SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 247CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICANSCHOOLINGA. OVERVIEWThis chapter presents information about school administrators, school boards,superintendents, central administrative staff, and building-level administrators.A great deal of attention is focused on school principals since they are suchcritical members of the school team. Also discussed are the roles,responsibilities, and characteristics of principals. Various leadership modelsare presented that have been effective in business, industry, and schools.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSAASA - American Association of School AdministratorsADMINISTRATIVE HIERARCHY - administrative organization of a localschool district.ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL - administrative position in an individual schoolthat primarily assists the principal in administrative duties.BENEFITS - school administrators receive many benefits including: highersalaries than teachers, management responsibilities, opportunities foradvancement in administration, and leadership opportunities.BUILDING LEVEL - administration of individual schools. Principals are thekey administrators. Many schools employ assistant principals, departmentheads, and supervisors to assist the principal in carrying out the administrativeduties at the building level.CENTRAL OFFICE - relates to the district administration level of schoolboards.CERTIFICATION - teacher licensing. Certification for specialized positionssuch as principal requires a prescribed amount of graduate level study andsuccessful teaching experience.DISTRICT-WIDE - administrative staff that oversees all activities within thedistrict, are all housed in the central office. These include the superintendentand any assistants.INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP - leadership that informs and guidesteachers’ decisions so that practice can mesh with policy.LOCAL SCHOOL BOARD - a group of constituents at the top of thehierarchy. They hire the school superintendent. Local School Boards derivetheir authority from, and work as agents of the state.
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 248NAESP - National Association of Elementary School Principals.NASSP - National Association of Secondary School Principals.NCPEA - National Council of Professors of Educational Administration.NSBA - National School Board Association.PERSONNEL EVALUATION - evaluation of individual teachers andadministrators.PRINCIPALS - primarily instructional leaders.PROGRAM EVALUATION - evaluation of specific programs regarding theireffectiveness.SCHOOL POLICIES - give each school a unique personality, affectdisciplinary methods, academic expectations and requirements, dress codes,curriculum, and school climate. School policies are written guidelines that givedirection to the administrator(s) and other employees responsible for carryingthem out and also establish decision-making parameters.SUPERINTENDENTS - chief school administrative officer in local schooldistricts.SUPERVISORS - administrators responsible for specific programs in publicschools, e.g.: supervisor of special education, vocational education supervisor,supervisor of elementary education, supervisors of secondary education,supervisor of buildings and grounds.UCEA - University Council of Educational Administration.C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS1. What is an administrative hierarchy?This is the equivalent to a chain of command, headed by the local schoolboard.2. How did local control of public schools evolve?Local control of education by lay persons began in the New Englandcolonies. The Massachusetts School Ordinance of 1642 delegated theresponsibility for education to the “townsmen” making parents andguardians responsible for children in their care to read and understand theprinciples of religion and the commonwealth’s laws. This trend wasreinforced with the Massachusetts School Ordinance of 1647 and insubsequent amendments passed in 1671 and 1683. Even stronger than theMassachusetts laws were the Connecticut Laws of 1650. These laws werespecific in the description of duties and responsibilities of individuals
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 249selected to oversee the schools. Not until 1721 in Boston, however, wereindividuals responsible for overseeing the schools set apart from the localgovernmental structure of the community.3. What are the specific responsibilities of local boards of education?Local Governance Structurea. selecting the CEO of the school district–superintendent;b. approving budgets;c. determining school sites and attendance boundaries;d. entering into contracts;e. collective bargaining;f. establishing criteria for employing school district personnel;g. determining the curriculum;h. approving school calendar;i. adopting salary schedules for administrators, teachers, and other schoolemployees;Curriculum andInstructionPersonnelServicesBusinessServicesSpecialServicesSUPERINTENDENTPRINCIPALSTEACHERSSCHOOL BOARDLOCAL SCHOOLS
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 250j. acting on the superintendent’s recommendations concerning hiring andtermination of employees, and engaging in contracts in behalf of thedistrict;alsok. delegate responsibility for all administrative functions, except thosespecifically reserved through board policy for the board chairman tothe superintendent;l. support the superintendent fully in all decisions that conform toprofessional standards and board policy;m. hold the superintendent responsible for the administration of the schoolthrough regular constructive written and oral evaluations of thesuperintendent’s work;n. provide the superintendent with a comprehensive employment contract;o. give the superintendent the benefit of the board’s counsel in mattersrelated to individual board members’ expertise, familiarity with thelocal school system, and community interests;p. hold all board meetings with the superintendent or designee present;q. consult with the superintendent on all matters as they arise that concernthe school system and on which the board may take action;r. develop a plan for board-superintendent communications;s. channel communications with school employees that require actionthrough the superintendent and refer all applications, complaints, andother communications, oral or written, first to the superintendent inorder to assure that the district processes such communications in aneffective, coordinated fashion and is responsive to students and patrons;t. take action on matters only after hearing the recommendations of thesuperintendent;u. establish a policy on effective management of complaints;v. provide the superintendent with sufficient administrative help,especially in the area of monitoring teaching and learning.4. What is the relationship between the superintendent and the board ofeducation?The local school board hires the superintendent as the CEO of theadministrative offices.