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Ch. 12 Teacher Preparation in America - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis
 

Ch. 12 Teacher Preparation in America - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

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Ch. 12 Teacher Preparation in America - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

Ch. 12 Teacher Preparation in America - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

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    Ch. 12 Teacher Preparation in America - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis Ch. 12 Teacher Preparation in America - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis Document Transcript

    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 32This book is protected under the Copyright Act of 1976. Uncited Sources,Violators will be prosecuted. Courtesy, National FORUM JournalsCHAPTER 12TEACHER PREPARATION INAMERICA AND SCHOOLINGKEY POINTS1. Approximately 1,300 universities and colleges offer teacher educationprograms.2. The number of students enrolled in teacher education dropped significantlyduring the 1970s and early 1980s.3. The critical reports of the early 1980s and mid 1990s cited severalweaknesses in teacher education programs.4. Reforms have been initiated in the majority of university teacher educationprograms.5. The Carnegie Report and Holmes Group have made the most significantimpact on teacher education reform.6. Teacher certification has changed very little during the past 50 years.7. Many states have alternative certification standards.8. It is difficult to predict if teacher shortages will be widespread. Shortageswill continue to exist in “special needs” areas such as special education,foreign language, science and mathematics, remedial education, computerscience, and bilingual education.Copyright © 2005William KritsonisAll Rights Reserved / Forever
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 33CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA ANDSCHOOLINGA. OVERVIEWThis chapter provides information about how teachers are trained and certified.The reform actions in teacher education resulted from the critical reports thatare discussed, as well as current practices in teacher education. Also presentedare teacher testing requirements and how teachers can be certified usingalternative certification methods.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSADMISSION STANDARDS - most states now require minimum test scores toenter teacher education programs. The tool most often used is the student’sGPA. GPA requirements are on an upward swing.ALTERNATIVE CERTIFICATION - teacher licensure obtained throughother than traditional coursework in education courses.CARNEGIE REPORT - the Carnegie Report focused on similar areas as theHolmes Group. One additional recommendation was a suggestion for thecreation of a National Board of Professional Teaching Standards to determinethe knowledge and skills teachers need to have and how to assess these skills.CERTIFICATION - must have a bachelor degree before certification; earn aminimal number of credit hours in various courses, including general educationcourses, professional education courses in the student’s teaching field, andstudent teaching. Certification for specialized positions such as principal,school psychologist, guidance counselor, and so on requires a prescribedamount of graduate level study and teaching experience.EXIT CRITERIA - many colleges of education have begun to require teachersto pass exit exams such as the National Teacher Examination (NTE). Even ifthe university does not require the test, numerous states currently require theexam for teacher certification.FIVE-YEAR PROGRAM - for many years, some critics of teacher educationprograms have encouraged colleges and universities to expand trainingprograms to five years.HOLMES GROUP - a group of about 100 research universities that issued areport in 1986 calling for major reforms in teacher education.NATIONAL TEACHER EXAM (NTE) - an exit exam that a teacher has topass as a requirement for teacher certification.
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 34PEDAGOGY - the art, science, or profession of teaching.REFORMS - colleges of education around the country are currently engagedin major revisions of their training programs to better meet the needs ofstudents. The Holmes Group recommended five areas of change: (a) abandonundergraduate teacher education programs for a liberal arts undergraduateemphasis and a master’s level focus on pedagogy; (b) create the position ofcareer professional teacher who would be involved with teaching,administration, and teacher education; (c) implement evaluation models forteachers and university training programs; (d) create partnerships betweenschools of education and school districts; (e) develop models for collaborationbetween teachers and administration.TEACHER EDUCATION - programs designed to train prospective teachers inpedagogy.TEACHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM - elementary education majorsrange from 12 to 78 credit hours, with a mean of 30 hours, some require 50semester hours of professional education courses; secondary, 12 to 47 hours,mean of 28 hours, require more than 30 semester hours for graduation. Theyalso take methods courses.TEACHER TESTING - testing new teachers is a controversial issue. TheNEA long opposed teacher testing and has just recently reversed itsoppositions to testing. The AFT has a long-term record of supporting teachertesting. In addition to testing new teachers, some states have passed testingrequirements for veteran teachers.C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS1. What is the status of teacher education?Despite the large number of teacher education programs, the enrollment inthese programs has declined sharply since 1970. In 1969, 24% of allcollege bound students in the U.S. planned to major in teacher education.This number had dropped to less than 5% in 1982. From 1970 to 1986, thenumber of students graduating from teacher education programs droppedfrom 314,000 to under 90,000. One reason for the drop in numbers hasbeen the decline in the status of teaching.The reasons for declining enrollments in teacher education programs arecomplex and include more than lower teacher status. One obvious reasonfor the lower number of education majors is the lack of available jobs. Inthe 1960s, teaching jobs were taken by approximately 25% of all collegegraduates. When the market became over-supplied with qualified teachersat the end of the 1960s, graduates from liberal arts programs who could
