SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 18CHAPTER 2–HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGA. OVERVIEWThis chapter provides information regarding the history of public education.An overview of the European foundations of our public education is presented,followed by a description of public education in this country from ColonialAmerica to the present.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSACADEMIES - began in the mid-1700s until the Civil War–forerunners of thecurrent comprehensive high school.APPRENTICESHIP - a system of on-the-job training that was based onancient and medieval practices.BROWN CASE (May 17, 1954) - U.S. Supreme Court stated that “separate”was inherently unequal and required that all schools desegregate with alldeliberate speed; followed by 25 years of litigation, turmoil, and disruption.COLONIAL EDUCATION - three parts:1. New England–heavily influenced by Calvinism;2. Middle Colonies–varied programs were begun from Dutch Reform toacademies which taught working skills;3. Southern Colonies–education was private schools and tutors for thelearned gentry.COMMITTEE OF TEN - first reform group for high schools; established aprecedent by having groups of professionals assess the needs of education;established by the NEA in 1893.COMMON SCHOOLS - beginning of public education, tax-supported: aninstitution that would provide its students with basic cultural and literaryskills–expressed the idea of a cultural community in which ideas, experiences,beliefs, aspirations, and values would become uniquely American.COMPULSORY EDUCATION - the first general law attempting to control theconditions of children; (Compulsory Attendance Act of 1852 enacted by thestate of Massachusetts); included mandatory school attendance for childrenbetween the ages of 8 and 14 for at least three months out of each year, with atleast six weeks to be consecutive.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 19EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS - the European educational system (Greek andRoman) provided the foundation of our system.GRAMMAR SCHOOLS - a more narrowed curriculum forebear of the currenthigh school.GREEK EDUCATION - the educational systems reflected the basicphilosophies of the city-states: physical and moral emphasis: SPARTA; familyoriented, reading, writing, literacy, music, poetry, drama, and science.Strength, persistence, endurance, obedience, patriotism; a program thatreflected military objectives. ATHENS; Liberal Arts emphasized mental andphysical development of the individual. Stressed ethics, knowledge,appreciation of aesthetics, citizenship, loyalty, and physical attributes.HARVARD COLLEGE - celebrated its 367thanniversary in 2003, is the oldestinstitution of higher learning in America. John Harvard was a young ministerwho, upon his death in 1638, left his library and half his estate to the newinstitution. Harvard was founded in 1636.HORACE MANN - credited with the success of the common schoolmovement–Father of American Free Public Schools.JOHN DEWEY - primary influence in American education during the firsthalf of the 20thcentury.LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785 - an act under the Articles of Confederationthat required each township to reserve lot #16 for the support of public schools.MANUAL TRAINING MOVEMENT - was the precursor to the vocationaltraining programs in our schools today. First used in the United States in the1870s in the training of engineers, the movement spread rapidly to generalpublic education.MEDIEVAL EDUCATION - 800 years from 476 AD (fall of the RomanEmpire) to 1300 AD–a severe decline in education the first 500 years (DarkAges) and revived the last 300 years. Education was mostly religion andphilosophy.NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION - started out in 1857 as theNational Teachers Association founded by 43 educators in Philadelphia.NEW ENGLAND PRIMER - 1690 textbook which became available. Itcontained 24 rhymes for the alphabet, vowels, and syllables and lessons aboutreligion.NORTHWEST ORDINANCES - in 1787 these ordinances reinforced the 1785land ordinance by encouraging education and expressing a commitment foreducation.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 20“OLDE DELUDER SATAN ACT” - act passed in 1647 in Massachusettsdesigned to outwit Satan. It required towns of 50 or more families to provide ateacher for reading and writing; towns of 100 or more families had to provideinstruction in Latin, grammar, secondary or university preparation.OHIO ENABLING ACT OF 1802 - federal government made outrightfinancial grants to states to support education. This act returned 5% of theearnings from the sale of public lands to newly admitted states.ROMAN EDUCATION - heavily influenced by Greek education. Twoperiods–without Greek influence (750-250 BC) and with Greek influence (350BC-200 AD).SPUTNIK - a Soviet satellite that was launched in 1957 and resulted in a crestof public criticism from American education reformers.THE HORNBOOK - a wooden paddle with lessons tacked on and covered bya piece of transparent horn.THE DAME SCHOOL - ladies would teach children their abc’s, numbers, andprayers while they went about their daily household tasks.THE MCGUFFEY READERS - a series of readers that were very moralistic.They represented the white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant as the model American.UNIVERSAL EDUCATION - changes in education during the reformation era(1500-1700) resulted in expanding literacy to the masses other than thatcontrolled by the Catholic Church.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 21SCHOOLING IN COLONIAL AMERICANOVA SCOTIAProvince ofQuebecIndianreserveIndianreserveEast FLMENHMACT RINYPA NJMDDEGASCNCVANEW ENGLAND COLONIES• Tradition of government and religiousinvolvement and support.• Two-track system of education:universal elementary; secondary onlyfor those preparing for positions ofleadership in the church orgovernment.• Elementary education: dame schools,reading and writing schools,apprentice system, charity schools.Concerned mainly with 3Rs. Usedmaterial that was religious andauthoritarian in nature.• Secondary education: Latin grammarschools that taught the classicalcurriculum, and academies and privateventure schools that taught subjectsuseful in trade and commerce.• Colleges: Harvard (1636), Yale (1701),Brown (1764), Dartmouth (1769).MIDDLE COLONIES• Pattern of pluristic, parochial schools, with nogovernment support.• Somewhat limited elementary education; schoolsoperated primarily by various denominations.• Limited secondary education; a few private venture schools.• Colleges: Princeton (1746), Pennsylvania (1753),Columbia (1754), Rutgers (1766).SOUTHERN COLONIES• Educational opportunity determined almost exclusively by social class. Elementaryeducation for other than upper class was provided through apprentice system,endowed schools, charity schools, denomination school, “old field schools,” andprivate venture schools.• Children of upper class attended exclusive private schools or had private tutors.• Secondary education was available primarily to children of the wealthy throughprivate schools or tutors, Latin grammar schools, or schooling outside the colonies.A few private venture schools operated in the large cities.• Colleges: William and Mary (1693).Source: Gutek, G. (1997). A history of the educational experience (2nded.). Prospect Heights, IL: WavelandPress, Inc. Adapted with permission.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 22Western European Educational Thought, 1200 A.D.-1850 A.D.Theorist Educational Theories Influence on Western EducationAquinas (1225-1274) Human beings possess both aspiritual and a physical nature.Man is a rational being. Faith andreasons are complementarysources of truth.Provided basis for RomanCatholic education.Erasmus (1466-1536) The liberally educated man is oneeducated in the seven liberal arts,steeped in the classics and inrhetoric. Systematic training ofteachers is needed. Follower ofQuintilian.Advanced the need for thesystematic training of teachersand a humanistic pedagogy.Promoted the importance ofpoliteness in education.Luther (1483-1546) Education is necessary for religiousinstruction, the preparation ofreligious leaders, and theeconomic well-being of the state.Education should includevocational training.Provided support for concept offree and compulsory elementaryeducation. Promoted concept ofuniversal literacy.Calvin (1509-1564) Education serves both the religiousand political establishment:elementary schools for the masseswhere they could learn to read theBible and thereby attainsalvation; secondary schools toprepare the leaders of church andstate.Concept of two-track system andemphasis on literacy influencededucation in New England andultimately the entire nation.Bacon (1561-1626) Education should advance scientificinquiry. Understanding of anordered universe comes throughreason.Provided major rationale for thedevelopment of critical thinkingskills. Proposed the concept of aresearch university.Comenius (1592-1670) Learning must come through thesenses. Education must allow thechild to reason by doing. There isa general body of knowledge(paideia) that should be possessedby all.Provided theory of child growthand development. Concept ofpaideia profoundly influencednumerous Western educationalleaders.Locke (1632-1704) Children enter the world with theirminds like a blank slate (tabularasa). The goal of education is topromote the development ofreason and morality.Provided support for the conceptof the reasonable man and theability and necessity for thereasonable man to participate inthe governing process.(Table continues)
