Clarence Johnson, Dissertation PPT, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Clarence Johnson, Dissertation PPT, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System

on

  • 1,713 views

Clarence Johnson, Dissertation PPT, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System

Clarence Johnson, Dissertation PPT, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,713
Views on SlideShare
1,713
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Clarence Johnson, Dissertation PPT, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System Clarence Johnson, Dissertation PPT, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System Presentation Transcript

  • IMPACT OF HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS CURRICULA ON THE MATHEMATICS TAKS EXIT-LEVEL PERFORMANCE OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS A Dissertation Defense by Clarence Johnson September 17, 2008 Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.
  • Committee Members
    • William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D .
    • ( Dissertation Chair)
    • Pamela Barber-Freeman, Ph.D. Camille Gibson, Ph.D.
    • (Member) (Member)
    • Douglas Hermond, Ph.D. David Herrington, Ph.D.
    • (Member) (Member)
  • Dissertation Defense Format
    • I. Purpose of the Study
    • II. Theoretical Framework
    • III. Research Questions
    • IV. Null Hypotheses
    • V. Pilot Study
    • VI. Subjects of the Study
    • VII. Instrumentation
    • VIII. On-Line Survey Questions
    • IX. Data Analysis
    • X. Independent/Dependent Variables
    • XI. Major Findings -Quantitative
    • XII. Major Findings- Qualitative/Interview and Related Literature Support
    • XIII. Implications
    • XIV. Recommendations for Further Study
    • XV. Challenges & Opportunities
  • Purpose of the Study
    • The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that high school mathematics scores and courses had on the Mathematics TAKS Exit-Level performance of African American students. Some middle school counselors were surveyed to investigate factors that contributed to African American students’ passing the Mathematics TAKS Exit-Level Test.
  • Note
    • The results of this study may be helpful to
    • school administrators, teachers, and
    • parents. The results will help to give
    • needed attention to students in terms of
    • proper placement in mathematics courses
    • along with support in the learning process.
  • Theoretical Framework Explanatory Mixed Methods Design Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Track 1 Scores: Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II Track 2 Scores: Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II Eleventh Grade: Mathematics TAKS Exit-Level Scores Survey of Middle School Counselors Factors that Impact Students’ Placement in Track 1 or Track 2 Mathematics African American Students’ Performance
  • Research Questions Quantitative
    • 1. Is there a difference between African American students enrolled in track one or track two eighth grade mathematics in their performance on the eleventh grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level Mathematics Test scores?
  • Research Questions Quantitative
    • 2. Is there a relationship between
    • mathematics scores in Algebra I,
    • geometry, and/or Algebra II of African
    • American students enrolled in track one
    • or track two in eighth and ninth grades and their eleventh grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level Mathematics Test scores?
  • Research Questions Qualitative
    • 3. What factors do counselors identify as
    • influential in African American students’
    • placement in track one or track two
    • mathematics?
  • Null Hypotheses
    • H 01: There is no statistically significant difference between African American students enrolled in track one and those in track two eighth grade mathematics in their performance on the eleventh grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level Mathematics Test scores.
  • Null Hypotheses
    • H 02: There is no statistically significant relationship between mathematics scores in Algebra I, geometry, and/or Algebra II of African American students enrolled in track one or track two in eighth and ninth grades and their eleventh grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level Mathematics Test scores.
  • Methods Pilot Study
    • Pilot Study – Initial Survey with 15 Questions
    • Reduced to Nine (9)
    • A panel of experts reviewed the survey:
    • An executive director of guidance and
    • counseling
    • Two university professors
    • Three middle school counselors
    • Two high school mathematics teachers
  • Methods Subjects of the Study
    • Quantitative – 262 African American Students from 6 Urban High
    • Schools in Texas
    • Qualitative – 16 Counselors from Nine
    • (9) Middle Schools in Texas
  • Methods Instrumentation
    • Quantitative – Data Banks of TEA and School District – SASIxp
    • Qualitative – On-line Survey
  • Methods On-Line Survey Questions
    • 3a. What factors do you consider when placing students in eighth grade mathematics?
    • 3b. When advising African American students for mathematics placement, what is the most important factor?
    • 3c. In your opinion, what could the school do that would reduce the failure rates of African American students in eighth grade mathematics?
    • 3d. How often do you meet with students to discuss mathematics grade placement?
    • 3e. Which factor has the greatest influence on eighth grade mathematics students’ passing rate in mathematics?
