Ch. 8 Secondary Schooling in America - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis]


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Ch. 8 Secondary Schooling in America - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis]

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 209This book is protected under the Copyright Act of 1976. Uncited Sources,Violators will be prosecuted. Courtesy, National FORUM JournalsCHAPTER 8SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAKEY POINTS1. Junior high schools were the first form of intermediate schools developed.2. Middle schools were developed as a result of critics questioning the poorpreparation of students for high school.3. Middle schools are currently the most popular intermediate organization inour public schools.4. Today, high schools follow a comprehensive model and provide a varietyof programs to a diverse group of students.5. Secondary schools are usually organized in a traditional manner thatincludes types of curriculum (vocational, general, college prep.) andspecific courses taken at different grades.6. The common curriculum found in high schools include English, math,science, social studies, vocational programs, and extra-curricular activities.7. Specialized curricular areas, such as sex education, drug education, andnuclear education are found in some high schools.8. Vocational education is a curricular option available to many students whodo not plan on pursuing academic objectives after high school.9. Students in today’s high schools participate in a wide variety ofextracurricular activities.10. The most common method of instruction at the secondary level is the lecture.11. School policies regarding discipline, expulsion, suspension, and appearancecodes greatly affect secondary students.12. Approximately 25% of American high school students dropout of schoolbefore graduation.13. More than 90% of high school seniors in this country have used alcohol atleast once.Copyright © 2005William KritsonisAll Rights Reserved / Forever
  2. 2. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 21014. Nearly 25% of high school seniors had used illegal drugs during theprevious 30 days.15. Teenage pregnancy and suicide continue to be major problems for adolescents.CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAA. OVERVIEWThis chapter includes information on secondary educational programs. Topicsinclude middle schools, junior high schools, and high schools. Also discussedare the organizational structures found in these schools along with curriculumof secondary schools and instructional methods. A final section focuses onproblems experienced by secondary students.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSACADEMIC CURRICULUM - focuses on preparing students for highereducation programs.ADOLESCENCE - teenage years; individuals must deal with physical,physiological, and emotional changes.ALCOHOL ABUSE - considered by some as America’s number one mentalhealth problem. In 2002, approximately 66% of high school seniors had usedalcohol in the past 30 days; 92% at one time in their lives.APPEARANCE CODES - schools have the right to impose various dress andappearance standards that can be shown to be related to the preservation ofsafety and to the orderly functioning of the school program.COMMON CURRICULUM - a study of those consequential ideas,experiences, and traditions common to all of us by virtue of our membership inthe human family at a particular moment in history.COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOL - secondary schools that provide avariety of curricular options for students.DISCIPLINE - actions in response to inappropriate behavior or actions thatprevent inappropriate behaviors.DROPOUTS - those who dropout of school. Individuals who leave an activity,a course, a program, or a school before completing its requirements and whodo so voluntarily. A tremendous amount of time and effort are required fromall school personnel and family members to keep dropouts in school.DRUG ABUSE - the use of drugs contrary to medical and legal regulationsand/or norms.
  3. 3. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 211EXPULSION - when students are barred from attending school for anextended period of time.HIGH SCHOOL - the first secondary schools to develop, starting in the late19thcentury, followed by the intermediate schools. An institution of learningthat provides education to youth who have completed elementary and/ormiddle school programs.INDEPENDENT STUDY - allows some students to venture into activities thatwould not be possible to address in large groups. This method of instruction isexcellent for gifted students but also can be effective with students of averageacademic abilities and students who have learning difficulties.JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL - the first form of intermediate school. Designed tomeet the unique educational needs and abilities of students during earlyadolescence.MIDDLE SCHOOL - an organized educational unit between elementaryschool and high school; usually includes grades 5-8. A school organized tomeet the needs of preadolescents and early adolescents in the middle range ofgrades.MORRILL ACT OF 1862 - gave land grants and operating funds to states forthe operation of colleges and universities.MULTICULTURAL - includes children from a variety of ethnic backgrounds.MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION - includes teaching such courses as ethnicstudies or social assimilation. It also includes changing schools to provideequal opportunities for all children, regardless of ethnic background.SEARCH AND SEIZURE - the right of school officials to search students’lockers and personal areas.SEX EDUCATION - must “modify” in a few hours of classroom instructionthe messages that young people receive every day from their friends, the massmedia, and other sources.SUSPENSION - used most often when schools can show that the continuedpresence of a particular student is dangerous or severely disruptive to theschool program. Students are typically suspended for disciplinary reasons.TEENAGE PREGNANCY - can occur more than one million times each year;can result in difficulties for young families; learning and behavior problems forchildren later in life.VOCATIONAL CURRICULUM - educational programs that emphasize careerpreparation and training of students for particular jobs in at least one occupation.
