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  • 1. 162 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS Copyright © 2011 by William Allan Kritsonis/All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 15 Literature15.0 Literature 1) nondiscursive 9) higher criticism 2) expressive 10) external and internal analysis 3) contemplation 11) biography 4) imagination 12) psychology of literary composition 5) fictional 13) social, economic, and 6) ideal abstractions political situations 7) individual work 14) history of ideas 8) textual criticism 15) reference to other arts15.1 The central fact is that the objects of knowledge, in the art of literature, are particular verbal patterns designed to serve specific literary purposes: 1) sound 2) euphony 3) rhythm15.2 Some Types of Figurative Usage 1) symbols 7) poetry 2) metaphor 8) composition of the work 3) analogy • plot 4) myth • characterization 5) fiction • setting 6) drama
  • 2. 163 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS CHAPTER 16 Personal Knowledge16.0 Synnoetic meanings requires engagem ent .16.1 Synnoetic meanings relate subjects to subjects. Objectivity is eliminated and is replaced by subjectivity, or better, inter- subjectivity.16.2 Intersubjectivity gives personal insight.16.3 Personal knowledge is always on a one-to-one basis.16.4 Personal knowledge is existential and concrete.16.5 Personal knowledge depends upon the nature of the common life.16.6 The subjectivity inherent in personal knowledge inhibits the formation of groups.16.7 Relations Are of Two Kinds “I-Thou” and “I-It” “I-Thou” is a connected person with subjectivity. “I-It” is a setting apart of the individual treating them as objects.16.8 In the “I-Thou” relation the attitude of manipulation is ab- sent.16.9 In the “I-Thou” relations with others are not treated as ob- jects.16.10 In the “I-Thou” others are set free to be themselves, not to be what I will them to be.16.11 One can regard the objects of nature as objects to be used and consumed (the I-It relation), or as being in themselves, to be respected and loved (the I-Thou relation).16.12 Meanings in the synnoetic realm are subjective, concrete, and existential.16.13 Meanings in the synnoetic realm are subjective, concrete, and existential.
  • 3. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 164 CHAPTER 17 Moral Knowledge17.0 The essence of ethical meanings, or of moral knowledge, is righ t de libe rate action, th at is, what a pe rson ought vo lun- tarily to do.17.1 The realm of ethics is right action. The central concept in this domain obligation or what ought to be done. The “ought” here is not individual but a universal principle of right.17.2 Five Main Areas of Moral Concern 1) human rights 2) sex and family relations 3) relationships among and within class, ethnic, racial, re- ligious, and vocational groups 4) economic life and political life 5) distribute justice17.3 Ordinary people are the guardians and practitioners of morality.17.4 Three Types of Ethical Theory 1) subjective 2) formalist 3) teleological17.5 There appears to be no sure means of demonstrating what the idea life really is, so that everyone will agree. There contin- ues to be differences in conceptions of the good, just as there are differences in conceptions of the right.17.6 Appeal to essential human nature as the ultimate criterion of the good.17.7 The good life consists in the realization of meaning in all the realms of meaning.
  • 4. 165 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS CHAPTER 18 History18.0 The subject matter of history is what happened in the past or human events of the past.18.1 The unit of historical inquiry, in which the full significance of time is revealed, is the e vent, happening, o r episode.18.2 The reconstruction of the past requires a considerable fund of knowledge.18.3 Reenactment of the past and personal engagement is re- quired to understand history.18.4 History is the study of what human beings have deliberately done in the past.
  • 5. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 166 CHAPTER 18 History19.0 The content of religious meanings may be anything at all pro- vided it is regarded from an ultimate perspective.19.1 The methods of gaining religious understanding are many and varied: 1) prayer 2) meditation 3) active commitment 4) ritual practices19.2 In the religious sphere the basis of understanding is said to be faith .19.3 Faith is the illum ination th at com es in going to the lim its.19.4 The supe rnatu ral is what is be yond the lim its o f the finite or natu ral.19.5 S il ence is a significant aspect of re ligious expression. S i- le nce is a m ode o f expression th at sym bolizes the boundary situ- ation from which faith springs.19.6 The pe rson of faith be lie ves God is the S ource o f all beauty.19.7 Religious realms incorporate all the realms of meaning.
  • 6. 167 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS CHAPTER 20 Philosophy20.0 The distinctive feature of philosophy is the interpretation of meanings.20.1 Philosophy draws upon knowledge from all other fields. 1) raising questions 2) proposing answers 3) developing implications20.2 The method of philosophy is dialectic.20.3 The medium of philosophical inquiry is discursive language.20.4 The concepts in philosophical discourse are of high order ab- straction.20.5 The Interpretative Activity of the Philosopher 1) analysis 2) evaluative 3) synthesis20.6 Philosophers seek to construct a synoptic view of the entire range of human experiences.20.7 The main divisions of philosophic inquiry provide a summary re- view of the fundamental patterns of meaning.20.8 Philosophy is devoted to the interpretation of the fundamen- tal patterns in the realms of meaning.