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 23(Table continued)Theorist Educational Theories Influence on Western EducationRousseau (1712-1778) Major proponent of naturalism,which emphasized individualfreedom. The child is inherentlygood. Children’s growth anddevelopment goes through stages,which necessitates adaptation ofinstruction. Education should beconcerned with the developmentof the child’s natural abilities.Naturalism provided basis formodern educational theory andpractice. Father of modern childpsychology.Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Education should be child centeredand based on sensory experience.The individual differences of eachchild must be considered inassessing readiness to learn. Eachchild should be developed to his orher maximum potential. Ideal oflove emphasized the importanceof emotion in the learning process.Instruction should begin with theconcrete and proceed to theabstract.Concept of maximumdevelopment of each childprovided support for educationof the disadvantaged.Pestalozzian methods exportedthroughout Europe and to theUnited States. One of theearliest theories of instructionformally taught to teachers.Herbert (1776-1841) The aim of education should be thedevelopment of moral character.Any material can be learned ifpresented systematically:preparation, presentation,association, generalization, andapplication. Instruction mustarouse interest to be successful.Education is a science.Elevated the study of educationalpsychology. Demonstrated thesignificance of methodology ininstruction. Advanced theconcept that education is ascience and can be studiedscientifically.Froebel (1782-1852) The aim of education should be toensure self-development throughself-expression. Self-expressiontakes place through an activitycurriculum. The school shouldpromote creativity and bring out“divine effluence” within eachchild.Established first kindergarten.Provided theoretical basis forearly childhood education.Source: Webb, D., Metha, A., & Jordan, K. (2000). Foundations of American education (3rded.). Columbus,OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Adapted with permission.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 24C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS1. What was the system of education like in ancient Greece and Rome?a. Greece was made up of city-states. Each had its own school system andits own reasons for educating citizens.b. Sparta–schools attempted to assist in making obedient subservientcitizens.c. Athens–schools focused on the wholeness of mind, body, and spirit.d. Rome–had two periods of education. The first was without Grecianinfluence during which the schools offered only rudimentaryinstruction in reading and writing. The second, after the Greekinfluence, Roman schools developed into the Latin Grammar Schoolswhere instruction was given in history, poetry, and scientific writing.e. Schooling in ancient societies emphasized:Education in Sparta Contribution to Western Education• Goal of education: to promote patriotism and trainwarriors.• Welfare of individual secondary to the welfare ofthe state.• Special needs children were eliminated at birth.• Curriculum emphasized exercise and games, militarytraining, dance and music.• Schools: military schools.• Recognition of importance of physical and moraltraining.Education in Athens• Goal of education: to prepare the well-roundedindividual for participation in citizenship.• Emphasis on the development of reason.• Curriculum: reading, writing, mathematics, logic,physical education,music, and drama.• Schools: didascaleum (music school);grammatistes (reading, writing, and arithmetic).• Concept of liberal education.• The Socratic method as a teaching method.• Importance of reason/the scientific method.Education in Rome• Goal of education: to develop the intellectual andmoral citizen.• Emphasis on education for citizenship.• Curriculum: reading, writing, arithmetic,grammar, literature, music, rhetoric, astronomy,geometry, and philosophy.• Schools: ludus (elementary); grammar school(secondary); schools of rhetoric (from age 16 to20); universities.• Roman curriculum and organization adoptedthroughout Europe.• Recognition of individual differences.• Recognition of importance of play andrelaxation.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 252. How were the Greek and Roman educational systems different andsimilar?The Greek school in Athens taught poetry, drama, history, oratory, andscience through music as well as typical music education. The Romanschools taught these same subjects through literature. Greece’s city-statesapproached education differently, but the schools in each district wereuniform in their aims. Roman schools developed for a variety ofinstructional aims, from teaching basic reading and writing to preparationfor careers in public service.3. What were the differences in the educational systems established inthe colonies?New Englanders–predominantly Calvinists–schools were designed tocreate educated Puritans to perpetuate the religious, social, and economicbeliefs of the adults. All students attended. Middle Colonies–religiousdissenters, i.e., Quakers and Anabaptists. These programs varied greatly.They ranged from church run schools that taught reading, writing, andreligion to the private academies organized for career preparation.Southern Colonies– mostly Anglican–sparsely populated plantation andfarming communities. Mostly tutorial education was centered in andaround the large plantations. Poor white and black children were mostlyuneducated.4. Why did the high school emerge as the model for secondaryeducation?a. change from rural to urban society;b. industrialization that accompanied urbanization;c. the public’s growing sensitivity of the needs of children and youth;d. better financially able to support public schools;e. Kalamazoo court case of 1874 supporting right of taxation to supportpublic schools. The Michigan Supreme Court ruled that the KalamazooSchool District could levy taxes to support high schools.5. What ideas existed that supported the Common School movement(1837-1848)?a. education would benefit political enlightenment;b. individuals from diverse backgrounds could develop common valuesand loyalties;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 26c. educated individuals would have job skills;d. education could lead to social improvement and economicadvancement;e. tax supported, provided a free, basic, common, foundational educationfor all children, grades 1-8;f. in 1789, citizens argued for an expanded common school curriculum(beyond the Latin School) and public grammar schools. This argumentis often referred to as the common school revival.6. What was the role of John Dewey in American Education?Dewey was the single largest influence in American education in the firsthalf of the 20thcentury. His text called “Democracy and Education” wasconsidered by a group of 84 curriculum specialists to be one of the twomost important writings in education. Dewey’s theories were related toprogressivism. Dewey was a prominent educator, philosopher, andpsychologist. He is buried on the campus of the University of Vermontnext to the chapel.7. What legislation affected education in the 20thcentury? How did thislegislation impact public education, and how did it relate to changes insociety?a. 1954–Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas–declaredseparate inherently unequal and mandated school desegregation;overturned; Plessy vs. Ferguson.b. 1958–National Defense Education Act (NDEA)–Sputnik launchreaffirmed the belief that the U.S. needed more math, science, andsocial studies in the curriculum; provided money, teacher training,teaching materials, and upgraded textbooks;c. 1960s–social issues began to influence education–among them, astronger push for racial equality;d. 1971–PARC vs. Pennsylvania–Pennsylvania agreed to provideappropriate educational programs to handicapped children; all childrenwould have an opportunity to a free public education;e. 1975–Public Law 92-142 Education for all Handicapped Children’sAct–required all schools to provide a free appropriate public educationfor all handicapped children; when possible, this education was to beprovided with non-handicapped children.8. What were the Cardinal Principles issued by the NEA?