  4. 4. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 212C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS1. What is the structure of secondary education in the United States?Secondary education in the United States functions on two levels:intermediate schools and high schools.2. What are the purposes of middle schools compared with junior highschools?Junior high schools were established as an intermediate between grammarand high schools. They tend to focus on academics while limiting theirfocus on personal development. Middle schools were developed as amethod of enhancing the focus of child growth and development duringthe pre- and early adolescent years. Middle schools are now the mostpopular school organization between elementary and high schools. For themost part, middle schools attempt to serve students based on their needs,not on their chronological age grouping. This results in a curriculum thatincludes academic, physical, social, and emotional components.3. What three curricular tracks are found in most secondary schools?Comprehensive high schools provide educational opportunities to preparestudents for post-secondary academic education, vocational training, andjobs. Most secondary schools offer three basic types of curricular options:general, academic, and vocational.4. How are secondary schools organized vertically?In general, high schools group students horizontally and vertically byprogram track; programs comprise various subjects taught by teacherscertified in those areas; students are exposed to subjects in various classeseach day; and the social activities of students are many and varied.5. What subjects are generally included in the common curriculum?Courses in common curriculum should include literature, the arts, foreignlanguage, history, civics, science, mathematics, technology, and health.6. What is the current status of science and math education?In science education, the thrust appears to be toward making science morefunctional and process oriented.Math education, like science education, is in a crisis. Students often chooseto take only the minimal math requirements in secondary schools; theyoften elect to take general math rather than algebra or more difficult mathsubjects when they have the option; math electives are rarely taken by
  5. 5. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 213many students; many math teachers meet only minimal teachingqualifications.7. What are the purposes of vocational education?a. providing skills and experiences considered valuable by students;b. facilitating the mastery of avocational and vocational skills by students;c. providing hands-on learning opportunities;d. providing a curriculum that is closely related to everyday survival needs;e. possibly providing an alternative for potential school dropouts;also:a. helping integrate children from the lower economic sector;b. helping with national economic problems;c. providing an appropriate curriculum for approximately half of thestudent body not suited for a more academic program;d. helping with the broader problems posed by youth.8. What is the current status of vocational education?Approximately 25% of high school students are enrolled in vocationaleducation programs and more than 90% of today’s graduates havecompleted at least one vocational course. Sixty-three percent of the 20million students enrolled in vocational education programs are in programsat public secondary schools.9. What problems exist in secondary schools?School dropouts–many programs have been developed to help preventstudents from dropping out of school. Some are:a. providing support programs;b. providing alternative classes;c. encouraging co-curricular activities;d. encouraging positive group interactions;e. working with families.Declining academic performance–educators must be aware of the pasttrends and maintain efforts to improve students’ scores.Alcohol and drug abuse–alcohol and drug abuse were once consideredproblems for a small, select segment of the adolescent population.