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 35become certified with minimal additional training found no jobs wereavailable. The result was that fewer undergraduates majored in education.Now the ratio of graduates to job openings has reversed.The number of public school teachers in schools is expected to increasefrom the present 2.2 million to more than 2.4 million in 2002. This demandfor teachers should lead to an increase in the number of undergraduatemajors in teacher education. Generally, teacher education is becomingmore practical and reality based. Competency-based teacher education,school based centers for preparing teachers, early field experience inelementary and secondary schools are some of the most recent trends.Fifth-year and five-year programs are being introduced in hopes ofdeveloping reflective teachers. Teachers are being prepared to use thelatest technology, to work with students having special needs, and to teachin diverse environments.2. What are the major criticisms of teacher education?a. admission standards are so low that anyone can enroll in teachereducation programs;b. education majors take too much coursework on “how to teach” and notenough on “what to teach”;c. the general education program for prospective teachers is less rigorousthan that required of other majors;d. anyone who gains admission to a teacher education program willundoubtedly graduate because the academic standards are so low.Other criticisms include the overall quality of education majors, poorabilities of teacher education faculty, and the lack of general educationcourses taken by education majors.3. How have universities responded to criticisms related to teachertraining?Colleges of education around America are currently engaged in majorrevisions of their training programs to better meet the needs of students.Some of the changes include: (a) improving the quality of teachereducation majors; (b) revising the curriculum; (c) increasing funding forteacher education; and (d) developing alternative certificationrequirements.Some university teacher education programs require more field experiencethan student teaching. For example, students may enroll in three differentfield experiences. In addition to the normal student teaching, education
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 36majors enroll in an introductory field experience where they are involvedin a school improvement project with a cooperating local school district.In addition to implementing better screening of students at the beginningof teacher education programs, many universities have begun to requireteachers to pass exit examinations such as the National TeachersExamination. Even if the university does not require an exit test, numerousstates currently require tests as a requirement for teacher certification.Other states will implement certification test requirements. Of tests used,the NTE is required most often.In response to criticisms by the Holmes Group and in the Carnegie Report,many universities and colleges are expanding their teacher educationprograms to five years.4. How are teachers certified in most states?Most states require that all individuals have a bachelor’s degree beforethey can be certified. Most states also require that students earn a minimalnumber of credit hours in various courses, including general educationcourses, professional education courses, courses in the student’sspecialized teaching field, and student teaching.5. What is alternative certification and what is its status?With teacher shortages being severe in some areas (i.e., science and math,special education, foreign languages, remedial education, computerscience, bilingual education), and emerging criticisms of traditionalteacher education programs, states have opted to initiate alternativemethods to certify teachers other than through traditional college ofeducation degree programs. Numerous states have implemented alternativecertification provisions since the mid-1990s.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES1. What are some of the major criticisms aimed at teacher educationprograms?a. admission standards are so low that anyone can enroll in teachereducation programs;b. education majors take too much coursework in “how to teach” and notenough coursework in “what to teach”;c. the general education program for prospective teachers is less rigorousthan that required of other majors;
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 37d. anyone who gains admission to a teacher education program willundoubtedly graduate because the academic standards are so low.2. What are some of the reforms that have been made recently in teachereducation programs?a. expanding teacher education programs to five years;b. implementing exit criteria;c. improving the curriculum;d. improving the quality of teaching education majors.3. What are the elements of The Kritsonis Advanced Knowledge Level ofThinking Model?The purpose of the The Kritsonis Advanced Knowledge Level ofThinking Model is to illustrate students’ potential knowledge level ofthinking.A teacher has an advanced knowledge level of thinking because ofeducation, training, or experience. These experiences can never be totallyimparted to the learner. The teacher can go only so far because learners aredeficient in their maturity, storage of information, education, training, andexperience. At best, the teacher may hope to bring students to a knowledgelevel of thinking approaching the 50% level.Although teachers try, they can never impart a total of 100% of theirknowledge because the learner has limited experiences. Therefore, iflearners are to advance beyond the 50% knowledge level of thinking, theymust accept the responsibility for gaining additional experiences andtraining along with educating themselves. By doing so, the studentadvances past the 50% level toward gaining an advanced level of thinking.