  • 7. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 168 CHAPTER 21 The Scope of the Curriculum21.0 What does a pe rson need to know? What is the app rop riate scope o f s tud y th at ought to be p rovided?21.1 The course of study should maximize meanings.21.2 What shall be taught in order to maximize meanings? 1) fulfillment of m aste ry 2) fu lfillm e nt consists in be longing to a com m unity 3) fu lfillm e nt consists in m any-sidedness 4) fu lfillm e nt consists in the inte grity of the pe rson 5) fu lfillm ent consists in gaining a ce rtain quality o f knowl edge21.3 The foundation for all civilized existence is human nature.21.4 The curriculum should provide for learning in all six realms of meaning.21.5 Six realms of meaning are required if a person is to achieve the highest excellence.21.6 The importance of specialized education lies in fulfilling mean- ing in mastery and belonging.21.7 Specialized study is requisite for the common good in a complex civilization.21.8 The judgment as to whether a study is general or special does not apply to content as such, but to the relation between content and purpose for the given person and situation.21.9 Any item of knowledge that is an essential ingredient in the humanizing of one person may be used by another for special purposes.21.10 The term “fundamental” refers to fields that are concerned with the deliberate and direct pursuit of one of the six possible kinds of realms of meaning.
  • 8. 169 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS21.11 D e rivative o r app lied s tud ies grow ou t o f p ractical conside ra- tions and worke rs in them seek solu tions to p rob l s withou t em re gard to purity of logical type .21.12 General Education or Specialized Education depends on the person and the situation.21.13 This book is concerned with the curriculum for general educa- tion and with the fundamental disciplines.21.14 Effective curricula needs to be designed to take into account each person’s aptitudes and enthusiasms.21.15 Consequences for general education are not the same as for specialized education.21.16 A person can be as advanced in general studies as in special- ized ones.21.17 All six fundamental realms of meaning provide a program for the curriculum of general education in schools.21.18 No one curriculum is the best for all people and for every culture and situation.
  • 9. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 170 CHAPTER 22 The Logic of Sequence in Studies22.0 There is no law of sequence that prescribes exactly the succes- sion of learning events.22.1 Three Levels of Logical Studies in the Curriculum of General Education 1) logical relations among the six realms of meaning 2) relations of logic between disciplines within a given realm 3) logic of sequence within a particular discipline22.2 Introducing the Realms 1) The empirical and esthetic realms may be introduced as soon as language becomes available. 2) Personal knowledge and ethics are independent of empiri- cal and esthetic meanings and therefore can be intro- duced as soon as communicative means have begun to de- velop. As between person relations and ethics, neither has logical priority, the two being in reciprocal rela- tion. 3) History requires a knowledge of symbols, empirical data, dramatic methods, decision making, and moral judgments, to be welded together into a reenactment of the past. 4) Religion depends upon experience of language, truth, beauty, being, and goodness, as elements in a visionary of ultimacy. 5) Philosophy requires a comprehensive world of meanings to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize.22.3 Logical Order of Realms of Meaning First is symbolics, then empirics and esthetics (no prefer- ence as to precedence), next personal knowledge and ethics (these are reciprocally related but distinctive, are dependent for their development upon empirical knowledge, and to some extent, esthetic understanding), and finally synoptics.22.4 Logical Order (Short Version) First is symbolics, then empirics and esthetics, next per- sonal knowledge and ethics, and finally synoptics.22.5 Since there is no limit to what can be learned in any realm, it is impossible to complete one kind of study before starting the next.22.6 All that logic requires is that enough learning take place in one subject to enable work to proceed in other subjects that are logically dependent on it.22.7 The ideal curriculum is one in which the maximum coherence is achieved and segmentation is minimized.
  • 10. 171 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS22.8 The optimum curriculum for general education consists in all six realms of meaning.22.9 The Problem of Deciding Sequence 1) There is no single logical pattern that must be of inquiry used for any given field. 2) Logical structure only provides a set of relationships among the various components of a discipline. It does not in itself dictate order in time. 3) A distinction should be made between the two types of logi- cal patterns. One type is an order to discovery, the other an order of analysis.22.10 The best routes are those that lead directly to the goals of the discipline.22.11 Fields of study easily become standardized and fall behind sig- nificant developments in knowledge and methods.22.12 Every discipline has distinctive patterns of meaning that must be respected in constructing an effective order of instruction.