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 27A report issued by the NEA’s Committee for the Reorganization ofSecondary Education in 1918 that laid the framework for today’scomprehensive high schools. The goals included:a. health;b. command of fundamental processes;c. worthy home membership;d. vocational preparation;e. citizenship;f. worthy use of leisure time;g. ethical character.9. What major criticisms were leveled at American schools during the1950s? Were they the reactions to any events or publications?Low academic standards that were viewed as synonymous withprogressivism; watered down curriculum; incompetent teachers; lack ofprogramming for the gifted students. Criticism crested with the launch ofSputnik in 1957.10. What recommendations did James Conant make concerning the highschool?Twenty-one recommendations; among them:a. comprehensive counseling programs to assist students in selectingappropriate electives;b. more individualized instruction;c. ability grouping by subject;d. a core academic curriculum, consisting of English, social studies, math,and science;e. relevant vocational programs;f. special programs for slow readers;g. programs for gifted students;h. more choices in science and foreign languages;i. a general education for all students;j. elective courses for those planning to enter the world of work upongraduation;k. special and advanced courses for college-bound youth.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 2811. What is the status of reforms initiated during the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s,and 2000?Whether the reforms of the early 1980s have significant long-term effectson public education remains to be seen; . . . one of these days, educators,parents, government officials, and others must look at the history ofeducation and learn from it.12. What are some beliefs of Quintilian?Quintilian believed that the ideal teacher should have the followingqualifications:a. should assume a parental attitude toward students;b. should be free from vice and should refuse to tolerate it in others;c. should be genial, but not familiar;d. should be strict, but not austere;e. should speak of what is honorable, for the more admonishment, the lesspunishment;f. should control his temper;g. should be free from affectations;h. should be possessed of great industry;i. any demands upon the class should be continuous, but not extravagant.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES1. Trace the history of American Education beginning with ColonialAmerica.During the early days of the United States, the 13 original colonies took ondistinctly different characteristics. For the most part, the colonies weredivided into three different groups: the New England colonies, the Middlecolonies, and the Southern colonies. The educational systems reflected thereligious beliefs of the citizens of each section.The success of the American Revolution and the adoption of theConstitution ended the colonial period and marked the beginning of thenational period. During the nation’s first 50 years, several importantdevelopments occurred that affected education. The Constitution did not
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 29specifically address education. As a result of the Tenth Amendmentreserving to states items not included in the Constitution, education wasmade a state responsibility. Thomas Jefferson laid the foundation forpublic education in the United States with the introduction of his “Bill forthe More General Diffusion of Knowledge” in the Virginia assembly. Thefederal government has been involved in education since the LandOrdinance of 1785 was passed under the Articles of Confederation. Thisact required each township to reserve lot #16 for the support of publicschools. Then in 1787, the Northwest Ordinance reinforced the 1785 actby encouraging education as being important to good government,happiness, and expressing a commitment for education. The Ohio Ena-bling Act of 1802 began the current trend of outright grants to states foreducation by the federal government.The Academy Movement began in the mid 1700s and flourished until theCivil War, when high schools began to emerge. Academies variedconsiderably in organization, control, and support. Some were operated forprofit by private groups; some were under the control and support ofchurches; and still others received some support and were controlled bylocal government units. Programs offered by academies were diverse.Academies were the forerunner to the current comprehensive high schoolin the United States.Elementary Education–infant schools that served children from four toeight, began in Boston in 1818. A network of elementary schools wascreated, and after further development of elementary education, infantschools became synonymous with the lower levels of elementary schools.Another model was the monitorial schools, where teachers taught theirbrightest students who then would teach their peers.Public education in the United States made significant progress during the19thcentury. Some of the reasons include the common school movement,state laws and state boards of education, and permanent sources offunding.Development of Secondary School–the American high school evolvedfrom the Latin Grammar School and academies. In the late 1800s, privateacademies gave way to publicly supported high schools. High schools inthe United States formally date from 1821 with the founding of the EnglishClassical School in Boston.Education in the 20thcentury–growth has been phenomenal. Acomprehensive public education system has developed that supports allchildren, young children, pre-school, kindergarten, from approximately
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 30five years of age to 18. John Dewey was the overriding influence overeducation during the first half of the 20thcentury.The publication of NEA’s Cardinal Principles laid the foundation forcurrent comprehensive secondary schools. From 1970 to the present, theprogressive education movement has gained and lost momentum. Since1950, several important court cases and specific legislation have dealt withthe eradication of discrimination in the public schools.2. What effect did the depression have on American education?Surprisingly, public education emerged from the depression in relativelygood condition. Professionals were united, the schools were viewed with agreat deal of confidence by the public, and states had dramaticallyincreased their contribution to public education.3. Describe the Common School movement and its impact on theAmerican public education system.Horace Mann began the common school movement. Researchists refer tothe common school as an institution that would provide its students withbasic cultural and literary skills. Common did not mean lowly or poor, butexpressed the idea of a cultural community in which ideas, experiences,beliefs, aspirations, and values would eventually become uniquelyAmerican. Public education was viewed as a vehicle for preparing childrenfrom various ethnic and religious backgrounds for citizenship in the UnitedStates as well as for participation in the economic system. The movementsought to mold citizens into a force with common values, ideals, loyalties,and purposes. The common school movement advanced the system ofpublic education at public expense and was the framework for the currenteducational system.4. Solomon says: 15 Proverbial Sayings1. To handle yourself, use your head; to handle others, use your heart.2. The smallest good deed is better than the grandest intention.3. Politeness is a small price to pay for the good will and affection of others.4. Be not angry that you cannot make others as you wish them to be sinceyou cannot make yourself as you wish to be.5. Children need models more than they need critics.6. Get all of the advice you can, and you will succeed; without it you willfail.7. Intelligent people think before they speak; what they say is then morepersuasive.