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 384. What is the National Education Code of Ethics?PreambleThe educator, believing in the worth and dignity of each human being,recognizes the supreme importance of the pursuit of truth, devotion toexcellence, and the nurture of democratic principles. Essential to thesegoals is the protection of freedom to learn and to teach and the guaranteeof equal educational opportunity for all. The educator accepts theresponsibility to adhere to the highest ethical standards.The educator recognizes the magnitude of the responsibility inherent in theteaching process. The desire for the respect and confidence of one’scolleagues, of students, of parents, and of the members of the communityprovides the incentive to attain and maintain the highest possible degree ofethical conduct. The Code of Ethics of the Education Profession indicatesthe aspiration of all educators and provides standards by which to judgeconduct.The remedies specified by the NEA and/or its affiliates for the violation ofany provision of this Code shall be exclusive and no such provision shallbe enforceable in any form other than one specifically designated by theNEA or its affiliates.Principle I–Commitment to the Student. The educator strives to help eachstudent realize his or her potential as a worthy and effective member ofsociety. The educator therefore works to stimulate the spirit of inquiry, theacquisition of knowledge and understanding, and the thoughtfulformulation of worthy goals.In fulfillment of the obligation to the student, the educatora. shall not unreasonably restrain the student from independent actions inthe pursuit of learning;b. shall not unreasonably deny the student access to varying points ofview;c. shall not deliberately suppress or distort subject matter relevant to thestudent’s progress;d. shall make reasonable effort to protect the student from conditionsharmful to learning or to health and safety;e. shall not intentionally expose the student to embarrassment ordisparagement;
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 39f. shall not on the basis of race, color, creed, sex, national origin, maritalstatus, political or religious beliefs, family, social or culturalbackground, or sexual orientation, unfairly:1. exclude any student from participation in any program;2. deny benefits to any student;3. grant any advantage to any student.g. shall not use professional relationships with students for privateadvantage;h. shall not disclose information about students obtained in the course ofprofessional service, unless disclosure serves a compellingprofessional purpose or is required by law.Principle II–Commitment to the Profession. The education profession isvested by the public with a trust and responsibility requiring the highestideals of professional service.In the belief that the quality of the services of the education professiondirectly influences the nation and its citizens, the educator shall exert everyeffort to raise professional standards, to promote a climate that encouragesthe exercise of professional judgment, to achieve conditions that attractpersons worthy of the trust to careers in education, and to assist inpreventing the practice of the profession by unqualified persons.In fulfillment of the obligation to the profession, the educatora. shall not in an application for a professional position deliberatelymake a false statement or fail to disclose a material fact related tocompetency and qualifications;b. shall not misrepresent his/her professional qualifications;c. shall not assist entry into the profession of a person known to beunqualified in respect to character, education, or other relevant attribute;d. shall not knowingly make a false statement concerning thequalifications of a candidate for a professional position;e. shall not assist a non-educator in the unauthorized practice of teaching;f. shall not disclose information about colleagues obtained in the courseof professional service unless disclosure serves a compellingprofessional purpose or is required by law;g. shall not knowingly make false or malicious statements about acolleague;
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 40h. shall not accept any gratuity, gift, or favor that might impair orappear to influence professional decisions or actions.Source: National Education Association. (1975). Code of ethics of the educational profession.Adopted by the NEA Representative Assembly. Excerpt reprinted by permission of theAssociation.5. What are some Contemporary Professional Terminologies?Academy - American secondary school during colonial times; stressedpractical subjects.Accountability - responsibility related to quality of educational programs.Accreditation - acknowledgment by an outside group that an educationalinstitution or program meets certain standards.Administrative Hierarchy - administrative organization of a local schooldistrict.Aesthetics - philosophy related to beauty.Alternative Certification - teacher licensure obtained through meansother than traditional coursework in education courses.American College Testing Program (ACT) - college entrance exam usedby many universities.American Federation of Teachers (AFT) - a national teachers’organization second only to the National Education Association inmembership.Assistant Principal - administrative position in an individual school thatprimarily assists the principal in administrative duties.Assistant Superintendent - administrative position in a school districtthat primarily assists the superintendent in administrative duties.Attitude - preconceived notions or ideas that affect behavior towardcertain groups of people or programs.Audiovisual Kit - instructional materials, usually in the form of filmstrips,tapes, and other audiovisual items and printed information.Axiology - area of philosophy that focuses on values.Back-to-the-Basics - movement to return schools to emphasizing basicacademic subjects in the curriculum.Behaviorism - educational philosophy and practice that emphasizesreinforcing appropriate behavior or learning. Includes the concepts ofstimulus and response.