  • 11. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 172 CHAPTER 23 Developmental Factors in the Sequence of Studies23.0 Man is the learner par excellence.23.1 The Appropriateness of Developmental Psychology 1) maturation 2) readiness 3) made ready 4) economy of learning 5) motivation 6) continuity23.2 The most fundamental experiences are those of personal rela- tions.23.3 Eight Stages in the Personal Career 1) trust 2) autonomy 3) initiative 4) industry 5) identity 6) intimacy 7) generativity 8) integrity23.4 The Sequence of Learning Experiences 1) appropriate lessons in the realm of personal relations vary according to the stage in life 2) each stage in personal growth presupposes the success- ful completion of the earlier stages 3) stages of life are not separate and independent ways of functioning.23.5 The principle of unity and interrelations of meaning requires study in all the six realms of meaning.23.6 Personal knowledge is of great important to the teacher and the student.23.7 Intelligent and sensitive concern for people is essential in providing a good education.23.8 Findings in developmental psychology indicate fields of study that help learners of various levels of maturity.23.9 Psychologically justifiable sequence patterns have been de- termined for the ordering of instruction.
  • 12. 173 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS23.10 Logical and developmental factors are relevant to designs about the sequencing of studies.23.11 This developmental analysis in some measure confirms the earlier conclusions as to the relative priority of the realms of meaning based on logical consideration Developmentally, language clearly comes first (Symbolics) and integrative studies last (Synoptics). Moral meanings (Ethics) appear relatively late, after a firm sense of oneself and of one’s re- lationships with others has been established (Synnoetics). As between science and art, the priority developmentally seams to rest with art (Esthetics), this being the more immediate and intuitive ground from which the rationalistic and general- izing scientific meanings (Empirics) subsequently develop.
  • 13. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 174 CHAPTER 24 The Problem of Selection in the Curriculum24.0 The problem is choosing what to teach.24.1 Earlier conditions of limited knowledge have been replaced by an avalanche of new knowledge.24.2 Knowledge is increasing at an accelerated rate.24.3 Cultural abundance is accentuated by a number of factors: 1) technical 2) rapid increase in the number of people engaged in the cre- ation of new knowledge24.4 Machines now directly contribute to the work of investiga- tion.24.5 There is an “explosion of knowledge.”24.6 A growing need for better understanding is made possible by the realms of meaning.24.7 The learning abilities of human beings has remained substan- tially the same.24.8 Five Contributions to Help the Educational Problem 1) increasing specialization 2) improving administrative and organizational procedures 3) use for educational purposes the very technology from which the crisis stems 4) use principles of psychology for learning 5) is the judicious selection of materials for the curriculum. The goal is to find a solution to the problem posed by quantity by m eans of a p rincip l of quality in cu rricu lar e m ate rials .24.9 Humankind’s search for meaning leads to fulfillment in life as a person.
  • 14. 175 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS CHAPTER 25 The Use of the Disciplines25.0 The educator must select qualitatively the most significant materials from the totality of what is known.25.1 Interdependence of specialists is the basis for the advancement of all knowledge and skill.25.2 Two Kinds of Specialists 1) The first comprises persons of skill who are able to per- form specialized functions with great efficiency and pre- cision, and who do so by habit. They do not work by re- flection and deliberation, but automatically, according to predetermined patterns of their skill specialty. 2) The second comprises persons whose performance is also skilled but who act with comprehension of the meaning of their actions. They function in a reflective manner, con- scious of their behavior and able to give good reasons for what they do.25.3 An organized field of inquiry, pursued by a particular group of men of knowledge, may be called a scholarly discipline.25.4 The men of knowledge within the disciplines comprise public communities of scholars.25.5 Everyone has opinions. Opinions are ordinarily not subjected to any critical examination and are accepted with scant jus- tification, if any.25.6 On the other hand, knowledge is an outcome of disciplined in- quiry. Knowledge is tested by criteria of justification devel- oped by organized communities of scholars.25.7 The educator’s function is to direct the student towa4d au- thoritative knowledge.25.8 All material should come from the disciplines.25.9 The principle of disciplined knowledge excludes commonsense approaches to learning.25.10 The principle of disciplined understanding is the foundation for general education—the proper content of general education is authentic disciplined knowledge.25.11 The teacher is a humanizer of knowledge.25.12 What seems to be obvious often turns out to be wrong on careful examination.