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 318. Kind words are like honey; sweet to the taste and good for the health.9. It is better to be patient than to be powerful. It is better to win controlover yourself than over whole nations.10.Patient persuasion can break down the strongest resistance and caneven convince rulers.11.Correction and discipline are good for children. If a child has his ownway, he will make his mother ashamed of him.12.Be generous and you will be prosperous. Help others, and you will behelped.13.A gentle answer quiets anger, but a harsh one stirs it up.14.You will have to live with the consequences of everything you say.15.Teach a child how he should live, and he will remember it all his life.5. What are some leadership secrets of Attila the Hun?a. Lesson 1: Advice and Counsel1. Written reports have purpose only if read by the king.2. A king with chieftains who always agree with him reaps thecounsel of mediocrity.3. A wise chieftain never kills the Hun bearing bad news. Rather, thewise chieftain kills the Hun who fails to deliver bad news.4. A chieftain who asks the wrong questions always hears the wronganswers.5. A wise chieftain never asks a question for which he doesn’t wantto hear the answer.b. Lesson 2: Character1. The greatness of a Hun is measured by the sacrifices he is willingto make for the good of the nation.2. A chieftain should always rise above pettiness and cause his Hunsto do the same.3. A chieftain cannot win if he loses his nerve. He should be self-confident and self-reliant and even if he does not win, he willknow he has done his best.4. A chieftain does not have to be brilliant to be successful, but hemust have an insatiable hunger for victory, absolute belief in his
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 32cause and an invincible courage that enables him to resist thosewho would otherwise discourage him.5. Seldom are self-centered, conceited and self-admiring chieftainsgreat leaders, but they are great idolizers of themselves.6. Great chieftains never take themselves too seriously.7. A wise chieftain adapts–he doesn’t compromise.8. Chieftains who drink with their Huns become one with them andare no longer their chieftain.9. Weak chieftains surround themselves with weak Huns.10. Strong chieftains surround themselves with strong Huns.11. As a chieftain achieves greater success, the jealousy others feel forhim intensifies.c. Lesson 3: Courage1. Huns must learn early that working through a hardship is anexperience that influences them all the days of their lives.2. Successful Huns learn to deal with adversity and to overcomemistakes.3. A Hun can achieve anything for which he is willing to pay theprice. Competition thins out at the top of the ranks.d. Lesson 4: Decision Making1. Every decision involves some risk.2. Time does not always improve a situation for a king or his Huns.3. Fundamental errors are inescapable when the unqualified areallowed to exercise judgment and make decisions.4. Quick decisions are not always the best decisions. On the otherhand, unhurried decisions are not always the best decisions.5. Chieftains should never rush into confrontations.6. A chieftain’s confidence in his decision making preempts name-dropping to his Huns.7. It is unfortunate when final decisions are made by chieftainsheadquartered miles away from the front, where they can onlyguess at conditions and potentialities known only to the captain onthe battle field.8. When victory will not be sweet, the chieftain must keep his Hunsfrom war.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 339. The ability to make difficult decisions separates chieftains fromHuns.e. Lesson 5: Delegation1. Wise chieftains never place their Huns in situations where theirweaknesses will prevail over their strengths.2. Good Huns normally achieve what their chieftain expects fromthem.3. A wise chieftain never expects his Huns to act beyond theirwisdom and understanding.4. A wise chieftain always gives tough assignments to Huns who canrise to the occasion.5. Abdication is not delegation. Abdication is a sign of weakness.Delegation is a sign of strength.f. Lesson 6: Developing Chieftains1. Strong chieftains always have strong weaknesses. A king’s duty isto make a chieftain’s strengths prevail.2. Huns learn less from success than they do from failure.3. Huns learn much faster when faced with adversity.4. A good chieftain takes risks by delegating to an inexperienced Hunin order to strengthen his leadership abilities.5. The experience of Huns must be structured to allow them tobroaden and deepen themselves to develop the character they willneed when appointed a chieftain.6. Huns are best prepared to become chieftains when givenappropriate challenges to successively higher levels ofresponsibility.7. If it were easy to be a chieftain, everyone would be one.8. Without challenge, a Hun’s potential is never realized.9. Appropriate stress is essential in developing chieftains.g. Lesson 7: Diplomacy and Politics1. When in political war, a Hun must always keep an eye to the rear.2. The essence of Hunnish victory lies in the answers to the questionsWhere? and When.3. Huns should engage only in wars they can win.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 344. Huns may enter war as the result of failed diplomacy; however,war may be necessary for diplomacy to begin.5. For Huns, conflict is a natural state.6. Huns make enemies only on purpose.7. Huns never take by force what can be gained by diplomacy.8. Chieftains should remember that hospitality, warmth, and courtesywill captivate even the most oppressive foe.9. Chieftains are often betrayed by those they trust most.h. Lesson 8: Goals1. Superficial goals lead to superficial results.2. As a nation, we would accomplish more if Huns behaved as thoughnational goals were as important to them as personal goals.3. Critical to a Hun’s success is a clear understanding of what theking wants.4. A Hun’s goal should always be worthy of his efforts.5. A Hun without a purpose will never know when he has achieved it.6. A Hun’s conformance does not always result in desiredperformance.7. Chieftains should always aim high, going after things that willmake a difference rather than seeking the safe path of mediocrity.i. Lesson 9: Leaders and Leadership1. Kings should always appoint their best Huns as chieftains, nomatter how much they are needed in their current positions.2. Never appoint acting chieftains. Put the most capable Hun incharge, give him both responsibility and authority, then hold himaccountable.3. A wise chieftain never depends on luck. Rather, he always trustshis future to hard work, stamina, tenacity, and a positive attitude.4. A wise chieftain knows he is responsible for the welfare of hisHuns and acts accordingly.5. Being a leader of the Huns is often a lonely job.6. Once committed to action, chieftains must press for victory, not forstalemate–and surely not for compromise.