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 41Bilingual Education - educational programs aimed at providing equalopportunities to limited-English-speaking students.Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge - bill presented byThomas Jefferson in Virginia that would have made three years ofelementary education available for all children. Although defeated, this billlaid the foundation for public education.Board of Education - a group of citizens at the local and state levels,usually elected but occasionally appointed, that set policies for schools.Building Level Administration - administration of individual schools(usually the principal).Burnout - the process of losing interest and motivation in teaching orother fields.Cardinal Principles - seven goals for secondary education developed bythe NEA in the early 20thcentury.Career Education - a concept that aims at preparing students foradulthood, with emphasis on careers and vocation; can be infused intoexisting curricula K-12.Carnegie Report - a report issued by a task force organized by theCarnegie Foundation with suggestions for revising teacher education.Career Ladder - a system of incentives developed for teachers to improveand reward their professional skills.Categorical Aid - financial assistance provided to local schools forspecific programs or purposes.Censorship - the act of censoring materials such as library books andtextbooks.Central office - refers to the district administration level of local schooldistricts.Certification - teacher licensure.Change Agent - a role of school administrators related to making andinfluencing innovations in schools.Closed-Circuit Television - a form of educational technology using atelevision and video camera.Colonial Period - period in American education from 1607 to 1788.Committee of Fifteen - a committee appointed in 1895 by the NationalEducation Association that reversed the findings of the Committee of Ten.
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 42Common School - free, publicly supported schools for all children;movement began in the mid 1800s.Competency - ability to perform certain skills at appropriate levels.Comprehensive High School - secondary schools that provide a variety ofcurricular options for students.Compulsory Education – legal, mandated education for all studentswithin certain age groups.Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) - programmed instruction using acomputer.Computer Science - the study of computers and computer programming.Conservative Movement - movement to influence educational programsby conservative groups.Consolidation - combining smaller school districts into larger districts.Core Curriculum - required curriculum for all students.Creation-Science - the study of the development of humanity based on theBible.Cultural Pluralism - a society composed of many varied cultures forminga unified cultural group.Curriculum - all experiences provided to students in schools.Declining Enrollments - trend in schools during the past decade.Department of Education - cabinet-level office within the federalgovernment responsible for education.Discipline - actions in response to inappropriate behavior or actions thatprevent inappropriate behaviors.Due Process - procedural safeguards afforded students, parents, andteachers that protects individual rights.Educational Philosophy - application of formal philosophy to the field ofeducation.Educational Technology - technology applied to educational practices,primarily instruction.Educational Television - educational programs broadcast by eithercommercial stations or specialized educational networks that emphasizeeducational subjects.Education Trends - forecasted patterns in education.
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 43Elementary Schools - grades 1-6 or K-6.English Grammar School - model of elementary education in colonialAmerica.Enlightenment Period - period in Europe during 18thcentury.Epistemology - branch of philosophy that focuses on the nature ofknowledge.Essentialism - area of philosophy that believes a common core ofknowledge and ideals should be the focus of the curriculum.Ethics - philosophy that studies values.Evaluation - assessing the quality and effectiveness of programs forindividuals and groups.Evolution - the study of the development of humanity based on scientificdata that proposes human beings developed from lower life forms.Exceptional Children - students with disabilities or talents that requirespecialized programs.Existentialism - philosophy that emphasizes individuals and individualdecision making.Federal Government – national government that is centrally located inWashington DC.Federal Role - role of the federal government in education.Formula Grants - educational funding based on the number of childreneligible for various programs.Fringe Benefits - any number of benefits provided employees in additionto salary. Examples include insurance programs, retirement programs, andliability insurance.Full-Time Equivalency (FTE) - funding model used at many universitieswhere programs are funded based on the number of full-time studentsenrolled.Futurism - study of the future, including global concerns and moreregional or local matters.General Curriculum - basic curriculum required of all students.Geopolitics - political status of all countries in the world.Gifted and Talented - a group of students whose abilities are above thoseof most students; these students require specialized programs.
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 44Global Trends - forecasted developments that have an impact on theentire world, such as geopolitics, hunger, population.Graded Schools - schools organized using a step system whereby studentsare usually grouped related to chronological age rather than abilities.Graduation Requirements - courses and competencies required of allstudents for graduation.Handicapped Children - students who deviate from the norm due tophysical, emotional, or mental disabilities.History of Education - historical study of education.Holmes Group - a group of about 100 research universities that issued areport calling for major reforms in teacher education.Hornbook - a single page, usually attached to a wooden paddle,containing the alphabet, syllables, a prayer, and other simple words; this“book” was used extensively in colonial schools.Idealism - a philosophy that emphasizes global ideas related to moralteachings.Individualized Educational Program (IEP) - individual program ofstudy mandated by federal and state laws for all handicapped students inspecial education programs.Individualized Instruction - instruction designed to meet the needs of anindividual student. Every student’s individualized program is different.Instructional Television - televised lessons broadcast for schools usuallyon educational television.Intermediate Unit - a level of educational organization between localschool districts and the state department of education.Kindergarten - school programs for pre-school age children; term coinedby Froebel.Latin Grammar School - secondary school whose curriculumemphasized Latin and Greek and focused on preparing students forcollege.Learning Disability - a handicapping condition where students of averageor above-average intelligence have difficulty with academic subjects.Least-Restrictive Environment - educational setting that is closest to anormal classroom for handicapped learners.