  6. 6. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 214Currently, however, abuses of these substances among American youth isan unfortunate acknowledged fact.Teenage pregnancy–approximately 1.2 million adolescents get pregnanteach year; nearly half of these pregnancies result in live births, with theremaining pregnancies ending in either spontaneous or induced abortionsor maternal death. Teenage pregnancy, therefore, is a large problem in theUnited States.Suicide–adolescent suicide in the United States has increased 300% duringthe past two decades; it is the leading cause of death among 15 to 24-year-olds.10. Some related facts are:a. Junior high schools were the first form of intermediate schoolsdeveloped.b. Middle schools were developed as a result of critics questioning thepoor preparation of students for high schools.c. The middle school is currently the most popular intermediateorganization in the public schools.d. Today’s high schools follow a comprehensive model to provide avariety of programs to a diverse group of students.e. Secondary schools are usually organized in a traditional manner thatincludes types of curriculum (vocational, general, college prep.) andspecial courses taken at different grades.f. The common curriculum found in high schools includes: English, math,science, social studies, vocational programs, and extra-curricular activities.g. Specialized curricular areas, such as sex education, drug education, andnuclear education are found in some high schools.h. Vocational education is a curricular option available to many studentswho do not plan on pursuing academic objectives after high school.i. Students in today’s high schools participate in a wide variety of extra-curricular activities.j. The most common method of instruction at the secondary level is thelecture.k. School policies regarding discipline, expulsion, and suspension, andappearance codes greatly affect secondary schools.l. Approximately 25% of American high school students dropout ofschool before graduation.
  7. 7. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 215m. More than 90% of high school seniors in this country have used alcoholat least once.n. About 25% of high school seniors had used illegal drugs during theprevious 30 days.o. Teenage pregnancy and suicide continue to be major problems foradolescents.11. Where can students obtain work experience in their local community?• Advertising agencies• Appliance stores• Automobile agencies• Automotive supply stores• Banks• Book and stationary stores• Credit offices• Department stores• Discount stores• Drug stores• Dry goods and generalmerchandise• Employment agencies• Family clothing stores• Farm and garden stores• Florists• Furniture stores• Fruit stores• Gift shops• Grain and feed stores• Grocery stores• Hardware stores• Heating and plumbing business• Hotels-motels• Household appliance stores• Infant wear stores• Insurance companies• Jewelry stores• Laundry and dry cleaningestablishments• Lumber and building• Meat and fish markets• Men’s furnishings• Music stores• Newspaper publishing• Office supply stores• Paint and glass stores• Pet shops• Radio stations• Real estate offices• Restaurants• Sales offices• Self-employed students• Service stations• Shoe stores• Sporting goods firms• Supermarkets• Television stations• Theatres• Trucking terminals• Variety stores• Vegetable markets• Women’s ready-to-wear stores• Women’s specialty shops• Wholesale and jobbing outlets• Yard goods and draperies12. How can students respond effectively to sexual harassment?a. Talking to a friend, counselor, or relative about the situation to placethe facts in perspective and develop solutions.b. Learning not to laugh at the harassing behavior.
  8. 8. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 216c. Learning skills to confront the harasser with a firm NO at the first signof sexual harassment and letting the harasser know that this behaviorwill not be tolerated.d. Avoid being alone with harassers.e. Talking with other students to see if they have been harassed and, if so,petitioning school authorities to deal with the problem.f. Obtaining eyewitnesses to verify experiences of harassment.g. Keeping a written record documenting all incidents, with dates, times,places, and persons who have seen the activity, and recording physicaland emotional reactions.h. Filing complaints.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES1. What are the purposes of secondary schools?In the 1800s, it was assumed that elementary schools should focus onteaching the basic skills, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic while thelimited number of secondary schools should prepare students for highereducation or entry into vocation. In 1918, the Commission forReorganization of Secondary Education issued its report, the CardinalPrinciples of Secondary Education, that indicated that secondary schoolsshould prepare students for: a) health, b) command of the fundamentalprocesses, c) worthy home membership, d) vocational efficiency, e) civiccompetence, f) worthy use of leisure time, and g) ethical character. Theseobjectives laid the foundations for the comprehensive high school andfocused on much more than academic training.2. What role do extra-curricular activities play in secondary schools?The purpose of extra-curricular activities is to enable students toparticipate in events that are not a part of regular academic curriculum, butthat are viewed as important for overall growth. Examples include:athletics, subject matter clubs, debating, drama, band, student government,honorary clubs, and cheerleading. Over the years, there has been somedispute about extra-curricular activities, especially high school athletics.There still remains strong support for these programs, although someschool systems have initiated policies to prohibit participation in extra-curricular activities by students who violate rules, fail to pass courses, areinsubordinate, or abuse drugs. An example is Texas’ No Pass No PlayLaw.