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 357. Shared risk-taking will weld the relationship of a chieftain and hisHuns.8. Strong chieftains stimulate and inspire the performance of theirHuns.9. The best chieftains develop the ability to ask the right questions atthe right time.10. A chieftain can never be in charge if he rides in the rear.j. Lesson 10: Perceptions and Publicity1. In tough times, the nation will always call the meanest chieftain tolead.2. A Hun who takes himself too seriously has lost his perspective.3. A Hun’s perception is reality for him.4. Huns who appear to be busy are not always working.5. It is best if your friends and foes speak well of you; however, it isbetter for them to speak poorly of you than not at all. Whennothing can be said of a Hun, he has probably accomplishednothing very well.6. Contrary to what most chieftains think, you’re not remembered bywhat you did in the past, but by what most Huns think you did.k. Lesson 11: Personal Achievement1. There is more nobility in being a good Hun than in being a poorchieftain.2. Even the Romans have the strength to endure the misfortunes theybring on others.3. If all Huns were blind, a one-eyed warrior would be king.4. Great chieftains accept failure at some things in order to excel inmore important ones.5. Every Hun is responsible for shaping his life’s circumstances andexperiences into success–no other Hun, and certainly no Roman,can do for a Hun what he neglects to do for himself.l. Lesson 12: Problems and Solutions1. Huns should be taught to focus on opportunities rather than onproblems.2. Some Huns have solutions for which there are no problems.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 36m. Lesson 13: Reward and Punishment1. If an incompetent chieftain is removed, seldom do we appoint hishighest-ranking subordinate to his place. For when a chieftain hasfailed, so likewise have his subordinate leaders.2. If you tell a Hun he is doing a good job when he isn’t, he will notlisten long and, worse, will not believe praise when it is justified.n. Lesson 14: Tolerance1. Every Hun has value–even if only to serve as a bad example.2. The error in appointing an incompetent chieftain is in leaving himin a position of authority over other Huns.3. To experience the strength of chieftains we must tolerate some oftheir weaknesses.4. Suffer long for mediocre but loyal Huns. Suffer not for competentbut disloyal Huns.o. Lesson 15: Training1. Adequate training of Huns is essential to war and cannot bedisregarded by chieftains in more peaceful times.2. Teachable skills are for developing Huns. Learnable skills arereserved for chieftains.3. The consequence for not adequately training your Huns is theirfailure to accomplish that which is expected of them.Source: Wess, R. (1987). Leadership secrets of Attila the Hun. New York: Warner Books. Adaptedwith special permission.6. What was The New England Primer?The New England Primer was a textbook used by students in New Englandand in other English settlements in North America. It was first printed inBoston in 1690 by Benjamin Harris who had published a similar volume inLondon. The New England primer followed a tradition of combining thestudy of the alphabet with Bible reading.Exams of alphabet rhymes that teach moral values as well as reading in theNew England Primer included the following:a. in Adam’s fall we sinned all;b. thy life to mend this book attend;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 37c. the cat doth play and after slay;d. a dog will bite a thief at night;e. an eagle’s flight is out of sight;f. the idle fool is whipped at school.7. What was the Dame School?The Dame School was like an informal day care center. It involved parentsleaving their children with a neighborhood lady (a “dame” as such ladieswere then called) who would teach their letters (abc’s), numbers, andprayers while she went about her daily household tasks.8. What is the history of kindergarten?The first United States kindergarten was founded by Elizabeth Peabody in1873. The first kindergarten founded in the world was founded byFriedrich Froebel. Froebel is known as the “Father of Kindergarten”because he developed the first kindergarten in Germany in 1837. Froebel’skindergarten developed theories and practices that are still used today inkindergarten classrooms. Froebel believed that children need to have playtime in order to learn. He believed kindergarten should be a place forchildren to grow and learn from their social interaction with other children.The first kindergarten was established to help children of poverty andthose who had special needs. Many nurseries coincided with kindergartensthat were operated by philanthropically minded women. These earlynurseries and kindergartens existed to serve families that were destitute.The early philosophical view of kindergarten was believed to be thatthrough systematic play the children are able to learn to discriminate,analyze, share, and solve problems.In 1872, kindergartens gained support from the National EducationAssociation. In 1884, the NEA established a department of kindergarteninstruction. Over time, and through the efforts of many people, thekindergarten has worked its way into American education, both public andprivate.9. Who was Horace Mann?Horace Mann is considered “The Father of American Education.” He wasborn in Franklin, Massachusetts, in 1796. Mann educated himself byreading volumes in the Franklin Town Library. He was self-educated. Helater was admitted to Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island andwent on to study law at Litchfield Law School.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 38In 1827, Mann won a seat in the state legislature in Massachusetts and in1833 ran for State Senate and won. Throughout these years Manncontinued a highly successful law practice. In 1837, Horace Mann left hislaw practice and accepted the position of the newly founded Secretary ofEducation in Massachusetts. During his years as Secretary of Education,he published 12 annual reports on all aspects of his work and programs. Heemphasized in his writings the integral relationships between education,freedom, and Republican government.Horace Mann believed that a common school would be a “great equalizer.”He believed that, through education, crime sharply declined along withfraud, violence, and moral vices. He believed the common schoolmovement would have a positive impact on American society.In 1848, Mann resigned as Secretary of Education and went on to the U.S.House of Representatives. Later he accepted the Presidency of AntiochCollege for Negroes in 1852. He stayed at the Antioch College forNegroes until his death on August 27, 1859. Horace Mann once said: “Ibelieve you to treasure up in your hearts these my parting words: Beashamed to die until you have won some victory for Humanity.”10. What were the Latin Grammar Schools?The first Latin Grammar School was established in Boston in 1635. Theseschools were originally designed for only sons of certain social cases whowere destined for leadership positions in church, state, or courts. The studyof Latin and Greek and their literatures was blended with the religiousdenominationalism emanating from the heritage of the ProtestantReformation.The only students considered for the Latin Grammar Schools were maleswho belonged to a certain social class in society. Girls were not consideredfor these schools because all of the world leaders and important “persons”were males from the upper class brackets of society. Boys did not enter theschools until after they learned the basics of their own language. Theyneeded the foundations that were required to learn the basics of Latin andeventually Greek. The Latin Grammar Schools taught reading, writing, andarithmetic. The purpose of the Latin Grammar Schools was to prepare theboys for the entrance test for Harvard College. There was great emphasisplaced upon the ability to read and speak Greek and Latin. The LatinGrammar School’s distinct purpose was in preparing boys for higherlearning.11. How was the Hornbook used?