  • Methods On-Line Survey Questions
    • 3f. What is the most important factor that contributes to the recommendation of African American males to eighth grade advanced mathematics?
    • 3g. In your opinion, do teachers at this school frequently meet with African American students about how they can succeed in mathematics courses?
    • 3h. What is your opinion of the number of eighth grade African American students enrolled in advanced mathematics classes?
    • 3i. How do you rate the counseling department in dealing with African American eighth grade students in mathematics?
  • Methods Data Analysis
    • Descriptive Statistics
    • Correlation Statistics – Pearson r, Multiple Correlation (R)
    • t - test for 2 Independent Samples
    • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
  • Methods Variables-Independent/Dependent
    • Independent Variables – African American Students’ Scores in Algebra I, geometry and Algebra II
    • Track 1
    • Track 2
    • Dependent Variable –TAKS Exit-Level Mathematics Scores
  • Major Findings Research Question 1
    • Comparison of Performance in the Mathematics TAKS
    • Exit-Level Test of African American Students Enrolled in
    • Track 1 vs. Track 2
    • Mean % Passed TAKS t Sig.
    • Track 1 2168.34 76.5 6.857* 0.000
    • Track 2 2321.69 100.0
    • * Significant at p ≤ 0.05
    • Null hypothesis was rejected. (Students in Track 2 scored
    • significantly higher on the TAKS test compared to students
    • in Track 1).
  • Major Findings Research Question 2
    • Relationship Between Scores in Algebra I
    • and TAKS Exit-Level Mathematics Test
    • Pearson r Track 1 Track 2
    • TAKS Scores 0.297* 0.455*
    • Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.001
    • * Significant at p ≤ 0.05
  • Major Findings Research Question 2
    • Relationship Between Scores in Geometry
    • and TAKS Exit-Level Mathematics Test
    • Pearson r Track 1 Track 2
    • TAKS Scores 0.651* 0.475*
    • Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.001
    • * Significant at p≤ 0.05
  • Major Findings Research Question 2
    • Relationship Between Scores in Algebra II
    • and TAKS Exit-Level Mathematics Test
    • Pearson r Track 1 Track 2
    • TAKS Scores 0.503* 0.435*
    • Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.002
    • *Significant at p ≤ 0.05
  • Major Findings Research Question 2
    • Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) for Track 1
    • Students Passing the Mathematics TAKS Exit-
    • Level Test
    • Sum of Squares df F Sig.
    • Regression 982241.97 3 45.254 0.000
    • Residual 1215491.8 168
    • Total 2197733.8 171
    • Predictors: Constant, T1Algebra II, T1Algebra I, T1Geometry
    • Dependent Variable: T1TAKS
  • Major Findings Research Question 2
    • Coefficients for Track 1 Mathematics TAKS Exit-Level Test
    • Unstandardized
    • Coefficients t Sig.
    • Constant 1297.279 15.949 0.000
    • T1Algebra I 0.967 1.188 0.236
    • T1Geometry 7.770 7.479 0.000
    • T1Algebra II 2.867 2.769 0.006
    • Dependent Variable: T 1 TAKS
    • Regression Equation to Predict Value of TAKS Score:
    • Ŷ = 1297.279 + 0.967X1 +7.770X2 + 2.867X3,
    • where X1 = Algebra I score, X2 = geometry score, X3 = Algebra II
    • score and Constant = 1297.279.
  • Major Findings Research Question 2
    • Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) for Track 2
    • Students Passing the Mathematics TAKS Exit-Level Test
    • Sum of Squares df F Sig.
    • Regression 349238.75 3 11.613 0.000
    • Residual 431032.18 43
    • Total 780270.94 46
    • Predictors: Constant, T 2 Algebra II, T 2 Algebra I, T 2 Geometry
    • Dependent Variable: T 2 TAKS
  • Major Findings Research Question 2
    • Coefficients for Track 2 Mathematics TAKS Exit-Level Test
    • Unstandardized
    • Coefficients t Sig.
    • Constant 1025.724 4.334 0.000
    • T2 Algebra I 4.760 1.560 0.126
    • T2 Geometry 6.679 3.277 0.002
    • T2 Algebra II 4.383 1.879 0.067
    • Dependent Variable: T 2 TAKS
    • Regression Equation to Predict Value of TAKS Score:
    • Ŷ = 1025.724+ 4.760X1 + 6.679X2 + 4.383X3,
    • where X1 = Algebra I score, X2 = geometry score, X3 = Algebra II score and Constant = 1025.724.