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 45Legislation - acts passed by state legislatures and Congress that becomelaws.Litigation - court actions, suits.Local Education Agency (LEA) - local school districts. This is the basiceducational unit in all states.Mainstreaming - the practice of integrating handicapped students intoregular classrooms and programs as much as possible; implementation ofthe least-restrictive environment.Measurement - another term used interchangeably with evaluation.Medieval Period - period in Europe from 476 to 1300.Melting Pot Theory - theory that people from all cultures form a commonculture.Mental Retardation - handicapping condition related to intellectualdeficits; usually defined in terms of limited IQ scores and adaptivebehavior.Merit Pay - salary paid to an employee based on the employee’s abilitiesor competencies, regardless of number of years of services.Metaphysics - philosophy that studies the nature of reality.Microcomputer - personalized computer the approximate size of atelevision set or smaller.Middle School - an organized educational unit between elementary schooland high school; usually includes grades 5-8.Mill - a tenth of a cent or a thousandth of a dollar. Used to assess the rateof property taxes.Minimum Competency Testing - evaluations to determine if studentshave minimum skills necessary for progressing to the next grade orgraduation.Minimum Foundation Program - funding model found in most statesthat attempts to guarantee a basic educational program for children fundedat an average minimal level.Monitorial Schools - school model where brightest students wereinstructed and in turn they taught other students.Motivation - willingness or drive to accomplish something.
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 46Nation at Risk Report (1983) - national report developed by the NationalCommission that indicated public education in the United States hasserious problems.National Commission on Education - a study group formed in the early1980s to investigate the status of public education in the United States.National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education(NCATE) - accreditation agency that certifies the quality of teachereducation programs nationwide.National Education Association (NEA) - largest teachers’ organization inthe United States.National Period - period in American education from 1788 to the present.Negative Reinforcement - removal of an aversive stimulus whenappropriate behavior is exhibited.New England Primer - early textbook used in colonial schools.New Right - term used to refer to extremely conservative groups thatattempt to influence educational programs.Nongraded School - an organizational pattern for schools that usestudents’ abilities for grouping rather than assigning students to certaingrades based on chronological age.Normal School - first college training programs that prepared teachers.Northwest Ordinance - early legislation passed by the nationalgovernment prior to the ratification of the United States Constitution.Open Classroom - physical organization of schools where room dividersare deleted; students are educated in groups in large, open areas.Overpopulation - a condition when there are more people than aparticular land mass can accommodate.Paraprofessional - teachers’ aides and others who assist teachers ineducational programs.Parent Teachers Association (PTA) - national organization composed ofparents and teachers that advocates for public education.Pedagogy - science and art of teaching.Perennialism - educational philosophy that believes in the existence ofunchanging universal truths.Personnel Evaluation - evaluation of individual teachers andadministrators.
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 47Philosophy of Education - application of philosophy to educationalprograms and practices.Piagetian Theory - theory of child development based on the writing ofJean Piaget.Population Trends - forecasted patterns of population growth and decline.Pragmatism - philosophy that focuses on practical application ofknowledge; John Dewey was a leading proponent.Principal - administrator in charge of individual schools.Program Evaluation - evaluation of specific programs regarding theireffectiveness.Progressive Tax - a tax where individuals with higher incomes pay moretaxes than individuals with lower incomes.Progressivism - educational philosophy emphasizing experiences.Property Assessment - determination of property values to assign taxes toindividuals.Property Tax - taxes assessed on local properties used to finance publiceducation.Proportional Tax - taxes that require individuals to pay the samepercentage of their incomes regardless of income level.Public law 94-142 - Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Passedin 1975, this act mandates a free, appropriate public education for allhandicapped children.Public Law 99-457 - a federal law passed in 1986 that mandates schoolsto serve children with disabilities, ages 3-5, by 1990-1991.Punishment - application of something unpleasant to a child followinginappropriate behavior.Puritan Influence - influence over education by Puritans in the NewEngland colonies during colonial America.Realism - philosophy that emphasizes natural sciences and gainingknowledge through experiences.Reform Movements of the 1980s - educational reforms initiated in theearly 1980s in response to several national reports concerning the qualityof public education.Reinforcement - stimulus provided following a behavior; may be positiveor negative.