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 39The hornbook was used by school children for several centuries, starting inthe mid-15thcentury in Europe and America. The hornbook consisted of awooden paddle with lessons tacked on and was covered by a piece oftransparent horn. The wood paddle of the hornbook was approximately2-¾” x 5” with an easy to hold handle. A hole was put in the handle so aleather thong could be tied to it, and the child could carry it on his/her beltor around his/her neck.The lessons consisted of different combinations of the following: thealphabet, vowel and consonant combinations, the Lord’s Prayer, a form ofa cross, and a praise of the Trinity. These were handwritten on a piece ofparchment, then tacked to the wooden paddle. The hornbook was used tokeep the lessons from being soiled by the child. The horn of oxen andsheep were primarily used. As time went on, hornbooks were also made ofa variety of other materials. They were made from ivory, various metals,leather, and even cardboard.12. What were the McGuffey Readers?McGuffey Readers were a planned series of readers that were verymoralistic. They presented the white, Anglo-Saxon Protestant as the modelAmerican. Rev. William Holmes McGuffey had already planned a seriesof readers. A publishing company called Truman and Smith based inCincinnati, Ohio, became interested in the idea of publishing school textsand contacted McGuffey. The McGuffey Readers selected materials froma variety of sources. Sources were considered remarkable literary worksand exerted a greater influence upon literary tastes in America more thanany other book, excluding the Bible.13. What was the Lancasterian System of Teaching?Joseph Lancaster brought into existence a system of education wherebychildren could be educated cheaply. However, the quality of this educationwas questionable. The Lancasterian system of teaching emphasized it wasthe job of the teacher to teach large number of students in one large hall.Sometimes up to 300 students. Monitors were used as a method of “crowdcontrol,” hence the schools also became known as monitorial schools.More advanced students had the responsibility of assisting in teachingthose students below them and so on down the line until virtually everyonewithin the system had a hand in the teaching and learning process.Lancaster’s concept of teaching in this manner was theoretically verysound, however, competent teachers were hard to find during his time.Given the vast number of students who were involved, monitorial teachingdid not come to be the success that Lancaster had envisioned. Even though
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 40this system of teaching was considered a failure, the Lancasterian Systemof Teaching did much to pave the way for future educational endeavors inthe realm of public education.14. What was the Normal School?James G. Carter, a member of the Massachusetts legislature is called the“Father of the American Normal School.” Normal schools attempted toprovide the perspective teacher with a laboratory for learning, using modelclassrooms as a place to practice their new skills. The emphasis in Normalschools was on common, everyday learning.The colleges, with their classical curriculums, looked down on the normalschools. The normal school crusade advocated teaching as a respectableprofession. At Teachers College, Columbia University, a required courseof study continued to evolve, including more elective subjects and abroader liberal arts perspective, resulting in the curriculum that is currentlyin practice today in teacher education.15. Why is the history of African American education so complex?The history of African American education is extremely complex. A briefoutline of the W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington conflicts helps toillustrate the emotions and ideas involved in this significant piece ofhistory.W.E.B. DuBois was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. fromHarvard. He was the founder of the NAACP. DuBois is credited withwriting 19 books in his lifetime. He is responsible for making tremendousstrides forward for the African American community. He began as asupporter for Booker T. Washington and ended his life as a communist inGhana.Booker T. Washington was born a slave in Franklin County, Virginia. Hedid not feel the pride that DuBois felt for his ancestry. He was probably amixed race child. Washington was appointed head of the TuskegeeInstitute in 1881. He took Tuskegee from a backward to a progressivelymodern town.Booker T. Washington taught the newly freed African Americans to beteachers, craftsmen, and businessmen and to make their own way in theworld. He stressed learning by doing the task and not by theories orabstract ideas. He believed that with training the African Americans would
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 41become economically indispensable and the white American society wouldopen its door to them.W.E.B. DuBois believed the “Talented Tenth” of the African Americanpopulation should be able to be more than farmers and “money-makers.”The tenth of the population that he wrote about was the portion he thoughtshould receive a classical education just like white leaders of society.Booker T. Washington was criticized for ignoring “the talented tenth” andwas content to leave the Negro forever as a second-class citizen.Washington advocated manual training for African Americans so theycould work their way up the economic ladder. However, DuBois wouldsettle absolutely for no less than equality. DuBois had been criticized forignoring the small strides that Washington’s work accomplished and forconcentrating only on the ultimate goal, total equality. Washington foundhimself under heavy criticism for working too closely with the whiteleaders and allowing himself to compromise his beliefs for smallinsubstantial laws for African Americans. Washington was able to adjustto the changes in society, while DuBois was not.The NAACP might have been more pragmatic under Washington;however, the leadership of DuBois gave the NAACP a more militantintention. The conflict between Washington and DuBois spanned manyyears, but they both made significant changes in the lives of AfricanAmericans through hard work and solid effort.16. How did the division of the school into grades develop?The Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (especiallyAct 3) set aside land for the building and operation of schools, andprovided that education be necessary to good citizenship. One-roomschools flourished and usually housed 30 to 40 students of all ages andlevels, with one teacher. As more and more children were attendingschool, the one-room schools could no longer handle the demand foreducation because all the children were at so many different levels andages. The most practical way to overcome the crowded and run downbuildings was to build new buildings, with many different classrooms, andsome even had lunchrooms and gymnasiums. Eventually, students beganconsolidating and coming to the schools from surrounding communities.This added to the need for larger buildings.Teachers had training to teach certain subjects and levels. But one questionremained, what was the best way to split up the children with respect totheir levels and needs? The best answer they found was age. At differentages, the students had different needs, and the best way to meet theseneeds was to group everyone of the same age brackets together.