  9. 9. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 2173. What types of problems are experienced by adolescents? How canschool leaders help these problems?a. Alcohol and drug abuse–educators can teach students about the illegaldrugs and through this knowledge, hopefully deter future use and stoppresent use by students.b. Teenage pregnancy–educators need to be cognizant of the problemsresulting from teenage pregnancies and must understand the needs ofstudents who must deal with an unwanted pregnancy.c. Suicide–although long-term solutions for teenage suicides must comefrom the community and society, school leaders have a majorresponsibility in helping to prevent suicides. These are the emotionalyears for adolescents, with their bodies going through enormouschanges, physically, emotionally, and physiologically. Educators whoteach adolescents must be aware of adolescent needs and problems.4. What are the purposes of secondary schools?Goals of Education: Two Major Statements of the Progressive ApproachCardinal Principles of SecondaryEducation (1918)Ten Imperative Needsof Youth (1944)1. Health: provide health instruction and a pro-gram of physical activities; cooperate withhome and community in promoting health.2. Command of fundamental processes:develop fundamental thought processes tomeet needs of modern life.3. Worthy home membership: developqualities that make the individual a worthymember of a family.4. Vocation: equip students to earn a living, toserve society well through a vocation, and toachieve personal development through thatvocation.5. Civic education: foster qualities that help aperson play a part in the community andunderstand international problems.6. Worthy use of leisure: equip people to“recreation of body, mind, and spirit” thatwill enrich their personalities.7. Ethical character: develop ethical characterboth through instructional methods andthrough social contacts among students andteacher.Develop skills and/or attitudes that enhance thefollowing:1. Productive work experiences andoccupational success.2. Good health and physical fitness.3. Rights and duties of a democratic citizenry.4. Conditions for successful family life.5. Wise consumer behavior.6. Understanding of science and the nature ofman.7. Appreciation of arts, music, and literature.8. Wise use of leisure time.9. Respect for ethical values.10. The ability to think rationally andcommunicate thoughts clearly.Source: Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, Cardinal principles of secondaryeducation, Bulletin No. 35 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1918), pp. 11-15;and Educational Policies Commission, Education for all American youth (Washington, DC:National Education Association, 1944). Adapted with permission.
  10. 10. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 2185. What are some early warning signs of potential violent youth?a. social withdrawal;b. excessive feelings of isolation and being alone;c. excessive feelings of rejection;d. being a victim of violence;e. feelings of being picked on and persecuted;f. low school interest and poor academic performance;g. expression of violence in writings and drawings;h. uncontrolled anger;i. patterns of impulsive and chronic hitting, intimidating, and bullyingbehaviors;j. history of discipline problems;k. past history of violent and aggressive behavior;l. intolerance for differences and prejudicial attitudes;m. drug and alcohol use;n. affiliation with gangs;o. inappropriate access to, possession of, and use of firearms;p. serious threats of violenceSource: Dwyer, K., Osher, D., & Warger, C. (1998). Early warning, timely response: A guide to safeschool. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Adapted with permission.6. In order of seriousness for youth, what are the major problemsubstances?a. Alcohol–most serious;b. Heroin;c. Nicotine;d. Cocaine;e. Caffeine;f. Marijuana–least serious.