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 48Reinforcement Schedule - schedule used to determine when reinforcersare given to a person.Regressive Tax - taxes where persons with lower incomes payproportionally more taxes than individuals with higher incomes.Reliability - the technical aspect of a test that indicates that students’scores will be stable over time.Renaissance and Reformation - period in Europe between 1300 and1700.School Counselor - professionals in schools who provide counseling forstudents who need affective intervention.School Social Worker - social worker who works in schools to providesocial work services to students and their families.School Superintendent - chief school administrator at the local districtlevel; usually appointed by the local board of education.Secondary Reinforcer - a reinforcer paired with a primary reinforcerdesigned to influence behavior after the primary reinforcer is no longerprovided.Secondary Schools - schools that provide educational programs for olderstudents; usually includes grades 9-12 or 10-12.Secretary of Education - cabinet-level official in charge of the UnitedStates Department of Education.Self-Contained Classroom - classroom organization where studentsremain in the same room with the same teacher all day.Sexism - practice of discrimination based on gender.Shaping - the process of providing reinforcers to alter a child’s behaviorinto appropriate forms.Software - computer programs.Special Education - specialized programs developed for the education ofchildren with disabilities.Standardized Test - a test that is norm-referenced and has specificadministration standards so scores can be compared.State Department of Education - state unit responsible for public andprivate educational programs in states.Symbolic Representation - most abstract of representation commonlyreferred to as verbal learning or problem solving.
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 49Superintendent - chief school administrative officer in local schooldistricts.Supervisor - administrator responsible for specific programs in publicschools, e.g., supervisor of special education, vocational educationsupervisor, supervisor of elementary education.Supply and Demand - comparison between the number of teacherstrained and the number needed for open positions.Taxes - payments to a government to pay for various services.Tax Revolt - movement to decrease taxes during the 1970s.Tax Sources - sources of tax revenue.Teacher Education - programs designed to train prospective teachers inpedagogy.Teacher Testing - a movement begun in Arkansas in the early 1980s totest teachers in basic skills.Teacher Unions - teachers’ organizations that lobby for educationalprograms and teachers’ rights and benefits. The NEA and AFT are the twolargest national teacher unions in the United States.Teacher Unit - a method of funding public education programs based onthe number of teachers needed for a particular district or program.Technology - use of technical materials and equipment in schools.Tenth Amendment United States Constitution - amendment thatreserves to states areas not specifically mentioned in the Constitution.Tenure - an employee benefit that makes it difficult to terminate someone;usually provided to teachers after several years of successful teachingexperience.Textbook Censorship - the process of groups determining whichtextbooks meet their standards.Tracking - practice of channeling students into certain courses based onability levels.Ungraded Schools - school organization where students progress based ontheir ability level rather than chronological age.Validity - technical aspect of tests indicating that they measure what theypurport to measure.Values Clarification - a teaching program that focuses on studentsunderstanding and expressing their own values.
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 50Videocassette Technology - equipment consisting of a television andvideocassette camera for use in educational settings.Vocational Education - programs that emphasize career preparation.Training of students for particular jobs or skills.Weighted Pupil Method – a method of state funding for public educationbased on the needs of types of students.6. What are some specific guidelines for conducting educational researchrelative to field studies and/or projects?a. Parts of a Proposal1. Title2. Introduction to the Study3. Review of the Literature4. Statement of the Problem5. Purpose of the Study6. Research Questions and/or Hypotheses7. Definitions8. Assumptions9. Limitations10. Methodology11. Significance of the Study12. Referencesb. Parts of a Field Study, Thesis, or Dissertation1. Title Page2. Abstract3. Table of Contents4. Chapter 1 Introduction to the StudyStatement of the Problem, Purpose of the Study, ResearchQuestions and/or Hypotheses, Definitions, Assumptions,Limitations, Significance of the Study. Note: This is basically theproposal minus the review of the literature and minus themethodology.5. Chapter 2 Review of the Literature