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 2515. In what roles do superintendents become involved?a. maintain relations with the board;b. educational leader;c. maintain positive relations with the community.6. What roles do assistant central office staff fill?The duties performed by central staff administrators are determined bytheir specific roles. For example, in a small district there may be only oneassistant superintendent. This individual may be assigned theresponsibilities for transportation, food services, and the curriculum. Inlarge districts, these duties may be divided among several central officestaff members.7. What are the primary roles of school principals?a. child advocate;b. manager;c. instructional leader;d. disciplinarian;e. human relations facilitator;f. evaluator;g. conflict manager;h. collective bargaining agent;i. adult developer;l. change agent or innovator;k. community relations liaison.8. What are the major management responsibilities of principals?Although the principal’s role as instructional leader is considered by manyto be the primary role, without expertise and leadership in thenoninstructional activities, the school would have a difficult timefunctioning.9. How do principals influence the school climate?The way the principal carries out his various duties will greatly influencethe school climate. See question #7 for duties.10. How does a typical principal spend a day?Typical day: 33% on paperwork, 13.5% parent conferences, 13.5%personnel conferences, 9% discipline, 9% scheduling, 9% cafeteria duties,
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 2522.5% instructional leadership. Principals in effective schools are likely tospend more time related to the curriculum and instruction.11. What expectations do various groups have for principals?Principals are expected to do many different things for many differentpeople, such as teachers, students, central administration personnel, statedepartments of education, and the local community. Students expect apersonal relationship. Teachers expect support with discipline problems,professional treatment, and being able to participate in the decision-making process. Parents expect instructional leadership, collaborating withparents, and keeping the interest of students foremost. Superiors expectcarrying out of school policies, maintenance of a positive relationship withthe community, instructional leadership, student discipline, and effectivemanagement of the school. Although principals cannot always meet theexpectations of everyone, they must at least determine the feasibility ofmeeting the expectations that impact on the school. Principals cannot be allthings to all people; they must make decisions related to whichexpectations are in the best interests of the school.12. What are some group roles that should be supported by the schooladministrator?a. The Energizer: provides energy, motivation, and drive to the group;b. The Procedural Expert: understands how the organization functionsand understands its rules and regulations;c. The Evaluator: is able to dispassionately view group ideas andlogically utilize them without negatively impacting group members;d. The Opinion Seeker: carefully seeks ideas and encourages theparticipation of all group members;e. The Initiator: suggests new or different ideas for discussion andapproaches to problems;f. The Opinion Giver: states pertinent beliefs about discussion andothers’ suggestions;g. The Elaborator: builds on suggestions of others;h. The Clarifier: gives relevant examples; offers rationale; probes formeaning; restates problems;i. The Tester: raises questions to “test out” whether group is ready tocome to a decision;j. The Summarizer: reviewers discussion, pulls it together;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 253k. The Tension Reliever: uses humor or calls for breaks at appropriatetimes to draw off negative feelings;l. The Compromiser: willing to yield when necessary for progress;m. The Harmonizer: mediates differences; reconciles points of view;n. The Encourager: praises and supports others; friendly; encouraging;o. The Gate-Keeper: keeps communications open; encouragesparticipation.Source: Chance, E.W. (1992). Visionary leadership in schools: Successful strategies for developingand implementing an educational vision. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Adapted withpermission.13. What are some group roles that are negative and should not besupported by the school administrator?a. The Sympathizer: attempts to garner the group’s sympathy ofcomplaining, confessing, or condemning certain activities of theorganization;b. The Aggressor: criticizes and deflates others; disagrees with othersaggressively;c. The Blocker: stubbornly disagrees; rejects others’ views; citesunrelated personal experiences; returns to topics already resolved;d. The Withdrawer: won’t participate; converses privately; self-appoint-ed note-taker;e. The Recognition Seeker: boasts; excessive talking; conscious of his/her status;f. The Topic Jumper: keeps changing the subject;g. The Dominator: tries to assert authority; manipulate group;h. The Special-Interest Pleader: uses group’s time to plead his/her owncase;i. The Playboy/girl: wastes group’s time showing off; story teller;nonchalant; cynical;j. The Devil’s Advocate: more devil than advocate.Source: Chance, E.W. (1992). Visionary leadership in schools: Successful strategies for developingand implementing an educational vision. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Adapted withpermission.
