louis established the firstsuccessful public kindergarten program in 1873. In the early 19th century, the colonial Latin grammar school declinedand was largely replaced by the academy, a private secondary institution thattaught more varied and practical courses. After the Kalamazoo case of 1874,in which the Supreme Court of Michigan ruled that school districts couldsupport high schools with taxes, high schools became more and morepopular (because they were free and because they trained students for jobs inan increasingly industrial society). High schools evolved from one-trackacademic institutions to comprehensive schools in the early 20th century.
Historical Foundations In 1821, Boston opens the nations first public high school, and in1827, Massachusetts passes a law that requires towns of 500 families ormore to establish high schools. Other states soon followed. By mid-century,public high schools absorbed their Latin grammar school predecessors.Towns begin to establish separate secondary schools for girls. The first state board of education is established in Massachusetts in1837, and Horace Mann is its first secretary. In 1839, Horace Mann beginsthe nations first teacher-training school in Massachusetts. FriedrichFroebel founds the first kindergarten in Blakenburg, Germany. It usesstories, play, crafts, and songs to stimulate childrens imaginations and helpdevelop motor skills (Our nations first public kindergarten opens in St.Louis later in 1873). By 1850, the Industrial Revolution is in full swing. One-room schoolsin urban areas are on the decline as new schools begin to follow theassembly-line model, where students move from class to class, teacher toteacher. Massachusetts passes the first compulsory school-attendance law inthe U.S. in 1852. By 1918, every state has a similar law. In 1862, Congresspasses the Morrill Act, or "Land Grant" Act, which gives vast areas offederal land to states. It requires them to sell the land and use the money to
Historical Foundationsestablish agricultural and technical colleges. In 1874, A Michigan SupremeCourt decision rules that local governments can use tax money to supportelementary and secondary schools. Congress passes the second Morrill Actin 1890, which withholds grants from states that deny admission to landgrant schools based on race. A state can still receive money if it establishes aseparate school for blacks, as many Southern states do. 1900-1999 The civil rights movement and technology change the face of the 20thcentury classroom. In the 1950s, the U.S. Supreme Court bans segregation inpublic schools. In the 1990s, schools "log on" and computers invade theclassroom. Changes in educational philosophy and curriculum came about in thisera as well. In 1901, John Dewey wrote The Child and the Curriculum, andlater Democracy and Education, in which he shows concern for therelationship between society and education. Dewey was a philosopher,psychologist, and educator. His philosophy of education focused on learningby doing rather than rote memorization. He criticized education thatemphasizes amusing and keeping students busy. From Dewey’s educationalphilosophy came the emphasis on experience, activity, and problem-solvingthat helped to reshape our thinking about education and schooling.
Historical FoundationsProgressive education, which was part of a larger Progressive Movement inU.S. history from about 1900-1920, was an antidote to traditional,conservative education. It was based on John Dewey’s philosophy ofpragmatism and his work at the Laboratory School at the University ofChicago. (Earlier progressive educators include Europeans such asRousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Montessori). Rather than stressing theold strategies of memorization and recitation, progressive educatorsadvocated: problem-solving skills, learning through sense perception(learning by doing or hands-on learning), using a childs interests as the basisfor developing a curriculum, self-discipline, and flexible methods (smallgroup learning, independent research, field trips, etc.). Racial integration and school desegregation was another major eventin American education in the 20th century. It all began with Brown v. Boardof Education of Topeka in 1954 in which the Supreme Court unanimouslystruck down the "separate but equal" doctrine in American education. Thiswas followed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which protected voting rights,and guaranteed civil rights in employment and education. In education, thelaw empowered the federal government to file desegregation suits and towithhold federal funds from districts that practiced discrimination in federalprograms.
Historical Foundations Maria Montessori opened her first school in 1907. Maria Montessoriwas credited with developing a classroom without walls, manipulativelearning materials, teaching toys, and programmed instruction. Manyconsidered her to be the 20th centurys leading advocate for early childhoodeducation. Anna Freud, Jean Piaget, Alfred Adler, and Erik Erikson studiedunder Montessori and made their own contributions to education and childpsychology. Educational policies and mandates make their presence in publicschools. School attendance becomes compulsory in every U.S. state in1918, and in 1921, foreign language becomes part of the U.S. curriculum."Superior" children in Clevelands elementary schools study French.The debate between evolution and creation peaks with the Scopes MonkeyTrial in 1925. John Scopes, a high-school science teacher in Dayton,Tennessee, is tried for teaching the theory of evolution. This is illegal underthe Butler Statute, which states that any theory that denies creationism cantbe taught in publicly funded schools. Scopes is convicted and fined $100.His conviction is later overturned on a technicality. The Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the worlds first artificial satellitein 1957. Fearing that the Soviets will surpass the U.S. in science and
Historical Foundationstechnology, many schools adopt a more rigorous curriculum-basededucation. In court rulings of Engel v. Vitale in 1962, the U.S. Supreme Courtfinds that the state does not have the right to enforce prayer in publicschools. Proposition 13 is passed in California (Proposition 2-1/2 inMassachusetts) in the 1970’s. This freezes property taxes, a major source offunding for public schools. California drops from first in the nation in per-student spending in 1978 to number 43 in 1998. In 1989, U.S. governors create the National Education Goals, whichfocus on increased standards, teaching salaries, graduation requirements, andstate assessment. The Clinton administration later recasts these as Goals2000, calling for a restructuring to focus on results over process andregulation. Proposition 187 passes in California in 1994, making it illegalfor the children of undocumented immigrants to attend public school.Federal courts later hold Proposition 187 to be unconstitutional. In 1996, thesame state, California, passes Proposition 209, outlawing affirmative actionin public education. In 1998, bilingual education is outlawed in California. By the end of the millennium, nearly eight of every ten public schoolsin the nation have access to the Internet, more than double the proportion in1994. There is debate on best-suited software, and hardware organization in
Historical Foundationseducational settings. However, state and federal funds are allocated for thesupport and integration of technology into the curriculum. WebsitesHistory of Public Education in Texas http://www.tea.state.tx.us/tea/history.htmlHistory of Education Timeline http://fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/~daniel_schugurensky/assignment1/index.h tmlColonial Web http://www.msu.edu/user/patter90/colonial.htmLinks to the World of John Dewey http://www.cisnet.com/teacher-ed/dewey.htmlCenter for Dewey Studies http://www.siu.edu/~deweyctr/John Dewey http://www.epistemelinks.com/Main/MainPers.aspMaria Montessori http://webdev.loyola.edu/dmarco/education/Montessori/maria.htmlPhilosophers and Education http://www.ais.msstate.edu/AEE/8593/phil_ed/outline.htmlEssentialism http://www.soe.purdue.edu/fac/georgeoff/400/ESSENTIALISM.htmlTest your knowledge with online practice quizzes: Foundations of Education, Chapters 2-5 http://cwabacon.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/mcnergney_ab/ch apter2/deluxe.html
Historical Foundations Bibliography Gutek, Gerald. (1988). Philosphical and Ideological Perspectives inEducation. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Gutek, Gerald. (1992). Education and schooling in America (3rd ed.).Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. McNergney, Robert F. and Herbert, Joanne M. (2001). Foundationsof Education: The Challenge of Professional Practice (3rd ed.). Boston:Allyn & Bacon.