  11. 11. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 2197. What are some indicators of childhood or adolescent suicide?Psychosocial Familial Psychiatric Situational1. Poor self-esteemand feelings ofinadequacy2. Hypersensitivityand suggestibility3. Perfectionism4. Sudden change insocial behavior5. Academicdeterioration6. Underachievement and learningdisabilities1. Disintegratingfamily relationships2. Economic difficultiesand family stresses3. Child and adolescentabuse4. Ambivalenceconcerning dependencevs. independence5. Running away6. Family history ofsuicide1.Prior suicide attempt2.Verbalization ofsuicide or talk ofself-harm3.Preoccupation withdeath4.Repeated suicideideation5.Daredevil or self-abusive behavior6.Mental illness suchas delusions orhallucinations inschizophrenia7.Overwhelming senseof guilt8.Obsessive self-doubt9.Phobic anxiety10.Clinical depression11.Substance abuse1. Stressful lifeevents2. Firearms in thehome3. Exposure tosuicideSource: Adapted with permission from Metha, A., & Dunham, H.J. (1988). Behavioral indicators. In D.Capuzzi, & L. Golden., Preventing adolescent suicide (pp. 49-86). Muncie, IN: AcceleratedDevelopment Inc.8. What is the adolescents’ perception of failure?Upwards of a thousand students commit suicide every year. They had theirwholes lives ahead of them, but somehow, they lost hope. No one cared,they thought; life was not worth living. They asked themselves: “is that allthere is?”Suicide is certainly the ultimate self-punishment for having failed. Life isno longer worth the struggle, the effort, the will.I would like to take a look with you at the concept of failure: at howadolescents in high school and college see it; and what we, as parents andteachers, have taught them about it. The world is full of people who arefearful that they will fail at some task or goal and who usually manage toavoid trying because they construe failure as the worst of all possiblecrimes. We have all had a part in failure, all had to come to grips with it, andall had to decide what failure actually means to each of us individually.Success is important in our society, more important, surely, than the desireto live sanely and to enjoy the good things of life which one has workedfor. Success for its own sake is valued–valued, I believe, at any cost, and
  12. 12. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 220the road to success rationalized in the name of the great Americancompetitive way, at the expense of honesty, and perhaps sanity.The “F” for failure has become so feared that we in education haverevamped our marking system in preference for U’s and E’s withoutrevamping our attitudes–attitudes of those who should know.We are apt to be very objective when we look at our students. We givethem what they desire, and in doing so, we feel very smug. We have givenout the material, we have given the examinations, and now it follows, asnight follows day, we give out the marks. Yet we forget that there is muchmore that a teacher gives to his students, willingly or unwillingly. Ateacher gives an example of how to look at life and at people. And iffailure is viewed as the worst fate, if it is something that is given theconnotations of shame, unworthiness, and hopelessness, then indeed, wehave taught much more than English or history or mathematics.Adolescence marks the trying period of search which may have thesignificant effects of subsequent personality structure, and on lateradjustments in the years that lie ahead. Probably, what brings the greatestamount of equalizing balance to the period of adolescence is the presenceof significant people in the adolescent’s life. Since people become so veryimportant to an adolescent, it is the importance of the people, who possessthat special ingredient of compassion, who can help the adolescent comethrough this unfolding, transitional period into the fullness of adult life.It is important to realize that in most competitive situations, two majormotives appear: either to achieve success . . . or to avoid failure. Thestrivers-for-success are more likely to be middle-of-the-roaders in theiraspirations or ambitions, whereas the failure-avoider will be eitherexcessively cautious or extravagantly reckless in the things he tries.Because failure is painful, a failure-avoider will choose either extremerather than take the 50-50 chance.A person’s self-picture does reflect the evaluation of himself by the crucialfigures of his interpersonal environment. Self-evaluation may beinfluenced by peers as much as by parents. Feelings of adequacy andsuccess may depend more on self-acceptance than on actual achievement.Regardless of actual test performance, self-accepting students tend to beoptimistic, non-anxious, and non-competitive. Self-rejecting ones areanxious and unrealistic in goal setting.A study was done where the subjects were asked to rate themselves on alist of traits as they thought they were, as they hoped they were, as theyfeared they were, and as they thought others regarded them. The groups