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 25414. What are some effective traits and skills of the effective school admin-istrator?Traits SkillsAdaptable to situation CleverAlert to social environment IntelligentAmbitious andachievement-orientedConceptually skilledAssertive CreativeCooperative Diplomatic and tactfulDecisive Fluent in speakingDependable Knowledgeable about group tasksDominant (desire toinfluence others)Organized (administrative ability)Energetic (high activity level) PersuasivePersistent Socially skilledSelf-confidentTolerant of stressWilling to assume responsibilitySource: Yukl, G.A. (1989). Leadership in organizations (2nded.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall,Inc. Adapted with permission.15. What do superior school administrators have in common?a. trust and have confidence in both the capabilities and the motivation ofsubordinates and believe that they want to accept responsibility andwork hard;b. believe that shared authority and participation is both desirable anduseful;c. seek achievement and legitimate power;d. are reasonably self-confident, assured, optimistic, sensitive, and alert.Source: Sayles, L.R. (1979). LEADERSHIP - What effective managers really do . . . and how theydo it. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Adapted with permission.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 25516. According to the literature, what are some characteristics for schoolleadership?Characteristics ReferenceA vital and clear vision Bogue 1985; Covey 1989; Duke1987; Gardner 1987, 1988; Levine1987; Manasse 1986A strong and positive self-concept Bogue 1985; Covey 1989Decision making and judgment inactionBogue 1985; Gardner 1988;Manasse 1986Honesty, integrity, and strongmoral componentsCovey 1989; Daugherty 1987;Larkin 1986; Manasse 1986;Communication skills Bingham 1986; Clark & Teddlie1987; Daugherty 1987; Papalewis &Brown 1989; Quate 198617. According to the literature, what are some leadership characteristicsspecific to women?Leadership Characteristics Found in the LiteratureValue system that stresses caring,service, and relationshipsShakeshaft 1986, 1987b; Helgesen1990, 1995; Dorn, O’Rourke, &Papalewis 1997Focus on instruction andinstructional issuesShakeshaft 1986, 1987b, 1989b,1995; Smith 1994; Eakle 1995;Mims 1992Focus on supporting, on sense ofcommunity, consensusbuilding, cooperationShakeshaft 1986, 1987b, 1989b,1995; Schaef 1985; Helgesen 1990,1995; Dorn, O’Rourke, & Papalewis1997Orderly, organized Shakeshaft 1989b, 1995; McGrath1992; Eakle 1995; Woo 1985Openness; depth of feeling Loden 1985; Helgesen 1990, 1995;Schaef 1985Listening skills, clarity,communication skillsDorn, O’Rourke, & Papalewis 1997;Papalewis & Brown 1988; HansonTable continues
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 2561991; Papalewis 1995Leadership Characteristics Found in the LiteratureInterpersonal skills Helgesen 1990, 1995; Loden 1985;Cooper 1992; Hanson 1991;Cartwright 1994Vision; Global; Big Picture Helgesen 1990, 1995; Loden 1985;Schaef 1985Persistency; Determination Marshall 1986; Mims 1992; Hill &Ragland 1995Inner strength Schaef 1985; Smith 1994; Helgesen1995; Marshall 1986Relationships are central Schaef 1981, 1985; Loden 1985;Helgesen 1990, 1995; Shakeshaft1986, 1987, 1989b, 1995; Hill &Ragland 1995Source: O’Rourke, C. (1998). Women’s leadership skills, attitudes, and experiences: A descriptiveethnographic multiple case study of women in the superintendency in the public schools inthe state of California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of La Verne, La Verne,CA. Adapted with permission.18. According to experts, what leadership characteristics, skills, attitudes,behaviors, and experiences are published in the literature?Leadership Characteristics Authors in the LiteraturePhysical energy, stamina,personal masteryCovey 1989; Gardner 1988Decision-making and problem-solving skillsGardner 1988; Tosi, Rizzo, &Carroll 1994Personal values, and personal andshared visionCovey 1989; Kouzes & Posner1987; Manasse 1986; Senge 1990;Senge et al. 1994Enthusiasm for life and for the jobas reflected in positive attitudesand actions, intuition andperception of mistakes as waysto learnCangemi 1986; Covey 1989; Kouzes& Posner 1987; Jones & Bearley1996; Hall, 1996; Helgesen 1990,1995; Senge 1990; Senge et al. 1994Possession of listening skills,people skills, managerial skills,Jones & Bearley 1996; Hanson1991; Lutz 1986; Obermeyer 1996Table continuesTable continued
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 257technical skillsLeadership Characteristics Authors in the LiteratureAbility to evaluate people andprograms, strong morals, andethical principles which areadhered to in actions andattitudesLutz 1986; Tosi, Rizzo, & Carroll1994; Covey 1989; Kouzes &Posner 1987; Larkin 1986; Peck1992Caring about and belief in people,as shown through empathetic,helpful and nonconflictiveactionsCangemi 1986; Harvey & Drolet1994; Helgesen 1995; Kouzes &Posner 1987; Peck 1992; Yukl 1994Ability to integrate and to behelpfulCangemi 1986; Peck 1992; Yukl1994Ability to learn and to grow fromexperience and problemsJones & Bearley 1996; Covey 1989;Katzenbach & Smith 1993; Kouzes& Posner 1987; Harvey & Drolet1994; Helgesen 1995; Manasse1986; Peck 1992; Senge 1990;Senge et al. 1994Vital and clear vision Bogue 1985; Duke 1987; Endeman1990; Gardner 1987, 1988; Levine1987; Manasse 1986; Senge 1990;Senge et al. 1994Decision making and judgment inactionBogue 1985; Gardner 1988; Konnert& Augenstein 1990; Konnert 1995;Manasse 1986Honesty, integrity, and strongmoral componentsCovey 1989; Daugherty 1987;Konnert & Augenstein 1990;Konnert 1995; Larkin 1986;Manasse 1986; Peck 1992Communication skills Bingham 1986; Clark & Teddlie1987; Papalewis & Brown 1989;Papalewis 1995; Quate 1986;Shakeshaft 1995Table continued