  • Number of Years Respondents Worked as a School Counselor
    • Years Frequency Percent
    • 1 - 5 6 37.50
    • 6 - 10 1 6.25
    • 11 - 15 4 25.00
    • 16 - 20 3 18.75
    • 21 - 25 1 6.25
    • 26 - 30 1 6.25
    • Total 16 100.00
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3a
    • What factors do you consider when placing
    • students in 8th grade mathematics?
    • Factors Frequency Percent*
    • Parental input 3 18.75
    • Previous academic
    • achievement 15 93.75
    • School district policy 14 87.50
    • Teachers’ recommendation 14 87.50
    • * Due to multiple responses, percentages do not add up to 100.
  • Interview Support
    • “ District policy requires standardized test
    • scores (primarily Iowa and TAKS) to be
    • used with grades.”
    • “ District guidelines direct the placement of
    • students in Algebra in the 8th grade.”
    • “ I follow the same schedule that the
    • students from the home school enter
    • with.”
  • Related Literature Support
    • In Principles and Standards for School
    • Mathematics, the National Council of Teachers of
    • Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) identified algebra as
    • one of the central themes in K-12 mathematics.
    • Many educators perceive algebra as the gateway
    • to higher mathematics, and many state
    • graduation requirements include at least 1 year of
    • algebra (McCoy, 2005).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3b
    • When advising African American students for
    • mathematics placement, what is the most
    • important factor?
    • Factors Frequency Percent*
    • Student’s desire for more
    • challenging courses 11 68.75
    • Teacher’s recommendation 4 25.00
    • Counselor’s recommendation 0 0.00
    • Family history 0 0.00
    • *Due to less than total documented responses, percentages do not add up to 100.
  • Interview Support
    • “ The district has a matrix that we follow that guides us in
    • placing students in Algebra I as an 8th grader. We
    • examine previous grades and teacher
    • recommendations to determine placement in our AVID
    • (college prep) program.”
    • “ Teacher recommendations are important but much less
    • reliable due to subjectivity.”
    • “ I would consider the students’ desire for a challenge and
    • then speak with the teacher as well.”
    • “ I follow the same schedule that the students from the
    • home school enter with.”
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3c
    • In your opinion, what could the school do that
    • would reduce the failure rates of African
    • American students in 8th grade mathematics?
    • Factors Frequency Percent*
    • More tutorials/remediation 12 75.00
    • Better trained mathematics teachers 9 56.25
    • More parental involvement 12 75.00
    • Change entry level 3 18.75
    • * Due to multiple responses, percentages do not add up to 100.
  • Interview Support
    • “ The ‘Ethnic Disparity Gap’ is irrelevant when there are strong supportive homes.”
    • “ This is in consonance with the counselors’ claim that parental involvement has tremendous, effective influence on students’ success.”
  • Related Literature Support
    • Much of the difference in school
    • achievement found between African
    • American students and others is due to
    • the effects of substantially different
    • school opportunities, and in particular,
    • greatly disparate access to high quality
    • teachers and teaching (Darling-Hammonds,
    • 2000).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3d
    • How often do you meet with students to
    • discuss mathematics grade placement?
    • Timeline Frequency Percent*
    • One time a year 5 31.25
    • Bi-annually 8 50.00
    • Monthly 1 6.25
    • Parent’s request 5 31.25
    • * Due to multiple responses, percentages do not add up to 100.
  • Interview Support
    • “ Course selection or qualification for advanced classes is
    • the only time we meet to discuss placement. ‘District’s
    • Track’ doesn’t allow a student to enter in higher classes in
    • 8th grade unless enrolled in 7th grade mathematics.”
    • “ I follow the same schedule that the student’s from the
    • home school enter with.”
    • “ We tell students in the 6th grade when we let them
    • choose their courses about district mathematics
    • requirements. We tell them again at orientation night
    • during the first day of school. We tell them again at open
    • house, early fall. We tell them again in the GT parents’
    • meeting held in the fall and spring. We send out letters
    • late spring.”
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3e
    • Which factor has the greatest influence on 8th
    • grade mathematics students’ passing rate in
    • mathematics?
    • Factors Frequency Percent*
    • Certified Mathematics teacher 0 0.00
    • Parental involvement 2 12.50
    • Teacher’s expectation 5 31.25
    • Peer group pressure 0 0.00
    • Student’s attitude 8 50.00
    • *Due to total documented responses, percentages do not add up to 100.