  13. 13. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 221had first been classified as stable and unstable on the basis of personalityinventory. The stable group rated themselves higher showing lessdiscrepancy between their self-ratings and the way they thought otherswould rate them. They were also better liked, better adjusted socially, lesssituation dominated, and showed less defensive behavior.Approximately half of the students who enter college dropout. Many are inthe highest levels of ability. When students dropout, it usually isunderstood that they have failed. At the college level, a great deal ofattention has been given to the question: “What can we learn about thosewho have failed in the past that will enable us to reject similar persons whomight apply for admission in the future?” Little consideration is given tothe question: “What might the institution do to prevent failure, to helpremedy shortcomings within the college and with the individual student,which produces failure?”Reasons for coming to college are always multiple. Stress is usually placedon one or another of these:a. desire to get a higher paying job;b. status of a degree;c. social life–all my friends are going;d. avoid joining work force;e. get married;f. pressure from parents.Many are disillusioned with what is expected of them. Many find thatcollege is the same old thing as high school–all these things which are notpractical. Others who are eager to learn find that college is not the kind ofchallenge they had expected.Many students entering college regret the time they wasted in high school.They did not try hard enough; they did not apply themselves; they weremore interested in athletics, social life, or other things. Reflecting back,one may find many things that a student was concerned about during highschool days–some things indeed far more important to the student thangeometry or American history. Some interests were far more necessaryand pressing in order that the student might mature. But, those whoobserved the adolescent in high school are very often unaware of what heis facing and are not able to understand why he can’t buckle down. Whatone may not understand is the reason that there are many things theadolescent is trying to accomplish and school work often provides himwith no stimulation, no incentive for interest or involvement. School is just
  14. 14. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 222a bore! And teachers are a bore! And adults, in general, are a bore! Adultsare forever talking, but what they say often does not seem to meananything.A new interest can be sparked in school when there is a teacher who doesmean something. But it takes more than one teacher to make a schoolprogram relevant. When competition and success are the significantingredients of a program and when we are apt to be creating egocentricintellectuals who gloat over their achievements while looking down onthose who have developed feelings of worthlessness and fear that they willprobably never win, we are confirming that only those who win areimportant.Our task ought to be providing help to the adolescent to see that failure isneither good nor bad. It is, however, an inevitable fact of reality that theway we use failure in our lives will determine, ultimately, its goodness orbadness for us.Each of us must learn to live with certain limitations in ability. It is onlywhen an individual falls consistently below the norm in areas that seemimportant to him that inferior ability constitutes a serious limitation.From studies of both high achievers and underachievers in high school, thepattern of the relationship between self-concept and achievement becomesclearer. A relationship is present between positive self-concept andunderachievement, but research does not indicate which is cause or effect.Chances are we can see a circular pattern beginning earlier with perceptionor experiences. Every experience contributes to the adolescent’s evolvingpicture of himself, which, in turn, becomes a guide to future action.Parental pressure for success seems to arise naturally out of parents’ desirethat their children receive the best the world has to offer, yet in the samebreath, it may be that many parents see the failure which their son ordaughter may face as a failure for themselves. Many parents want theirchildren to be a credit to them, forgetting that if a child is a credit to self,the other will follow naturally.Likewise, importance should not be given to doing better than the nextguy, but rather to trying to do our best. We should be our own chief andbest competition. We cannot always achieve our goal, but we ought to findsatisfaction in knowing we did the best we could. Too often, we areteaching the idea of striving for success in high school, in college, inathletics, in all the aspects of living for the wrong reasons. Let’s changeour own attitudes about success and failure.