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 25819. What are some female and male patterns of leadership?Females MalesGender as a Variable in Team BuildingCompetence valued before trust inteam membership (Shakeshaft1995)Trust valued before competence inteam membership (Shakeshaft1995)Trust for women: “an expectancythat the word, promise, orwritten statement of anotherindividual or group could berelied on” (Garfinkel 1988;Schaef 1985)Trust for men: “ability and comfortto say what they wished to say –confident that others would notrepeat.” (Garfinkel 1988; Schaef1985; Shakeshaft 1995)Men do not see untrustworthiness ifnot delivered on time (Shakeshaft1995)Expect and value discussion ofissues related to work. Expectsubordinate to talk about issuesdiscussed (Schaef 1985;Shakeshaft 1995)Expect that conversation/informa-tion not be divulged unless soinstructed (Schaef, 1985;Shakeshaft 1995)Loyal and ethical behaviorconceptualized as loyal teammember speaking up whenthere was disagreement withcourse of action taken by bossLoyalty shown by not disagreeingwith the boss, except privately(Helgesen 1995; Schaef 1985;Shakeshaft 1995)Gender as a Variable in Evaluation/FeedbackWomen have to work harder toget men to “hear” them(Shakeshaft 1995)Men receive more feedback andmore types of feedback inconversations, than women(Shakeshaft 1995)Women listen for feeling(Gilligan 1982; Shakeshaft1987b, 1995)Men listen for facts (Gilligan 1982;Shakeshaft 1987b, 1995)Table continues
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 259Females MalesGender as a Variable in Evaluation/Feedback (Con’t)Women focus on instruction (Hall1996; Shakeshaft 1987b, 1995)Collaborative, consulting (Hall1996; Helgesen 1995;Shakeshaft 1995)Male administrators are less likelyto give direct feedback to femalesbut more likely to give it tomales; if a female errors malesnot likely to give feedback tofemale but to correct mistakewithout her knowledge(Shakeshaft 1987b, 1995)Women are evaluated lessfavorably than equallycompetent men (Shakeshaft1987b, 1995)Males evaluate females moreharshly than females evaluatefemales (Hall 1996; Shakeshaft1987b, 1995)Women more likely to getnonevaluative feedback orneutral responses (Shakeshaft1995)Men receive both more positive andmore negative responses(Shakeshaft 1995)Women take criticism hard.“They tended to think it was anassessment of their veryessence” (Shakeshaft 1995)Men fail to give women importantcorrective feedback that wouldhave allowed women to improveperformance (Shakeshaft 1995)Source: O’Rourke, C. (1998). Women’s leadership skills, attitudes, and experiences: A descriptiveethnographic multiple case study of women in the superintendency in the public schools inthe state of California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of La Verne, La Verne,CA. Adapted with permission.20. What are some questions that need to be answered in developing apersonal vision as a school administrator?a. What are my five greatest strengths?b. What are my five greatest weaknesses?c. What are three things I most value in my professional life?d. With what style of leadership am I most comfortable?Table continued
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 260e. What are the most important things I want to accomplish in this schooldistrict?f. What do I want to prove as an administrator?g. How would I like to be remembered as an administrator?21. What are the classical notions of Frederick Taylor’s organizationaltheory?a. Be a hierarchical chain of command.b. Be various levels of authority.c. Be established divisions of labor.d. Be clearly defined tasks.e. Be established rules of behavior.f. Be a system of punishments that are personally costly if one violatesthe rules or fails to complete the assigned task.g. Employees must be recruited on the basis of their ability and technicalknowledge.h. Employees must be expected to perform the tasks in the same mannersince all tasks have been standardized.Taylor strongly believed his theory would result in every job beingperformed efficiently, productively, and with the least effort.22. What are some general characteristics of social systems?Social systems have boundaries, a purpose for survival, and interact withintheir environment. Social systems have both bureaucratic andorganizational expectations, informal norms, and are comprised ofindividuals having needs, wants, desires, and aspirations. Internal andexternal forces, demands, and expectations reinforce appropriateresponses.23. What career opportunities are there for school administrators?Most administrators start out as classroom teachers. This seems to be thebest way to become a school administrator. Most states have specificcertification requirements for administrators that go beyond therequirements for a teaching certificate, supervisor certificate, andsuperintendent certificate. The requirements for these certificates varyfrom state to state, but usually include college coursework at the graduatelevel and experience as a teacher. Some states do not require a specificlicense for administrators.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 26124. What are the rules for supervisory conferences with teachers?“The Worst Things To Do”a. Always hold conferences at the end of a hard day. Friday afternoon ishard to beat.b. Make administrators look pretty inadequate. But be subtle.c. When talking to a teacher, blame other teachers. When talking to morethan one teacher, blame counselors or psychologists. Never be afraid totake sides in an argument among teachers. It brings them closertogether.d. If a teacher begins to understand you, try using more pedagogics. If theteacher himself has held a position similar to yours, you are in trouble.e. Try to do most of the talking. It may be hard to stop a teacher once hegets started. If necessary, interrupt him “Just a minute, I disagree.”f. Explain your superior experience in teaching–especially if the teacherhas transferred from another school or is new.g. Always stress existing departmental or grade level organizationproblems. It will help the teachers see what you are up against.h. Let other teachers or secretaries overhear the conversation. Maybe theywill try to make something of themselves.i. If the teacher is tired, conduct the interview standing up. It may shortenthe whole thing, and the teacher probably wants to get home anyway.j. Ask if there has been any insanity in the family. This will get a chucklewhen the going gets rough.k. Tell teachers about other difficult cases that are even worse than theirs.Supply names, where needed, but indicate that “I don’t want to beunprofessional.”l. Try staring out the window.25. What are eight irritating habits of supervisors?a. Supervisor says something and then denies it at the next meeting.b. Passes the buck on problems.c. Says, “We’ll have to think about it.”d. Doesn’t give me a chance to talk.