  • Related Literature Support
    • Working in an urban Missouri junior high school,
    • investigators studied what happened when
    • students of average mathematics achievement
    • were assigned to an advanced eighth-grade pre-
    • algebra class. They found that the achievement of
    • accelerated average students was better than
    • the achievement of similar students in previous
    • years who had not taken accelerated
    • mathematics (Burris, Heubert, & Levin, 2006).
  • Related Literature Support
    • The average-achieving students in the high-track
    • classes enrolled in more advanced high school
    • mathematics courses than did students at similar
    • achievement levels from previous low-track
    • cohorts. The results of the studies are consistent with the
    • findings and demonstrated almost no growth among
    • students placed in low-track, remedial eighth-grade
    • classrooms, and the conclusions from a study
    • commissioned by the National Research Council that
    • documented strong negative effects of low-track classes
    • (Burris, Heubert, & Levin, 2006).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3f
    • What is the most important factor that
    • contributes to the recommendation of African
    • American males to 8th grade advanced
    • mathematics?
    • Factors Frequency Percent*
    • Athletic coach’s recommendation 1 6.25
    • Student’s interest 1 6.25
    • Principal’s/counselor’s recommendation 1 6.25
    • Achievement scores 12 75.00
    • * Due to total documented responses, percentages do not add up to 100.
  • Interview Support
    • A counselor repeated the matrix’s
    • guideline as basis for her action regarding
    • placement of African American students
    • in 8th grade mathematics.
    • Counselor commented: “Once again,
    • Algebra I placement is determined by a
    • matrix given to us by the district.”
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3g
    • In your opinion, do teachers at this school
    • frequently meet with African American students
    • about how they can succeed in mathematics
    • courses?
    • Response Frequency Percent
    • Strongly agree 0 0.00
    • Agree 6 37.50
    • Unsure 7 43.75
    • Disagree 1 6.25
    • Strongly disagree 2 12.50
    • Total 16 100.00
  • Related Literature Support
    • A student’s path in middle school can shape his or
    • her course in high school, which affects success
    • in college and thereby determines a career path.
    • As we look at African Americans in the
    • workplace, our gaze is necessarily directed back
    • to their formative academic experiences in
    • middle school, high school and college, where the
    • track to their future success is first laid down
    • (“Report Highlights Importance of Middle School Math”, 2003).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3h
    • What is your opinion of the number of 8th grade
    • African American students enrolled in advanced
    • mathematics classes?
    • Reasons Frequency Percent
    • Advanced Mathematics courses
    • are not offered at this school 1 6.25
    • About the right number 5 31.25
    • Too few 10 62.50
    • Too many 0 0.00
    • Total 16 100.00
  • Related Literature Support
    • African American students are twice as
    • likely to be placed in non-academic track
    • classes and remedial mathematics
    • classes. Placement in these classes
    • exposes students to a less challenging
    • curriculum and the least experienced
    • teachers (Rubin & Noguera, 2004).
  • Related Literature Support
    • Berry (2003) stated that African American
    • students receive mathematics instruction
    • that is not consistent with mathematics
    • education reform; furthermore, the
    • mathematics instruction that many African
    • American students receive is in opposition
    • to their culture styles and learning
    • preferences.
  • Related Literature Support
    • African American students take fewer
    • algebra and geometry courses than White
    • students and these courses are often
    • “gate-keepers” to science and mathematics
    • degrees and performance on standardized
    • examinations (Russell, 2005).
  • Major Findings Qualitative Question 3i
    • How do you rate the counseling department in
    • dealing with African American 8th grade
    • students in mathematics?
    • Rating Frequency Percent*
    • Outstanding 1 6.25
    • Above average 6 37.50
    • Adequate 8 50.00
    • Poor 0 0.00
    • *Due to total documented responses, percentages do not add up to 100.
  • Interview Support
    • “ We have a large group of student load
    • and we treat them all the same in
    • placement and do not single out one
    • group. We speak to all the same and with
    • the same information which to encourage
    • them all.”
  • Implications
    • Berry (2003) points outs that African American students’
    • mathematics achievement levels are indicative of the
    • instruction that they receive. Data collected on teachers’
    • instructional practices indicate differences between African
    • American students and their peers.
    • National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data suggest
    • that most African American students are not experiencing
    • instructional practices consistent with the
    • recommendations suggested by the National Council of
    • Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), whereas more White
    • students are experiencing NCTM standards-based
    • instruction (Lubienski, 2001).