  15. 15. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 2239. What are the Six Realms of Meaning?a. Symbolics – the arbitrary symbolic systems developed by man toexpress meaning; these systems include verbal language, mathematics,rhythmic patterns, rituals, and other nondiscursive symbolic forms.b. Empirics – meanings based on observation and experimentation in thenatural and social sciences; expressed as descriptions, generalizations,and theories that are recognized as probably empirical truths inaccordance with specified criteria for evidence, verifications, andanalysis.c. Aesthetics – meanings derived subjectively and expressed throughmusic, visual arts, literature, and arts of movement.d. Synnoetics – personal or relational knowledge that is direct andconcrete and may apply to oneself, to other people, or to things.e. Ethics – moral meanings related to obligations and personal conduct.f. Synoptics – integration of meanings from empirical, aesthetic, andsynoetic realms into comprehensive structures, as in history,philosophy, and religion.10. What are some humanistic teaching methods that are effective withyouth?a. a democratic teaching style;b. individualization of instruction geared to students’ interests;c. informality in classroom structure and functioning;d. diversity of student activities based on individual interests;e. diagnosis of problems based on individual goals, interests, and abilitiesrather than no comparison with others;f. stress on cooperation as opposed to competition;g. productivity in terms of clearly purposeful activities by students thatrelate to and extend beyond the classroom;h. classroom activities that are of interest to the students and provide themwith personal and academic satisfaction.11. What are some specific objectives that student councils should striveto achieve?a. to promote the general welfare of the school;b. to promote democracy as a way of life;
  16. 16. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 224c. to teach home, school, and community citizenship;d. to provide school experiences closely related to life experiences;e. to provide learning opportunities through the solution of problems thatare of interest and concern to students;f. to provide training and experience in representative democracy;g. to contribute to the total educational growth of boys and girls.12. What are Bill Gates’ Rules for Life?In a Bill Gates message about life to recent high school and collegegraduates, he listed 11 things they did not learn in school. He talked abouthow feel-good, politically correct teachings have created a full generationof kids with no concept of reality and how this concept has set them up forfailure in the real world. Here’s his List of Rules for Life:RULE 1 – Life is not fair, get use to it.RULE 2 – The world won’t care about your self-esteem. The world willexpect you to accomplish something BEFORE you feel goodabout yourself.RULE 3 – You will not make $40,000 a year right out of high school.You won’t be a vice president with a car phone until you earnboth.RULE 4 – If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss. Hedoesn’t have tenure.RULE 5 – Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Yourgrandparents had a different word for burger flipping; theycalled it opportunity.RULE 6 – If you mess up, it’s not your parents’ fault, so don’t whineabout your mistakes, learn from them.RULE 7 – Before you were born, your parents weren’t as boring as theyare now. They got that way from paying your bills, cleaningyour clothes, and listening to how cool you are. So before yousave the rain forest from the parasites of your parents’generation, try “delousing” the closet in your own room.RULE 8 – Your school may have done away with winners and losers,but life has not. In some schools, they have abolished failinggrades; they’ll give you as many times as you want to get theright answer. This doesn’t bear the slightest resemblance toANYTHING in real life.
  17. 17. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 225RULE 9 – Life is not divided into semesters. You don’t get summers offand very few employers are interested in helping you findyourself. Do that on your own time.RULE 10 – Television is NOT real life. In real life people actually haveto leave the coffee shop and go to jobs.RULE 11 – Be nice to nerds. Chances are you’ll end up working for one.13. What are the components to The Tyler Model (CurriculumDevelopment and Improvement)?Student as SourceSociety as SourceSubject Matter as SourceStudent, Society, and Subject Matter Sources lead toTentative General ObjectsPhilosophical and Psychological Screening lead toPrecise Instructional Objectives that leads toSelection of Learning ExperiencesOrganization of Learning ExperiencesDirection of Learning Experiences andEvaluation of Learning ExperiencesSource: Tyler, R.W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of ChicagoPress. Adapted with permission.14. What are the components to the Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’Conception of the Curriculum Planning Process (CurriculumDevelopment and Improvement)?GOALS AND OBJECTIVES lead toCURRICULUM DESIGNING that leads toCURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION (Instruction) that leads toCURRCICULUM EVALUATIONSource: Saylor, Alexander, & Lewis. (1981). Curriculum planning (4thed.), p. 30. New York: Holt, Rinehartand Winston. Adapted with permission.