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 262e. Belittles my suggestions.f. Interrupts me when I talk.g. Argues with everything I say.h. Rephrases and puts words in my mouth.Source: Walker, J.J. (January 1976). Georgia teachers list of irritating supervisory habits. Phi DeltaKappan, 57, 350. Adapted with permission.26. What are the elements of having a good committee?a. Facts About Delegation1. delegate authority–to horde it is to lose it;2. delegate authority with responsibility;3. work through channels; don’t destroy the right to hold him or heraccountable by unnecessarily interfering with work;4. delegate only if you have confidence;5. assigning responsibility does not lessen your responsibility;6. clearly define the responsibility to each subordinate;7. follow-up delegation; don’t over supervise;8. delegate so employee is supervised by one person;9. never assign distasteful duties because they are unpleasant,correcting, discharging, or disciplining;10. when you delegate authority over others, back him or her up whenauthority is challenged;11. be sure to straighten out any complaints about an employeeoverstepping his or her authority;12. let every subordinate know just what decisions he or she hasauthority to make.b. Why Committees Fail1. committee has no clear-cut assignment, no reason to exist;2. chairperson is not qualified by experience, desire, or ability;3. members get appointed who are neither interested nor experienced;4. group has no orderly plan, no time schedule;5. members talk, talk, talk, talk, without decisions;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 2636. work of the committee is not publicly recognized by theorganization;7. committee’s recommendations are not acted on;8. members do not show up for meetings;9. staff sends agenda out late or distributes it at the meeting;10. staff does not provide needed documentation;11. minutes are sent out late or not at all;12. five to fifteen members is a reasonable number for a committee.c. On Being A Good Committee Member1. is receptive and open to ideas;2. has perspective on subject of concern to the committee;3. is familiar with the aims of the organization and agrees with them;4. enjoys the give and take of committee discussion;5. is able to express ideas clearly;6. is willing to give the needed time for meeting attendance;7. has good judgment, is not narrow and arrogant;8. can think in terms of the welfare of the group rather than owninterests.d. What Makes A Good Chairperson1. starts and ends the meeting on time;2. allows the group to get well acquainted;3. sees to it that as many as possible participate in discussion;4. keeps the discussion directed to the topic and toward the objective;5. acts as a guide and leader;6. summarizes the decisions from time to time;7. does not talk about an individual on the committee;8. is seen as sincere and thoughtful by the committee;9. summarizes the meeting and the actions to be taken by themembers;10. works with members between meetings.e. Logistics of the Meeting
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 2641. agenda is sent out in advance of meeting;2. documentation for the agenda is also provided in advance;3. meeting place should be carefully selected;4. meeting room is comfortable;5. meeting room should be set up in round or oval arrangement;6. paper, pencils, glasses and water pitchers, etc., provided if necessary;7. food or dinner–if served–should be light;8. whenever possible, the group should act by consensus;9. people somewhat unfriendly to each other should not be seatedopposite each other. Members who are very friendly to each othershould not be seated side by side.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES1. What is leadership?In general, leadership is helping others toward common goals or purposes.2. Why do we have school administrators?Schools are complex organizations that must have leaders. In schools,leaders are called administrators. Without administrators, schools wouldhave no direction. They would be institutions without leadershipfunctioning in a haphazard fashion.3. Describe the administrative hierarchy in a middle-sized school district.At the top of the hierarchy is the local school board, a group ofconstituents. The local board hires the school superintendent, who is thechief local school officer. The superintendent, in turn, employs othercentral office administrative staff, as well as building principals. Eachlevel of the hierarchy serves a specific purpose involving theadministration of the public schools.4. What are the major roles of principals? Do they differ at theelementary and secondary levels? If so, how?Principals are expected to perform many varied roles in today’s schools,including manager, instructional leader, child advocate, disciplinarian,human relations, facilitator, evaluator, conflict manager, change agent orinnovator, community relations, and adult developer. The major role ofschool principals remains the same, regardless of the age level of thestudents.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 2655. What are the essential 10 attributes for success as a schooladministrator?a. develop style relative to interpersonal relations;b. develop patience;c. develop a systematic approach to discipline;d. develop the ability to delegate authority and responsibility;e. develop skills to observe and evaluate teaching performance;f. develop a philosophy of education;g. develop a “style” or “approach”;h. develop a method to check the use of time;i. develop goals and develop objectives to attain them;j. develop a model for decision making.6. What are some descriptors of autocratic and democratic leadershipstyles?Autocratic DemocraticBossCommandPowerPressureDemanding cooperationImposing ideasDominationCriticismFaultfindingPunishingI tell youI decide, you obeyLeaderInvitationInfluenceStimulationWinning cooperationSelling ideasGuidanceEncouragementAcknowledge achievingHelpingDiscussionI suggest, you decide7. What are the components of Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory?Herzberg’s theory has been widely accepted by administrators. Its basicpostulate is that one set of rewards contributes to job satisfaction and aseparate set to job dissatisfaction.
