2. SCHOOLING (2002) PAGE 6113. Video-Disk Technology is an audio-visual tool that can present slides and play motion pictures at any time and in any sequence desired. They pro- vide high quality narration and natural backgrounds.14. Virtual Reality is a computer-controlled environment in which users expe- rience multi-sensory immersion and interact with certain phenomena as they would in the physical world.15. The major purpose of using technology in the classroom is to facilitate teaching and the joy of learning. CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICA A. OVERVIEW Chapter 13 presents information regarding the use of technology in education. Various modes of educational technology are presented, including instructional television, closed-circuit television, videodisk technology, and multimedia computers. The majority of the chapter deals with computers, the current major area of technology in schools. Creative uses of technology are also presented. B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONS COMPRESSED VIDEO - video images that have been processed to remove redundant information, thereby reducing the amount of bandwidth required to transmit them. Because only changes in the image are transmitted, movements appear jerky compared with full-motion video. COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) - instruction delivered di- rectly to learner by allowing them to interact with lessons programmed into the computer system (formerly known as drill and practice programs). COMPUTER MULTIMEDIA - a computer’s hardware and software system for the composition and display of presentations that incorporate text, audio, and still and motion images. DISTANCE LEARNING/EDUCATION - any instructional situation in which the learner is separated in time or space from the point of origination, charac- terized by limited access to the teacher and other learners. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY - technology applied to educational prac- tices, primarily instruction.
3. CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 62INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION (ITV) - any planned use of video programsto meet specific instructional goals regardless of the source of the programs(including commercial broadcasts or the setting) in which they are used (in-cluding business and industry training).INTERNET - a world-wide system of linking smaller computer networks to-gether, based on a packet system of information transfer and using a commonset of communication standards.MULTIMEDIA KIT - a collection of teaching-learning materials involvingmore than one type of medium and organized around a topic.TECHNOLOGY - use of technical materials and equipment in schools.TELECOMMUNICATIONS - a means for communicating over a distance,specifically, any arrangement for transmitting voice and data in the form ofcoded signals, through an electronic medium.VIDEO DISK TECHNOLOGY - audio-visual tool can present slides and playmotion pictures at any time and in any sequence desired. They provide highquality narration and natural backgrounds.VIRTUAL REALITY - a computer-controlled environment in which users ex-perience multi-sensory immersion and interact with certain phenomena as theywould in the physical world.C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS If this book had been written in the 1970s, this chapter would have dealt with media such as 35mm camera, opaque projector, filmstrip projectors, slide projectors, the record player, and the reel-to-reel movie projector. But now this chapter will focus on: 1. What is instructional technology? 2. What are some advantages and disadvantages of instructional tele- vision? 3. How can closed-circuit television be used in instruction? 4. How are multimedia kits used in schools? 5. What are some advantages and disadvantages of multimedia kits? 6. What is the history of using computers in education? (Including statistics on internet connectivity in classrooms) 7. What is computer-assisted instruction? 8. What is distance learning?
4. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 63 9. What are some advantages and disadvantages of distance learn- ing? 10. What is virtual reality? 11. What are some advantages and disadvantages of virtual reality? 12. What is computer multimedia and hypermedia? 13. What are some advantages and disadvantages of computer hyper- media? 14. How can software be evaluated? 15. What new directions does educational technology need?1. What is instructional television? Televised lessons broadcast for schools usually on educational television.2. What are some advantages and disadvantages of instructional televi- sion? ADVANTAGES: a. increased student motivation; b. illustration of material that is difficult to teach; c. ability of teachers to use a common stimulus for teaching; d. information is transmitted, color, moving pictures; e. programs can be transmitted over long distances; f. cost per student is low; g. learners can even be reached in their own homes. DISADVANTAGES: a. the complexity of the technology creates opportunities for problems; b. many programs are poorly developed and produced; c. weather conditions may disrupt signals; d. images received on television monitors may be too small for large classes; e. ITV is a one-way mode of communication.3. How can closed-circuit television be used in instruction? a. as a substitute for the science laboratory; b. enable teachers to focus students’ attention to a particular task while neutralizing the effects of the surrounding environment;
5. CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 64 c. enable enlargement or magnification of small items on the screen for easy viewing and detailed recommendations; d. introduce a variety of effects by using different cameras with different lighting and angles; e. insert enriching sections during the lecture and/or explanation of activi- ties; f. provide students with the opportunity to see successful experiments. Unsuccessful experiments are discarded or taped over so students see only what should occur.4. How are multimedia kits used in school? Whether using a commercially or teacher made multimedia kit, the pur- pose is to give the learner a chance at firsthand learning by being able to touch, to observe, to experiment, to wonder, to decide.5. What are some advantages and disadvantages of multimedia kits? ADVANTAGES: a. arouse interest because they are multi-sensory allowing students to touch and manipulate real objects and to inspect unusual specimens up close; b. can encourage cooperation by being an ideal mechanism for stimulat- ing small group project work; c. easily stored and transported. DISADVANTAGES: a. multimedia kits can be more expensive than other conventional learn- ing methods; b. time consuming to produce and maintain the materials; c. replacement of lost components can make the kit frustrating to use.6. What is the history of using computers in education? In the 1960s and 1970s, the idea of using computers for educational pur- poses received a great deal of attention. They were designed for carrying out complicated mathematical calculations, for which they were very ef- fective if the user understood the highly sophisticated language required to operate the hardware. Microcomputers were developed around 1975. By 1980, approximately one million microcomputers were already in use. By 1995, microcomputers had made computer technology readily accessible to most school districts. By 2002, the movement to incorporate computer
6. SCHOOLING (2002) PAGE 65 technology into education has been led by teachers who were interested in adding a new dimension in their classrooms. The microcomputer coupled with internet connectivity has opened a whole new world to educators and students. About 95% of all schools have internet access and 63% of all classrooms have internet access. 7. What is computer-assisted instruction? Computer Assisted Instruction is the interaction between the learner and the computer. The student is an active participant in the learning process. There is a direct two-way communication between the learner and the computer. This takes place in the form of questions, responses, and feed- back. This allows for individual pacing and immediate feedback, yet limits human interaction. 8. What is distance learning? Distance learning is a form of education that is characterized by the physi- cal separation of learner from the teacher, an organized instructional pro- gram, technological media and two-way communication capabilities be- tween the instructor and the students. 9. What are some advantages and disadvantages of distance learning? ADVANTAGES: a. provides opportunities for students in remote areas to receive advanced courses especially when certified educators are not available in the re- mote area; b. allows students or adults to collaborate from different locations. DISADVANTAGES: a. cost is a major consideration for setting up both the distance learning classroom and the remote site; b. technical problems may interrupt the instruction and may create confu- sion and frustration for the instructor and students; c. inexperienced instructors may not feel comfortable teaching in this type of setting.10. What is virtual reality? Virtual reality is a computer-generated, three-dimensional environment where the user can operate as an active participant. Because Virtual Reali- ty places the user into the virtual environment, it provides an opportunity to interact with that environment in a unique way, giving the user the “ulti- mate” chance to grasp new ideas.
7. CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 6611. What are some advantages and disadvantages of virtual reality? ADVANTAGES: a. creates a realistic world without subjecting viewers to actual or imag- ined danger or hazards; b. provides students with the opportunity to explore places not feasible in the real world; c. allows students the opportunity to experiment with simulated environ- ments. DISADVANTAGES: a. equipment can be extremely expensive; b. technology is very complex and does not lend itself to most classroom use; c. limited software available.12. What is computer multimedia and hypermedia? Computer multimedia refers to any combination of two or more media for- mats that are integrated to form an informational or instructional program. The system incorporates the computer as a display device, management tool, and source of text, pictures, graphics, and sounds. Hypermedia refers to computer software that uses elements of text, graphics, video, and audio connected in such a way that the user can easily move within the informa- tion.13. What are some advantages and disadvantages of computer hyperme- dia? ADVANTAGES: a. opportunity for deep involvement and capturing and holding the studen- t’s interest; b. multi-sensory with the incorporation of sounds and images along with text; c. students can connect ideas from different media sources; d. teachers and students can easily create their own hypermedia files. DISADVANTAGES: a. users can get confused or lost in “cyberspace” when using hypermedia programs;
8. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 67 b. students whose learning style requires more structured guidance may become frustrated; c. can be time consuming and require more time for students to reach pre- specified objectives.14. How can software be evaluated? a. specify the overall goals of the implementation procedures; b. select appropriate software; c. develop software support materials; d. randomly assign students to comparable groups; e. schedule and implement computer time for students; f. test student skills at regular intervals; g. evaluate the success of the software implementation procedures; h. evaluate the results of the issues examined.15. What new directions does educational technology need? a. Educators must learn to integrate the technology into their content so that the technology reinforces the standards that are being taught. b. Educators must gain an understanding of the history of technology, the changing role of technology, the social and psychological impact of technology, and the implications of current changes for education. c. Educators must take a hard look at traditional goals, particularly in the area of literacy. d. Educators must devise new definitions of classroom learning consistent with the revolution in the cognitive sciences. e. Educators must find a new metaphor for the learning environment; the school as factory is anathema. f. Educators must abandon the lockstep, competency-based curriculum and devise new instructional strategies. g. Educators must not only know about the electronic technologies, but they must also learn how to develop software for use with the visual media and the computer that facilitates learning. h. Educators need to devise a curriculum whose content prepares students for thinking “by” computers, thinking “about” computers, and thinking “with” computers. i. Education must emerge from its disciplinary narrowness.
9. CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 6816. What are some creative uses of technology in classrooms? a. Technology increases student motivation, and motivated students are more receptive, more engaged, and more likely to learn. b. Technology promotes cooperation and collaboration among students and good teachers can capitalize on these opportunities. Cooperative learning approaches with technology give students with different tal- ents a chance to excel. c. In classrooms with computers, conversations between teachers and stu- dents and among students themselves become deeper and more probing. d. Technology use encourages teacher-as-facilitator approaches. e. Technology promotes a “balance of power” between the teacher and his or her students. f. With technological tools, students show more persistence in solving problems. g. Technology encourages varied methods of assessment. h. Despite all the challenges of a one-computer/one internet-connection classroom, even this classroom environment enables good teachers to work effectively with diverse students. i. Technology fosters increased and improved oral and written communi- cation. j. Technology enables opportunities for more depth of understanding, but the breadth of the curriculum is still problematic. k. Technology provides increased opportunities for thematic, interdisci- plinary exploration; teachers can use these interdisciplinary connec- tions to further engage and excite students. l. Technology makes classroom activities “feel” more real-world and rel- evant, and students often take these activities more seriously. Source: McGrath, B. (1998). Partners in learning: Twelve ways technology changes the teacher-student relationship. T.H.E. Journal, 25(9), 58-51. Adapted with permission.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES – NONE
10. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 69E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. The major purpose of educational technology is to facilitate teaching and learning.2. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) does not allow students to interact with lessons programmed into the computer system.3. Distance Learning/Education occurs when the learner is separated in time or space from the point of origin.4. Educational technology involves televised lessons broadcast on education- al television.5. Virtual Reality is a computer controlled environment in which users expe- rience multi-sensory immersion and interact with certain phenomena as they would in reality.Multiple Choice1. Instructional Television (ITV) is any _______. a. form of duplication b. planned use of video programs to meet specific goals c. method to reduce interaction between the learner and teacher d. all of the above2. Telecommunications is the means for _______. a. communicating over a distance b. limiting the use of technology c. helping to increase frustration d. all of the above3. Video-Disk Technology is _______. a. an audio tool to increase learning b. a visual tool to increase learning c. an audio-visual tool that can present slides and play motion pictures at any time and in any sequence desired d. all of the above4. Virtual Reality is a _______. a. computer-controlled environment b. non-controlled environ- ment c. semi-controlled environment d. all the above5. The purpose of technology in the classroom is to _______.
11. CHAPTER 13–EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 70a. hinder learning b. facilitate learningc. thwart learning d. all the above