SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 6112. Telecommunications is a means for communicating over a distance. Anyarrangement for transmitting voice and data in the form of coded signalsthrough an electronic medium.13. Video-Disk Technology is an audio-visual tool that can present slides andplay motion pictures at any time and in any sequence desired. Theyprovide high quality narration and natural backgrounds.14. Virtual Reality is a computer-controlled environment in which usersexperience multi-sensory immersion and interact with certain phenomenaas they would in the physical world.15. The major purpose of using technology in the classroom is to facilitateteaching and the joy of learning.CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLINGIN AMERICAA. OVERVIEWChapter 13 presents information regarding the use of technology in education.Various modes of educational technology are presented, including instructionaltelevision, closed-circuit television, videodisk technology, and multimediacomputers. The majority of the chapter deals with computers, the current majorarea of technology in schools. Creative uses of technology are also presented.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSCOMPRESSED VIDEO - video images that have been processed to removeredundant information, thereby reducing the amount of bandwidth required totransmit them. Because only changes in the image are transmitted, movementsappear jerky compared with full-motion video.COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) - instruction delivereddirectly to learner by allowing them to interact with lessons programmed intothe computer system (formerly known as drill and practice programs).COMPUTER MULTIMEDIA - a computer’s hardware and software systemfor the composition and display of presentations that incorporate text, audio,and still and motion images.DISTANCE LEARNING/EDUCATION - any instructional situation in whichthe learner is separated in time or space from the point of origination,characterized by limited access to the teacher and other learners.
CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 62EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY - technology applied to educationalpractices, primarily instruction.INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION (ITV) - any planned use of video programsto meet specific instructional goals regardless of the source of the programs(including commercial broadcasts or the setting) in which they are used(including business and industry training).INTERNET - a world-wide system of linking smaller computer networkstogether, based on a packet system of information transfer and using a commonset of communication standards.MULTIMEDIA KIT - a collection of teaching-learning materials involvingmore than one type of medium and organized around a topic.TECHNOLOGY - use of technical materials and equipment in schools.TELECOMMUNICATIONS - a means for communicating over a distance,specifically, any arrangement for transmitting voice and data in the form ofcoded signals, through an electronic medium.VIDEO DISK TECHNOLOGY - audio-visual tool can present slides and playmotion pictures at any time and in any sequence desired. They provide highquality narration and natural backgrounds.VIRTUAL REALITY - a computer-controlled environment in which usersexperience multi-sensory immersion and interact with certain phenomena asthey would in the physical world.C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTSIf this book had been written in the 1970s, this chapter would have dealtwith media such as 35mm camera, opaque projector, filmstrip projectors,slide projectors, the record player, and the reel-to-reel movie projector. Butnow this chapter will focus on:1. What is instructional technology?2. What are some advantages and disadvantages of instructionaltelevision?3. How can closed-circuit television be used in instruction?4. How are multimedia kits used in schools?5. What are some advantages and disadvantages of multimedia kits?6. What is the history of using computers in education? (Includingstatistics on internet connectivity in classrooms)
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 637. What is computer-assisted instruction?8. What is distance learning?9.What are some advantages and disadvantages of distance learning?10.What is virtual reality?11.What are some advantages and disadvantages of virtual reality?12.What is computer multimedia and hypermedia?13.What are some advantages and disadvantages of computerhypermedia?14.How can software be evaluated?15.What new directions does educational technology need?1. What is instructional television?Televised lessons broadcast for schools usually on educational television.2. What are some advantages and disadvantages of instructionaltelevision?ADVANTAGES:a. increased student motivation;b. illustration of material that is difficult to teach;c. ability of teachers to use a common stimulus for teaching;d. information is transmitted, color, moving pictures;e. programs can be transmitted over long distances;f. cost per student is low;g. learners can even be reached in their own homes.DISADVANTAGES:a. the complexity of the technology creates opportunities for problems;b. many programs are poorly developed and produced;c. weather conditions may disrupt signals;d. images received on television monitors may be too small for largeclasses;e. ITV is a one-way mode of communication.3. How can closed-circuit television be used in instruction?a. as a substitute for the science laboratory;
CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 64b. enable teachers to focus students’ attention to a particular task whileneutralizing the effects of the surrounding environment;c. enable enlargement or magnification of small items on the screen foreasy viewing and detailed recommendations;d. introduce a variety of effects by using different cameras with differentlighting and angles;e. insert enriching sections during the lecture and/or explanation ofactivities;f. provide students with the opportunity to see successful experiments.Unsuccessful experiments are discarded or taped over so students seeonly what should occur.4. How are multimedia kits used in school?Whether using a commercially or teacher made multimedia kit, thepurpose is to give the learner a chance at firsthand learning by being ableto touch, to observe, to experiment, to wonder, to decide.5. What are some advantages and disadvantages of multimedia kits?ADVANTAGES:a. arouse interest because they are multi-sensory allowing students totouch and manipulate real objects and to inspect unusual specimens upclose;b. can encourage cooperation by being an ideal mechanism forstimulating small group project work;c. easily stored and transported.DISADVANTAGES:a. multimedia kits can be more expensive than other conventionallearning methods;b. time consuming to produce and maintain the materials;c. replacement of lost components can make the kit frustrating to use.6. What is the history of using computers in education?In the 1960s and 1970s, the idea of using computers for educationalpurposes received a great deal of attention. They were designed forcarrying out complicated mathematical calculations, for which they werevery effective if the user understood the highly sophisticated languagerequired to operate the hardware. Microcomputers were developed around1975. By 1980, approximately one million microcomputers were already
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 65in use. By 1995, microcomputers had made computer technology readilyaccessible to most school districts. By 2002, the movement to incorporatecomputer technology into education has been led by teachers who wereinterested in adding a new dimension in their classrooms. Themicrocomputer coupled with internet connectivity has opened a whole newworld to educators and students. About 95% of all schools have internetaccess and 63% of all classrooms have internet access.7. What is computer-assisted instruction?Computer Assisted Instruction is the interaction between the learner andthe computer. The student is an active participant in the learning process.There is a direct two-way communication between the learner and thecomputer. This takes place in the form of questions, responses, andfeedback. This allows for individual pacing and immediate feedback, yetlimits human interaction.8. What is distance learning?Distance learning is a form of education that is characterized by thephysical separation of learner from the teacher, an organized instructionalprogram, technological media and two-way communication capabilitiesbetween the instructor and the students.9. What are some advantages and disadvantages of distance learning?ADVANTAGES:a. provides opportunities for students in remote areas to receive advancedcourses especially when certified educators are not available in theremote area;b. allows students or adults to collaborate from different locations.DISADVANTAGES:a. cost is a major consideration for setting up both the distance learningclassroom and the remote site;b. technical problems may interrupt the instruction and may createconfusion and frustration for the instructor and students;c. inexperienced instructors may not feel comfortable teaching in thistype of setting.10. What is virtual reality?Virtual reality is a computer-generated, three-dimensional environmentwhere the user can operate as an active participant. Because VirtualReality places the user into the virtual environment, it provides an
CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 66opportunity to interact with that environment in a unique way, giving theuser the “ultimate” chance to grasp new ideas.11. What are some advantages and disadvantages of virtual reality?ADVANTAGES:a. creates a realistic world without subjecting viewers to actual orimagined danger or hazards;b. provides students with the opportunity to explore places not feasible inthe real world;c. allows students the opportunity to experiment with simulatedenvironments.DISADVANTAGES:a. equipment can be extremely expensive;b. technology is very complex and does not lend itself to most classroomuse;c. limited software available.12. What is computer multimedia and hypermedia?Computer multimedia refers to any combination of two or more mediaformats that are integrated to form an informational or instructionalprogram. The system incorporates the computer as a display device,management tool, and source of text, pictures, graphics, and sounds.Hypermedia refers to computer software that uses elements of text,graphics, video, and audio connected in such a way that the user can easilymove within the information.13. What are some advantages and disadvantages of computerhypermedia?ADVANTAGES:a. opportunity for deep involvement and capturing and holding thestudent’s interest;b. multi-sensory with the incorporation of sounds and images along withtext;c. students can connect ideas from different media sources;d. teachers and students can easily create their own hypermedia files.DISADVANTAGES:
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 67a. users can get confused or lost in “cyberspace” when using hypermediaprograms;b. students whose learning style requires more structured guidance maybecome frustrated;c. can be time consuming and require more time for students to reach pre-specified objectives.14. How can software be evaluated?a. specify the overall goals of the implementation procedures;b. select appropriate software;c. develop software support materials;d. randomly assign students to comparable groups;e. schedule and implement computer time for students;f. test student skills at regular intervals;g. evaluate the success of the software implementation procedures;h. evaluate the results of the issues examined.15. What new directions does educational technology need?a. Educators must learn to integrate the technology into their content sothat the technology reinforces the standards that are being taught.b. Educators must gain an understanding of the history of technology, thechanging role of technology, the social and psychological impact oftechnology, and the implications of current changes for education.c. Educators must take a hard look at traditional goals, particularly in thearea of literacy.d. Educators must devise new definitions of classroom learning consistentwith the revolution in the cognitive sciences.e. Educators must find a new metaphor for the learning environment; theschool as factory is anathema.f. Educators must abandon the lockstep, competency-based curriculumand devise new instructional strategies.g. Educators must not only know about the electronic technologies, butthey must also learn how to develop software for use with the visualmedia and the computer that facilitates learning.h. Educators need to devise a curriculum whose content prepares studentsfor thinking “by” computers, thinking “about” computers, and thinking“with” computers.
CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 68i. Education must emerge from its disciplinary narrowness.16. What are some creative uses of technology in classrooms?a. Technology increases student motivation, and motivated students aremore receptive, more engaged, and more likely to learn.b. Technology promotes cooperation and collaboration among studentsand good teachers can capitalize on these opportunities. Cooperativelearning approaches with technology give students with differenttalents a chance to excel.c. In classrooms with computers, conversations between teachers andstudents and among students themselves become deeper and moreprobing.d. Technology use encourages teacher-as-facilitator approaches.e. Technology promotes a “balance of power” between the teacher andhis or her students.f. With technological tools, students show more persistence in solvingproblems.g. Technology encourages varied methods of assessment.h. Despite all the challenges of a one-computer/one internet-connectionclassroom, even this classroom environment enables good teachers towork effectively with diverse students.i. Technology fosters increased and improved oral and writtencommunication.j. Technology enables opportunities for more depth of understanding, butthe breadth of the curriculum is still problematic.k. Technology provides increased opportunities for thematic,interdisciplinary exploration; teachers can use these interdisciplinaryconnections to further engage and excite students.l. Technology makes classroom activities “feel” more real-world andrelevant, and students often take these activities more seriously.Source: McGrath, B. (1998). Partners in learning: Twelve ways technology changes the teacher-studentrelationship. T.H.E. Journal, 25(9), 58-51. Adapted with permission.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES – NONE
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 69E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. The major purpose of educational technology is to facilitate teaching andlearning.2. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) does not allow students to interactwith lessons programmed into the computer system.3. Distance Learning/Education occurs when the learner is separated in timeor space from the point of origin.4. Educational technology involves televised lessons broadcast oneducational television.5. Virtual Reality is a computer controlled environment in which usersexperience multi-sensory immersion and interact with certain phenomenaas they would in reality.Multiple Choice1. Instructional Television (ITV) is any _______.a. form of duplicationb. planned use of video programs to meet specific goalsc. method to reduce interaction between the learner and teacherd. all of the above2. Telecommunications is the means for _______.a. communicating over a distance b. limiting the use of technologyc. helping to increase frustration d. all of the above3. Video-Disk Technology is _______.a. an audio tool to increase learningb. a visual tool to increase learningc. an audio-visual tool that can present slides and play motion pictures atany time and in any sequence desiredd. all of the above4. Virtual Reality is a _______.a. computer-controlled environment b. non-controlled environmentc. semi-controlled environment d. all the above5. The purpose of technology in the classroom is to _______.
CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 70a. hinder learning b. facilitate learningc. thwart learning d. all the above