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 266The Motivation-Hygiene Theory is based on Herzberg’s findings from hisstudy of industrial employee motivation to work. In interviews with 203accountants and engineers, Herzberg used a critical-incidents procedurethat essentially asked each person interviewed to describe eventsexperienced at work that had resulted in either a marked improvement or asignificant reduction in job satisfaction.The study found that positive events were dominated by references toachievement, recognition (verbal), the work itself (challenging),responsibility, and advancement (promotion). Negative events weredominated by reference to interpersonal relations with superiors and peers,technical supervision, company policy and administration, workingconditions, and personal life.Representation of the Motivation-Hygiene TheoryJob SatisfactionDissatisfaction (–) (+) SatisfactionMOTIVATORS OR SATISFIERSAchievementRecognitionWork itselfResponsibilityAdvancementHYGIENES OR DISSATISFIERSInterpersonal relations–subordinatesInterpersonal relations–peersSupervision–technicalPolicy and administrationWorking conditionsPersonal lifeDissatisfaction (–) (+) SatisfactionMOTIVATORS1. Achievement2. Recognition3. Work itself4. Responsibility5. AdvancementHYGIENES (NON-MOTIVATORS)6. Salary7. Possibility of growth8. Interpersonal relations–subordinates9. Status10. Interpersonal relations–superiors11. Interpersonal relations–peers12. Supervision–technical
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 26713. Company (school) policy andadministration14. Working conditions15. Personal life16. Job security8. What are the components of Douglas McGregor’s Theory X andTheory Y?Douglas McGregor stressed the importance of understanding therelationship between motivation and human nature. In observing thepractices of traditional managers, McGregor believed that managersusually attempt to motivate employees by one of two basic approaches. Hereferred to these approaches as Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is thetraditional view of management that suggests that managers are requiredto coerce, control, or threaten employees in order to motivate them. Incontrast, McGregor proposed an alternative philosophy of human nature,which he referred to as Theory Y. Theory Y is a view of management bywhich a manager believes people are capable of being responsible andmature. Employees do not require coercions or excessive control by themanager in order to perform effectively. McGregor’s belief was thatTheory Y is a more realistic assessment of people.McGregor’s Theory X and Theory YTheory X Theory YThe average person inherentlydislikes work and will avoid it ifpossible.The expenditure of physical andmental effort in work is as naturalas play or rest.Because of the dislike of work, mostpeople must be coerced, controlled,directed, and threatened withpunishment to get them to performeffectively.People will exercise self-directionand self-control in the service ofobjectives to which they arecommitted.The average person lacks ambition,avoids responsibility, and seekssecurity and economic rewardsabove all else.Commitment to objectives is afunction of the rewards associatedwith achievement.Most people lack creative ability andare resistant to change.The average person learns, underproper conditions, not only toaccept but to seek responsibility.Since most people are self-centered,they are not concerned with the goalsThe capacity to exercise arelatively high degree of
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 268of the organization. imagination, ingenuity, andcreativity in the solution oforganizational problems is widely,not narrowly, distributed in thepopulation.Source: Based on McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.Adapted with permission9. How can Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy be satisfied by the school systemas an organization?MASLOW’SHIERARCHYEXAMPLES OF HOW NEEDS CAN BESATISFIED BY THE ORGANIZATIONSelf-Actualization Needs(Realizing one’spotential growth usingcreative talents)Challenging work allowing creativity,opportunities for personal growth andadvancementEsteem Needs(Achievementrecognition and status)Title and responsibility of job, praise, andrecognition for work done, promotions,competent management, pay as relatedstatus, prestigious facilitiesSocial Needs(Love, belonging,affiliation, acceptance)Friendly associates, organizedemployee activities such as bowling orsoftball leagues, picnics, parties, coffeeSafety Needs(Protection against danger,freedom from fear, security)Benefit programs such asinsurance and retirement plans,job security, safe and healthyworking conditions, competentconsistent and fair leadershipPhysiological Needs(Survival needs, air, water, food,clothing, shelter and sex)Pay, benefits, workingconditions
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 27011. What are the components of Porter’s Hierarchy of Work Motivation?SELF-ACTUALIZATIONWorking at full potentialFeeling successful at workAchieving goals viewed as significantAFFILIATIONBelonging to formal and informal work groups,friendships, professional association and unions,acceptance by peers beyond the immediate organizationSELF-ESTEEMTitles, feeling self-respect, evidence of respect byothers, status symbols, recognition, promotions,awards, being part of “insiders” groupAUTONOMYControl of work situation, influence in the organization,participation in important decisions, authorityto utilize organizational resourcesSECURITYPay, union, seniority, retirement plan, tenure, such legalconcepts as “due process” and “fairness,” statutory andpolicy protections establishing orderly evaluation and“RIF” procedures, the negotiated contract, insurance plans