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 42Initially, many of the small schools grouped students together with severalages in one room. Grades 1, 2, and 3 would be together, while grades 4, 5,6, 7, and 8 were in another area. If the students moved on past their level,they would usually attend colleges or universities. As populations grewand expanded westward, the need for larger school systems became clear.The grades were separated into their own levels, and mandates were set forwhat had to be taught at each grade level, the rise of elementary andsecondary schools came about, and middle schools were added years later.In general, today, we operate on a 12-grade level system, pluskindergarten. In studying the history of education, it is amazing to see howschools have grown from one room buildings to large corporations withmany schools to accommodate the youth of America.17. Who was Jane Addams?History of education courses mention little, if anything, about JaneAddams. Born September 6, 1860, in Cedarville, Illinois, to a well-knownlegislator, Jane Addams had the opportunity to travel. While traveling inLondon, Jane Addams saw something that would change her life forever.Jane saw Toynbee Hall; a place for the less fortunate. Toynbee Hall was abuilding that had a library, swimming pool, gymnasium, and countlessactivities. It was located right in the center of one of the poorest parts ofLondon. She believed she could set something like this up in America.Jane Addams found the perfect building right in the middle of Chicago’spoorest area, the 19thward. On September 18, 1889, Jane purchased thisbuilding from Charles Hull, and named it Hull House. Hull House was aplace where people could go to escape from their pitiful living conditions.Jane wanted the house mostly for children. She wanted children to live andplay in a clean and healthy environment.At Hull House, Jane Addams started Chicago’s first kindergarten and day-care for children of working mothers. Jane Addams and colleaguesorganized girls clubs, boys clubs and countless activities to keep thechildren in a healthy environment and off of the dirty streets. Jane Addamsplaced her own collection of art and treasures from all of her places oftravel because she believed that everyone deserved the opportunity to see,know, and be in the presence of beauty.By word of mouth, people learned of Hull House. Training of Americancitizenship for skilled labor soon took place. Health clinics were offered,immunization shots and medical care was also given to anyone in need.The doors were always open. By the year 1900 there were over 100 ofthese settlement houses in the United States. Hull House became anaffirmative alternative to being on the streets and in the bars.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 43Jane Addams wrote books and spoke in public for many causes includingwomen’s pension laws and housing laws. Her books often focused ontelling and explaining Hull House and its effect on working women,children, and poverty. She belonged to the National American Women’sSuffrage Association and fought for the right of women and black peopleto vote, and in 1911, she was made Vice President of the association.In 1909, Jane Addams became a member of the newly formed NationalAssociation for the Advancement of Colored People. Jane Addamssupported Teddy Roosevelt’s new party campaign, and in 1914, duringWorld War I, she was a strong advocate for people. In 1931, Jane Addamswas finally awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.Jane Addams had many accomplishments in her lifetime, but her greatestachievement was her lifelong effort at Hull House. In Jane’s helping tomeet the basic needs of a person, such as comfort, safety, rest, nutrition,medical care, friends, and love while providing educational instruction, shemade it possible for children to use their abilities and talents to learn andhave an education. Jane Addams was a giant in her lifetime. She benefitedwomen, children, and all of humankind because of her dedication and loveof the human race.18. How did the role of the principal develop?Principals have been in American schools for more than a century. In fact,there are more school principals than any other administrative office ineducation. The principal serves as sort of a middle person or a liaisonbetween central administration and the teachers.The original principal was actually called a principal teacher. A principalteacher was required to fulfill many roles in the community. They wereteachers, town clerks, grave diggers, church officials, court messengers,and sometimes even the church bell ringers. The concept of the principalteacher started at the high school level and eventually caught on at theprimary level of education. Eventually, the teaching and other duties thatwere required by the principal teacher became too time consuming andthey concentrated on managing the schools. This is when they dropped the“teacher” in their role as principal teacher. Today, the role of the principalis much like it was at the time they stopped teaching. Principals’ mainfocus now is on leadership and the managing of the schools as well asserving as a liaison between the teachers and central administration.19. How did the role of the superintendent develop?Early in the 19thcentury, Horace Mann developed a style of educationalleadership and administration. It was a practical approach to large scale
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 44education where a senior teacher utilized aides or advanced students toteach groups of other students. This practice of monitorial educationeventually died out; however, it did serve as a model for the late 19thcentury schools in America.Educational administration was brought about in the mid 19thcenturyfollowing the development of principal teachers. Educationaladministrationwas too important to be left to teachers to manage without the propertraining and education. People believed that leadership needed to becentralized. Trends in education can be linked to those of society.Educational institutions have grown large and complex to the point that aseparate area of advanced study is necessary at the master, educationspecialist, and doctoral levels. The first training program for schooladministrators was established during the early years of this century atTeachers College, Columbia University, New York. Until this time,administration was part of teaching. The term “Superintendent of Schools”grew out of the terminology of the times, e.g. Superintendent of theRailroad and (Industrial) Plant Superintendent. School administration isreferred to often as an applied field that combines business and education,and until recently did not require a definitive training program.Source: Campbell, Fleming, Newell, & Bennion. A history of thought and practice in educationaladministration. Campbell, D. (1974). If you don’t know where you’re going, you’llprobably end up somewhere else. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership. Adaptedwith permission.20. The Greeks – Who are some key people and their contribution toeducation?a. Sappho (c. 630-572 B.C.)1. voice of a woman writing about herself;2. emphasized the finishing school concept–education for a socialrole in society.b. Protagoras (c. 490-421 B.C.)1. first Greek to justify supporting himself by charging fees (salary)for teaching; he was a sophist;2. believed properly instructed citizens can participate in thegoverning process;3. emphasized a practical curriculum;4. stressed the importance of oratorical skills.c. Socrates (c. 470-399 B.C.)