  • 15. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 17625.13 Disciplined knowledge differs in quality from undisciplined opin- ion.25.14 A discipline is a field of inquiry wherein learning has been achieved in a productive way.25.15 Every discipline is a pattern of investigation for the growth of understanding.25.16 Understanding the disciplines is essential to good teaching.25.17 Many clues to effective teaching and learning are found within the disciplines themselves.25.18 A major purpose of this book is to mark out a wide range of disciplines.25.19 It is possible to use the knowledge from the disciplines in con- nection with studies that cut across several disciplines.25.20 Every discipline is to some degree integrative in nature.25.21 No one plan is best for every teacher and for all students in all situations.25.22 What ever is taught must be drawn from the scholarly dis- ciplines.
  • 16. 177 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS CHAPTER 26 Representative Ideas26.0 Content should be chosen to exemplify the representative ideas of the disciplines.26.1 Representative ideas have form, pattern, or structure.26.2 Representative ideas help in economizing learning effort.26.3 Representative ideas are principles of growth and simplifica- tion.26.4 The task of the specialist or expert is to work out patterns of representative ideas within the disciplines.26.5 Teaching first the representative ideas would be a mistake.26.6 Content should be chosen to exemplify the representative ideas of the discipline—these ideas are highly abstract.26.7 Representative ideas guide the selection of learnable content so that it will exemplify the characteristic features of the discipline.26.8 At every stage of instruction the representative ideas should govern what is taught.26.9 The aim of teaching is comprehensive understanding.26.10 A student taught by the use of representative ideas under- stands meaningfully.26.11 Representative materials increase efficiency in learning and knowledge of representative ideas of the discipline.
  • 17. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 178 CHAPTER 27 Methods of Inquiry27.0 The right of a scholar to speak as an authority rests on his acceptance of the canons of inquiry by which knowledge is created and validated in it.27.1 Materials should be selected so as to exemplify the methods of inquiry in the disciplines.27.2 The Importance of Understanding of Methods 1) Understanding of methods overcomes cynicism because it provides clear means for the acquisition of understanding. 2) Methods are unifying elements in a discipline, binding them together. 3) Understanding methods helps solve the problem of surged in knowledge. 4) The study of methods in the disciplines is especially helpful in respect to transience.27.3 Methods generally change much more slowly than do the re- sults of applying them.27.4 Methods of a discipline are generally more stable than the results of inquiry.27.5 Educators should not follow the latest fads or judge the value of knowledge by its recency. There is wisdom in allow- ing time to sift the worthy from the unworthy.27.6 Methods are ways of learning.27.7 Methods of inquiry by experts in a discipline provide a pattern to be imitated by the teacher and student in general education at all levels.27.8 Methods useful for teaching are not likely to be the same as used in discovery.27.9 Methods of inquiry are relevant to the methods of teaching that discipline.27.10 Good teaching lies in guided discovery.27.11 In every discipline there are both ways of acquiring new knowledge and ways of validating knowledge.27.12 No single answer can be given to the question of how we think.27.13 There are many ways of teaching and learning.27.14 Teaching materials differ within each realm of meaning ac- cording to the discipline.
  • 18. 179 SELECTED THOUGHTS AND INSIGHTS27.15 Good teaching requires that some convincing pattern be used to coordinate the materials taught.27.16 The method chosen depends upon the intention of the teacher.27.17 The realms of meaning and the disciplines represent ways of productive understanding and modes of organizing the m ate ri- als fo r ins truction.
  • 19. THE APPEAL TO IMAGINATION 180 CHAPTER 28 The Appeal to Imagination28.0 Materials for instruction should always be selected that ap- peal to the imagination of the students.28.1 If a student has no interest in the curriculum he will not want to learn.28.2 The highest powers of a man provide the key to understanding the lower levels of motivation.28.3 Distinctive human qualities of mind and spirit are the clue to human motivation.28.4 Imagination belongs to the active inner life of a person.28.5 Imagination has remarkable power in fulfilling a person’s ex- istence.28.6 The fundamental goal of human existence is the fulfillment of meaning.28.7 All human beings are aiming at the higher things of life, and ultimately at realization of the highest meanings.28.8 Students learn best what they most profoundly want to know —their learning efficiency is in direct relation to their motiva- tion.28.9 Traditional academic curriculum is deficient in meaning. Func- tional curriculum is deficient that emphasizes the practical concerns of the learner. We must have an awakening of the inner life of the learner through the nurture of imagination.28.10 The appeal to the imagination calls for the selection of ma- terials that are drawn from the extraordinary rather than the experience of everyday life.28.11 Material should be selected for its power of stimulating imagination.28.12 The cultivation of the life of imagination is the ultimate aim of general education.28.13 Success in solving the problems of life is best achieved by those whose imaginations are kindled.28.14 Imaginative teaching is suitable for everyone.