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 27112. What are the components of David McClelland’s Needs Theory?McClelland emphasized that there are certain needs that are learned andsocially acquired as the individual interacts with the environment. McClel-land’s needs theory is concerned with how individual needs andenvironmental factors combine to form three basic human motives: theneed for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation.Need for AchievementA person with a high need for achievement tends to be characterized as anindividual who• wants to take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems;• is goal oriented;• seeks a challenge–and establishes moderate, realistic, and attainablegoals that involve risk but are not impossible to attain;• desires concrete feedback on performance;• has a high level of energy and is willing to work hard.For these people, the value of goal accomplishment is enhanced if thegoals are at least moderately difficult to achieve and if there is a significantdegree of risk involved. Individuals are better able to “manage”themselves and satisfy the basic drive for achievement.Need for PowerA high need for power means that an individual seeks to influence orcontrol others. Such an individual tends to be characterized as a personwho• is concerned with acquiring, exercising, or retaining power to influenceover others;• likes to compete with others in situations that allow him or her to bedominant;• enjoys confrontations with others.McClelland said that there are two basic aspects of power: positive andnegative. Positive use of power is essential if a manager is to accomplishresults through the effort of others. The negative face of power is when anindividual seeks power for personal benefit, which may prove detrimentalto the organization.
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 272Need for AffiliationThe need for affiliation is related to the desire for affection andestablishing friendly relationships. A person with a high need foraffiliation tends to be characterized as one who• seeks to establish and maintain friendships and close emotionalrelationships with others;• wants to be liked by others;• enjoys parties, social activities, and bull sessions;• seeks a sense of belonging by joining groups or organizations.According to this theory, the probability that an individual will perform ajob effectively and efficiently depends on a combination of:• the strength of the motive or need relative to other needs;• the possibility of success in performing the task;• the strength value of the incentive or reward for performance.13. What are the components of William Ouchi’s Theory Z?Theory Z is the belief that a high degree of mutual responsibility, loyalty,and consideration between companies and their employees will result inhigher productivity and improved employee welfare. Theory Z companiestend to practice a system of lifetime employment and avoid layoffs. Thecompanies usually enjoy low employee turnover, low absenteeism, andhigh employee morale. The workers are more involved in their jobs withthe company, a factor that leads to increased productivity andperformance. Theory Z companies tend to develop their own traditions,ideals, and culture, and foster somewhat of a “family environment.” This“family” or culture within the organization tends to bond its members–employees and manager–thereby facilitating decision making andcommunications within the company.14. What are the components of a Job Enrichment Model?Job enrichment refers to basic changes in the content and level ofresponsibility of a job so as to provide greater challenge to the worker.The individual is provided with an opportunity to derive a feeling ofgreater achievement, recognition, responsibility, and personal growth inperforming the job. There are a number of principles applicable forimplementation:
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 273a. Increasing job demand: Changing the job in such a way as toincrease the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job.b. Increasing a worker’s accountability: Allowing more individualcontrol and authority over the work while retaining accountability ofthe manager.c. Providing work scheduling freedom: Within limits, allowingindividual workers to schedule their own work.d. Providing feedback: Making timely periodic reports on performanceto employees (directly to the worker rather than to the supervisor).e. Providing new learning experiences: Work situations shouldencourage opportunities for new experiences and personal growth ofthe individual.15. What are the components of a Job Enlargement?Job enlargement is the changes in the scope of a job so as to providegreater variety to the worker. Job enlargement provides a horizontalexpansion of duties. Increased responsibility means providing the workerwith increased freedom to do the job–make decisions and exercise moreself-control over the work.16. What are the components of the Model of the Organization as a SocialSystem (Getzels-Guba Model)?Source: Adapted from Getzels, J.W., & Guba, E.G. (1957 Winter). Social behavior and the administrativeprocess. The School Review, 65, 423-441. Reprinted with permission.Institution Role ExpectationIndividual Personality Need-DispositionSocial ObservedSystem Behavior