  18. 18. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 22615. What are the components to The Taba Model (CurriculumDevelopment and Improvement)?The Five-Step Sequence of Taba’s Model:1. Production by teachers of pilot teaching-learning units is representativeof the grade level or subject area. Taba recommends an eight-stepsequence for developing pilot units:a. diagnosis of needs.b. formulation of objectives.c. selection of content.d. organization of content.e. selection of learning experiences.f. organization of learning activities.g. determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means ofdoing it.h. checking for balance and sequence.2. Testing experimental units.3. Revising and consolidating.4. Developing a framework.5. Installing and disseminating new units.Source: Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: Theory and practice. New York: Harcourt BraceJovanovich. Adapted with permission.16. What are the components to The Oliva Model (CurriculumDevelopment and Improvement)?a. specify the needs of students in general;b. specify the needs of society;c. write a state of philosophy and aims of education;d. specify the needs of students in your school;e. specify the needs of the particular community;f. specify the needs of the subject matter;g. specify the curriculum goals of your school;h. specify the curricular objectives of your school;i. organize and implement the curriculum;
  19. 19. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 227j. specify instructional goals;k. specify instructional objectives;l. select instructional strategies;m. begin selection of evaluation strategies;n. implement instructional strategies;o. make final selection of evaluation strategies;p. evaluate instruction and modify instructional components;q. evaluate the curriculum and modify curricular components.Source: Oliva, P.F. (1988). Developing the curriculum. Boston, MA: Scott, Foresman, andCompany. Adapted with permission.E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. The “Back to Basics” movement has been a major force in improvingscience education.2. Current trends seem to be away from extra-curricular activities.3. Students have the right to “due process” in disciplinary actions.4. The courts have consistently upheld schools’ rights to impose dress codes.5. School officials have the right to search a student’s locker under somecircumstances.6. As of this writing, no successful program has been developed to help keeppotential dropouts in school.7. SAT scores have been improving since the late 1960s.8. The problems of adolescence invariably pass in time without lasting effects.9. Adolescents are highly susceptible to feelings of isolation and rejection.10. One purpose of vocational education is to provide an alternative forpotential dropouts.11. More than 90% of all high school graduates complete at least onevocational educational course.12. The enrollment in vocational education has declined significantly over thepast several years.
  20. 20. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 228Multiple Choice1. The educational focus of the Common School Movement was primarily on_______.a. pre-school b. elementary education c. secondary educationd. post-secondary education2. Approximately _______ of public school students eventually graduate.a. 90% b. 85% c. 80% d. 75%3. The first type of school designed to facilitate the transition fromelementary school to high school was the _______.a. common school b. junior high c. middle schoold. preparatory “prep” school4. The primary focus of junior high schools is _______.a. academics b. psychological rehabilitationc. sociological development d. interpersonal skills development5. American high schools today _______.a. focus only on academicsb. focus only on socialization skillsc. largely ignore vocational educationd. include all of the above general subject areas in their orientation6. “The Seven Cardinal Principles” was a report dealing with _______.a. appropriate objective of secondary educationb. the state of parochial education in Americac. the philosophical bases of vocational educationd. enhancing American democratic process through education7. The curricular track most often selected in high schools is _______.a. academics b. vocational c. general d. a and b in equal numbers8. The event in the late 1950s that spurred a renewed interest in scienceeducation in this country was _______.a. launching of Sputnik b. the Mercury programc. the Apollo program d. the Cuban Missile crisis9. Since the mid 1960s science education _______.a. has improved steadilyb. slid into a deepening state of crisisc. has remained relatively steady at a very high level of achievementd. has suffered from misdirection on the face of extremely high funding levels
  21. 21. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAPAGE 22910. The method of instruction which places the responsibility for selecting,organizing, and sequencing information solely on the teacher is _______.a. lecture b. discussion c. exploratory d. none of the above11. Students exhibiting low levels of self motivation should not be taught usingthe _______ method.a. lecture b. discussion c. independent study d. all of the above12. The best and most effective disciplinary programs are probably thosewhich _______.a. are severe and swift b. are preventive in naturec. emphasize corporal punishment d. are arbitrary and indiscriminate13. The largest reason for students dropping out of schools appears to be_______.a. economics b. failing grades c. peer pressuresd. personal problems14. The purposes of vocational education include all except _______.a. facilitating the mastery of special skillsb. helping keep potential dropouts in schoolc. providing a curriculum that is closely related to everyday survival needsd. providing a base for college preparatory skillse. all of the above are goals for vocational education