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 516. Chapter 3 Methods and ProceduresExpanded and detailed (Subjects, Instrument, Procedures,Tabulation of Data, Treatment of Data).7. Chapter 4 Analysis of Data or Results of StudyDemographic information of sample or population results-raw datain prose and graph or chart form summary of results.8. Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions, and RecommendationsSummarize results, make conclusions, make recommendationsbased on findings, and recommend further study on topic or similartopic.9. References10. AppendixPossibly make a list of where specific tables, charts or graphs arelocated.c. A Research Proposal: The Framework for a Study1. Titlea. Uses enough descriptive words to catalog it by ERIC andResources in education.b. Example: The effects of collective negotiations on teacher jobsatisfaction in the Vermilion Parish School District2. Introduction to the StudyShort attention getting. Describes what the proposal will cover andmakes the reader interested in the topic of interest. A briefbackground of where the study will be conducted could add to theintroduction. Briefly set the stage for the study. Keep it brief;remember this is a proposal not the completed study; one to twopages.3. Review of the LiteratureThis part of the proposal reviews relevant info and relevantliterature pertaining to your topic. Previous research and previousliterature should be included. Five to 15 citations are normallyenough for a proposal. Try to keep citations RELEVANT ANDRECENT; two to six pages.4. Statement of the Problem
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 52a. This part of the proposal logically sets up the underlyingintellectual motives for you doing the research on this specifictopic and this specific problemb. Example: There appears to be opposing conclusions in theresearch concerning collective bargaining and its effect uponthe plight of the teacher. Smith (1992) found that bargaininghad not benefited teachers. Jones (1994) noted that bargaininghad greatly enhanced teacher morale. (Opposing conclusionsare a good way to set up the statement of the problem.)5. Purpose of the Studya. Succinctly describe what the research intends to find.b. Example: The purpose of this study is to determine the extentto which the collective bargaining process has influencedteacher job satisfaction levels; one paragraph.6. Research Questionsa. State the specific questions that the study will attempt toanswer. Here you are breaking down the PURPOSE OF THESTUDY into several relevant research questions. Keep in mindthat the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, andresearch questions must all fall logically in line.b. Examples:1. What was the level of teacher job satisfaction beforebargaining rights.2. What was the level of teacher job satisfaction afterbargaining rights.3. Was there a significant mean change in teacher jobsatisfaction following the acquisition of collective bargainingrights.7. Hypothesesa. Puts the research questions in statistical terms.b. Example: There is no significant difference in teacher jobsatisfaction following the acquisition of bargaining rights.8. Definitionsa. Here you will define terms specific to your study that theoutside reader would not be familiar with. Also specificallyoperationally define general terms that you assume all would
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 53know but might be different in different school districts in theregion, state, or nation.b. Examples:1. Vermilion Parish School District - This is a mostly ruralschool district in southwestern Louisiana comprised of 1300sq. miles. The district serves 10,000 students and employs500 teachers.2. VAE - The school district affiliate of the NationalEducational Association. Sixty-nine percent of allVermilion teachers belong to this organization.3. Teacher(s) - Those persons employed in the school districtwith the primary objective being the academic instruction ofstudents. This does not include librarians and counselors inthis specific study.9. Assumptionsa. Any assumed aspect that you the researcher may make shouldbe noted and stated.b. Examples:1. The instrument used in this study will accurately measurethe job satisfaction levels of teachers.2. Teachers will objectively answer the questions posed tothem in the study.10. Limitationsa. Any boundary or limitation of the study should be stated.b. Examples:1. The study will measure levels of teacher job satisfaction inonly one school district.2. The findings of this study may not be generalized to othersettings due to unique characteristics of the school district.3. Teachers surveyed may vary in years of experience.11. MethodologyFour parts to methodology section of proposal.
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 54a. Subjects - Describe subjects or sample (who and where). Youmay describe population within this part; two to threeparagraphs.b. Instrument - Describe instrument or test and specific materials.Validity and reliability may be discussed; two to threeparagraphs.c. Procedures - Describe a step-by-step process of what you planto do. Timeline and permission to do study may be mentioned.d. Data Analysis - Describe how you will analyze the data. Whattype of stat test will be used, will you compare means, will youhave charts or graphs; one to two paragraphs.Note: A research proposal is only the framework for yourstudy. Be brief but concise enough to let your majoradvisor know what it is you intend to undertake. Aproposal is usually 7-12 pages in length. Quality notquantity.12. Significance of the Studya. State why this study is important and worthy of the time andeffort that will go into it. Validate the reasoning behind doing aspecific study of this type in this region, district, or state.b. Examples:1. Data derived from this study will serve as a guide to schooldistricts in similar settings that are also considering thecollective bargaining process.2. This study will also provide information on a topic that haslargely been ignored in the research and literature.13. ReferencesFive to 15 are usually enough for a proposal (RELEVANT,RECENT, APA).d. Add the following to your proposal and you will have the completedfield study.1. The AbstractA one page summary of the complete study. This becomes page 2of the completed study.