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 27417. What are the components of the Guba & Getzels Model?The administrator hasACTUATING FORCE(AUTHORITY)which derives fromRole Dimension Person Dimension(nomothetic) (ideographic)Delegates status Achieved prestigeand authority and authoritywhich enables him to influence theBEHAVIOR OF SUBORDINATEStowardGOALS OF SCHOOLSource: Getzels, J.W., & Guba, E.G. (1957 Winter). Social behavior and the administrative process. TheSchool Review, 65, 423-441. Adapted with permission.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 27518. What are the nine components of Kritsonisms?1. We don’t hire good people, we make them.• We allow them feedback, direction, hire potential.• Marriage, we don’t find good partners, we make ourselves a goodpartner.• Diamond polishers, we develop them. Do we chip or do we polish?2. High risk and failure is BETTER than low risk and success.• Try new things.• High effort risk.3. Never ask for volunteers.• Ask people personally to volunteer.• Know your people.• Go ask them. Do not call them on the telephone.4. Do tough jobs first.• Tough job first, 80% or the total work.• Toughest job.• Easy last.• Use the cheese cake theory–take a bite out of it. Do tough jobsfirst.5. Sometimes we do things we are not good at.• Most people know if they are not doing a good job.6. Good ideas must be sold as better ideas.• Sell good ideas.• A new idea isn’t a good idea until it is sold.7. Keep it simple.• Keep ideas simple.• Don’t let it get complex.• Keep it big and keep it simple.8. Be problem conscious.• Look down the road.
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 276• Solve problems before they get out-of-hand.9. Let people see you as a person.• Open yourself up.• If more than 25% of your people are deadwood, then look atyourself.19. What are the major components of the Kritsonis Balanced TeeterTotter Model?The Kritsonis Balanced Teeter-Totter Model emphasizes the utilizationof more effective technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills.Kritsonis asserts that technical, human, and conceptual skills should bedeveloped and refined through experience.The teetering component illustrates that when educators functionproductively, the model remains balanced. The educator exhibitscompetency. When the teetering component is not functioningproductively, it teeter-totters, swings back-and-forth causing frustration,insecurities, and multiple dysfunctions resulting in low-level production,and in some cases incompetency.Dr. William Kritsonis has served education in the roles of teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, director ofstudent teaching and field experiences, editor, and university professor.E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. The local school board is at the top of the school system’s administrativehierarchy.C O N C E P T U A L S K I L L ST E C H N IC A L S K I L L S H U M A N S K IL L ST e c h n ic a l S k illsH u m a n S k illsT e c h n ic a l S k illsH u m a n S k ills
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 2772. The principal is the chief local school officer.3. Local control of schools by lay persons began in the New Englandcolonies.4. Local school boards are regulated by state statutes.5. Requirements established by local school boards may exceed staterequirements in various areas, such as graduation criteria and teacher pay.6. The superintendent is an employee of the school board.7. The chief executive officer of the local school district is thesuperintendent.8. The district superintendent is a key individual in the functioning of anylocal school district.9. The principal reports directly to the school board regarding the function ofthe school.10. Many people consider the principal’s primary role to be an instructionalleader.11. Students seem to want more rather than fewer rules.12. Studies indicate that the largest part of a principal’s time is spent ondisciplinary matters.13. The career ladder to administration usually starts in the classroom.14. Most states lack specific certification requirements for administrators.Multiple Choice1. The powers and responsibilities of local school boards are established by_______.a. local citizenry b. local school board c. state statutesd. federal law2. The following are all duties of the school board except _______.a. enforcing state and federal laws b. designing schoolsc. staffing schools d. all of the above are included3. Local school board members can be _______.a. elected b. appointed c. either a or b d. none of the above4. The income group most heavily represented on typical school boards is_______.
CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 278a. lower b. middle c. upper middle d. upper5. The typical board member possesses _______ education.a. high school b. some college c. bachelors degree or higherd. masters degree or higher6. The key administrative figure at the building level is the _______.a. school board member b. superintendent c. principald. administrative assistant7. The role of the principal is _______.a. disciplinarian b. instructional leader c. managerd. all of the above8. The text cites that a feature of an effective discipline program is _______.a. a philosophy of discipline clearly stated in the student handbookb. swift and severe punishmentc. more principal time on disciplined. all of the above9. Principals can encourage an attitude favorable to change through _______.a. encouraging collaboration among staffb. taking responsibility for change effortsc. narrowing communication channels to those directly involvedd. all of the above10. Students’ expect a _______ from principals.a. personal relationship b. instructional guidancec. counselor/client relationship d. none of the above11. The majority of the principal’s time is probably spent on _______.a. discipline b. paperwork c. evaluation of staff or programsd. instructional leadership12. Most school administrators _______.a. start as classroom teachersb. have masters degrees or abovec. hold specific certifications in administrationd. all of the above