  • Implications
    • The power and influence of the middle-class,
    • affluent, and more privileged parents plays an
    • important role in deciding who will be in “their
    • kid’s classes.” More often than not, political
    • pressure from parents coupled with low
    • expectations for African Americans in the
    • classroom by teachers, counselors, and
    • administrators result in homogeneous tracks
    • and ability groups (Russell, 2005).
  • Implications
    • Ward (2008) pointed out that mathematics achievement
    • builds to increasing levels of complexity only when the base
    • is solid, and that base is formed from the earliest days of
    • elementary school. Too many elementary school teachers,
    • strong in other subjects and talented in connecting with
    • children, lack the mathematics background needed to
    • prepare students for algebra by the eighth grade.
    • Additional research based training, targeted at the specific
    • skills needed for effective algebra instruction, will be
    • critical and costly.
  • Implications
    • The existence of linear regression equations
    • may become one of the bases for remediation
    • efforts to assure that students pass the
    • mathematics high-stakes test. Administrators
    • and teachers may forestall problems associated
    • with the State of Texas requirement for
    • students to graduate from high school.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study should be conducted to involve representative samples from one or more districts in a similar study to determine if results can be duplicated.
    • A study should be conducted to involve another group of students (Whites, Hispanics, Asians, etc.) in a similar study.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study should be conducted to determine specific activities of the guidance and counseling department in the placement of students not only in mathematics but also in the different core areas of science, English and social studies.
    • A study should be conducted on the quality of mathematics instruction involved in the different tracks.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study should be conducted to predict the performance of African American students in the other core areas.
    • A quantitative study should be conducted with a large random sample of teachers and school counselors regarding the impact of high school mathematics curricula on the mathematics TAKS Exit-Level performance of students.
  • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study should be conducted regarding remediation practices done by the school and the home in preparing students to succeed in the high-stakes tests given by the State of Texas, not only in mathematics but also in the other core areas.
  • Challenges & Opportunities
    • Although African Americans have
    • increased their participation in
    • mathematics and the sciences within the
    • last decade, it is important to note that
    • these advances are still miniscule when
    • compared to those of White students
    • (Russell, 2005).
  • Challenges & Opportunities
    • The attitudes and experiences of many school personnel
    • need to change, too. I have been on campuses and in
    • classrooms throughout the state, and it is consistent from
    • one end to the other: certain students are seen as algebra-
    • ready, and certain students are not. It’s no mystery: Asian
    • and White students on one hand; Latino, African American
    • and poor students of all ethnicities on the other. But they
    • are not ready. This is the common and perfectly honest
    • explanation. But it is our job to make them ready. It is work
    • we have chosen. It is our responsibility (Ward, 2008).
  • REFERENCES
    • Berry, R. Q., III. (2003). Voices of African American male middle
    • school students: A portrait of successful middle school mathematics students . Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
    • Burris, C. C., Heubert, J. P., & Levin, H. M. (2006). Accelerating mathematics achievement. Educational Research Journal, 43 (1), 105-136.
    • Darling-Hammonds, L. (2000). New standards and old inequalities:
    • School reform and the education of African American students.
    • The Journal of Negro Education , 69 (4), 263-287.
  • REFERENCES
    • Lubienski, S. T. (2001, April). A second look at mathematics achievement gaps: Intersections of race, class, and gender in NAEP data. Paper Presented at American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA.
    • McCoy, L. P. (2005). Effect of Demographic and personal variables on achievement in eighth-grade algebra. Journal of Educational Research, 98 (3), 131-135.
    • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM.
    • Report highlights importance of middle school math (2003). Black Issues in Higher Education , 20 (19), 11.
  • REFERENCES
    • Rubin, B. C., & Norguera, P. A. (2004). Tracking detracking: Sorting through the dilemmas and possibilities of detracking in practice. Equity & Excellence, 37 , 92-101.
    • Russell, M. L. (2005). Untapped talent and unlimited potential: African American students and the science pipeline. The Negro Educational Review, 56 (2/3), 167-182.
    • Texas Education Agency ( 2005 ). Accountability System State Data
    • Table 2005. Austin, TX: Author. Retrieved January 25, 2006,
    • from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/perfreport/account/2005/state.html
    • Ward, R. (2008, July 23).Our expectations for all children. The San Diego Union-Tribune. p. A18.
  • Thank You !!!
    • For
    • listening
    • to
    • my
    • presentation!
    • Have a wonderful day!!!