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 552. Expand the Review of the LiteratureThis will become Chapter 2 of the completed study.3. Expand the MethodologyTitle it “Methods and Procedures.” Go into detail on what wasdone in the study. This becomes Chapter 3 of your completedstudy. You may have to change some things.4. Add Chapter 4Title it “Analysis of Data.” Briefly describe in prose and inchart/graph form the numerical results of the study. Do not explainor summarize or conclude in this chapter. Save your thoughts forthe next chapter. Merely show and tell how the results turned outwithout a big brainstorm on why they turned out as they did.5. Add Chapter 5Title it “Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations.” Here iswhere you will summarize the results of the study, but then youalso may put yourself into it and explain why the results turned outas they did. Here is the chance you have been waiting for tobrainstorm and play the part of the expert. Here you tell why youthink it turned out as it did. Try to consider all factors and allvariables that could have played upon and influenced thedependent variable. You may choose to be even more scholarlyand recommend further study on this topic to other aspiringresearchers. Further study could probably be done on this issue atanother school or in a slightly different manner.Source: This section originally conceived and developed by Dr. Neil T. Faulk. It was furtherrefined by Dr. William Kritsonis and edited by Dr. Joe Savoie.7. What components of discipline are imperative for all teachers?a. background information needed for understanding discipline problems:1. discipline problems are not new;2. discipline problems as viewed by new teachers:a. students try out a new teacher;b. many new teachers try unrealistic approaches;c. the new teacher is unfamiliar with the local situation;d. new teachers often feel insecure;e. schools where new teachers likely to work;
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 563. discipline problems and the experienced teacher;4. solutions to discipline problems are being sought;5. knowing what the role of the teacher is.b. information a teacher should remember about the psychology ofmisbehavior:1. discipline problems arise from:a. boredom;b. frustration;c. rebellion;d. insecurity;2. teachers can help by:a. accepting the fact that performance varies;b. being a compassionate human;c. giving students a part in rule making.c. kinds of social problems that relate to sociology impact discipline:1. urbanization;2. family changes;3. job situation;4. mobility;5. parental attitude towards school and teachers;6. changing view toward authority.d. the principal’s role in school discipline includes:1. helper of:a. responsibility;b. self-interest;c. position;2. an enforcer;3. a referrer.e. legal implications for handling discipline problems in schools are:1. due process;2. laws deal with several areas:
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 57a. search and seizure;b. dress code;c. corporal punishment;3. teachers must operate within the law;4. disciple policy;5. minor offense regulations;6. elementary school regulations;7. other offenses;8. suspension regulations;9. reinstatement of student on short-term suspension;10. long-term suspension procedure;11. suspension hearings;12. expulsion procedures;13. status and rehabilitation of suspended and expelled students.f. types of behaviors in school occur from:1. anti-social behavior (the basic problem):a. vandalism;b. fighting;c. classroom disruption;d. stealing, cheating, and others;2. the goal is intelligent self-control: take students as they are.g. behavioral problems: some reasons why students act the way they do:1. students feel an obligation to try out the teacher;2. certain students are not interested in the material being studied;3. everybody needs recognition as a person;4. some problems have an academic base;5. many students are born conformists;6. many students bring resentments to school;7. to many youngsters, rebellion is part of growth.h. teachers can avoid contributing to discipline problems in schools by:
    • CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGPAGE 581. being organized;2. being definite;3. being natural;4. acting as an adult at all times;5. being consistent and fair;6. developing a thick skin;7. avoiding arguments;8. avoiding temper fits;9. developing a set of values;10. not threatening;11. avoiding humiliating the pupil if possible;12. giving students responsibility if they can handle it;13. not rushing to give absolution.i. “If you can’t control ’em, you can’t learn ’em”–things teachers can doto control discipline:1. know the law as it applies to disciplinary matters;2. know the local customs and conditions regarding discipline;3. keep an eye on seating arrangements;4. be sure that everyone has something to do;5. vary the activities;6. think positively;7. be a human being;8. avoid group indictments;9. try to maintain good rapport with student leaders;10. avoid using school work for punishment;11. keep referrals to a minimum;12. so far as possible, make corrections privately;13. learn as much as you can about the students;14. work with parents as appropriate;15. don’t look for the end of the list.
    • SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 59Source: Kritsonis, W. (2000). School discipline: The art of survival. Illustrated by Lawrence A.Rybicki. Ashland, OH: BookMasters, Inc.E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. Approximately one-third of today’s teachers possess a master’s degree.2. Graduation requirements vary greatly from state to state.3. One reason for the decline in the number of education majors has been thelack of jobs.4. In most states today, the minimum education required to become acertified teacher is the Associate of Arts degree.5. Many different groups have accused teachers of being the major cause ofproblems in public education.Multiple Choice1. Since 1970, enrollment in teacher education programs has _______.a. dropped slightly b. dropped sharply c. increased slightlyd. increased sharply2. Teacher education programs have traditionally attracted students who_______.a. are not as academically talented as other majorsb. are significantly more academically talented as other majorsc. are academically indistinguishable from other majorsd. none of the above3. The number of states that have requirements for recertification is _______.a. 10 b. 20 c. 30 d. 40