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 451. knowledge comes through logic and contemplation;2. ideas, not things, are the true nature of reality;3. virtuous few should rule the undisciplined many;4. developed person-centered education, emphasizing beliefs andcharacter;5. disapproved of teaching by “telling”;6. goal of education is to build and classify values, preferences, andmorals;7. sought people to define themselves by being in tune with their truenature.d. Plato (c. 428-347 B.C.)1. founded Academy;2. developed a theory that for every “thing” that can be perceivedthere exists a basic or foundational organizing principle or idea(idealism);3. wrote The Republic which emphasized two premises:a. states should be governed only by knowledgeable people ofvirtue;b. all should contribute to a harmonious state based on aptitude;educators sort out people according to criteria; amount and typeof education based on expected role in society; (forerunner tothe tracking system);4. believed that body limits knowledge;5. believed learning is rediscovery or recollection of knowledgebrought to consciousness through reflections.e. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)1. developed peripatetic school; lecturing while walking in theLyceum, a grove near Athens;2. believed that the inferior status of women, children, and slaves waspart of natural law;3. emphasized liberal education as a means to cultivate habits thatdevelop moral and rational virtues, all vocational study is bydefinition not liberal (liberating);4. liberal arts enlarge and expand a person’s choices and behaviors;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 465. believed biology was the most important subject;6. believed the body is the road to knowledge: heart is the seat of thesenses;7. happiness is the supreme good.21. The Romans – Who are some key people and their contribution toeducation?a. Cicero (106-43 B.C.)1. 55 B.C. On Oratory – first Latin exposition of Greek educationalmethod and ideal; divides Roman education into two periods:a. period of purely Roman ideals and practices;b. period in which Greek influence became more popular;2. believed in thorough understanding of Latin before Greek;3. advocated broad, general education as necessary to oratoricaleducation;4. influenced the Renaissance ideal of education: Latin culture,literature, and language established as core curriculum; humanspirit reflected in fine arts and literature.b. Quintilian (35-95 A.D.)1. the most prominent Roman writer on education;2. viewed orator as the citizen who used all his skill in the service ofthe state;3. talent essential to learning;4. opposed corporal punishment of children;5. emphasized human practices, individuality, and play;6. orator believed to be a skilled speaker and the most virtuous citizenwho employed his skill in the service of the state;7. developed 12 books for training of the orator, The Institutes ofOratory, a work that became a sourcebook for the Humanist thatincluded:a. stressing individual differences;b. beginning reading with Greek rather than Latin;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 47c. recommended public instead of private schools because schoolis the society in which children learn from each other and theteacher;d. list of “great books” to form basis of education;e. emphasis on memory and morals.c. Hypatia (c. 360-415 A.D.)1. revealed the role of Roman women as cultured, educatedindividuals who could be politically powerful;2. only woman known to have held public chair of philosophy inEurope.d. Augustine (354-430 A.D.)1. City of God–his most prolific work;2. liberal education is useful in both church and state;3. goals of education–to strengthen faith.e. Boethius (c. 480-524 A.D.)1. translated Aristotle’s Introduction to the Categories of Aristotle,that became the leading text in logic for the next seven centuries;2. wrote a famous book that placed culture in Christian setting;summarized earlier writings of ethics and philosophy;3. for centuries he was regarded as a great educational authority.f. Cassiodorus (c. 483-575 A.D.)1. his work became the educational syllabus of monasteries;2. influenced the collecting, translating, and copying of manuscriptsthat became the outline for the liberal arts.22. The Monastics – Who are some key people and their contributions toeducation?a. Benedict (c. 480-543)1. one of monasticism’s major leaders;2. he developed an approach to government (Benedict’s Rule) thatcame to be followed by most European establishments;3. he assumed poverty, chastity, and obedience;4. recommended restraint in consumption of food and wine;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 485. proposed a system of government based on the Roman family(father as head of order making all rules);6. recognized the value of manual labor in education.b. Charlemagne (742-814)1. noted for his military strength;2. ruled for four decades;3. renaissance peaked under Charlemagne’s rule;4. wrote capitularies (letters of advice) on schools that called uponsecular and ecclesiastical authorities to promote education.c. Alcuin (735-804)1. implemented educational reform recommended by Charlemagne;2. wrote texts on education that dealt with methods of education,duties of students, and grammar;3. much of his work directed toward catechetical form of teaching(question and answer);4. emphasized close relationship between liberal arts and spiritualknowledge;5. emphasized intellectual training necessary for moral improvement.d. Guibert of Nogent (c. 1064-1128)1. emphasized education and training of the medieval personality;2. wrote his life story in three books; early years, life as a monk, andyears as an abbot (the superior of a monastery for men);3. guilt and suffering revealed in work suggests the evolution of the“psyche.”e. Peter of Abelard (1079-1142)1. life illustrates emergence of ambitious, professional teachers;2. competed with the school of Notre Dame before heading it;3. condemned for his theological works;4. influenced the intellectual climate leading to the birth of theuniversities and a critical study of theology;5. considered by many as the greatest professor who ever lived.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 49f. Heloise (Eloise) (c. 1100-1164)1. well educated for women of her time;2. wife of Peter Abelard;3. was sent to become a nun;4. later became abbess at Argentueil (abbess–a woman who is asuperior over a convent of nuns).g. Euphemia of Wherwell (c. 1200-1257)1. abbess of monastery of Wherwell in England;2. emphasized women’s role in medieval education;3. was an excellent administrator.h. Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274)1. dedicated to the Benedictine order by parents at five years of age;2. studied liberal arts and philosophy of Aristotle at Naples;3. his best known work was the Summa Theologica;4. believed nature wanted to produce males; women were wicked anddefective–weak in mind, body, and will; woman should regard manas her natural master and submit to his disciplines;5. perfected Scholasticism.23. The Humanists – Who are some key people and their contributions toeducation?a. Vittorine da Feltre (c. 1378-1446)1. Renaissance humanist; left no writings;2. believed classical literature could be reconciled with Christian life;3. founded a school in Venice for children of wealthy merchants;4. founded a school in Mantua for children of rich;5. developed scholarship programs whereby wealthy subsidized thepoor;6. believed in a pleasant school environment, with physical activitybeing an important part of education.b. Christine de Pisan (c. 1364-after 1429)1. had an education typical of aristocratic and wealthy middle classgirls; manners, morals, etiquette, reading, and writing;2. criticized for representing herself in court following her husband’sdeath–an unusual event in her day;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 503. contributed to the beginning of public debate about women’s rightsand feminine consciousness;4. through her writing, criticized the number one poet of France, Jeande Meun, regarding his attitude towards women;5. wrote love poems;6. wrote a book for women on how to get along in the world andsolve their problems and a poem on the triumph of Joan of Arc.c. Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)1. prolific writer;2. believed ignorance was enemy of Christ;3. major work, In Praise of Folley, satirized excess of society;4. pacifist who objected to war;5. believed in early childhood learning without corporal punishment;6. believed the best education was to return to Ancient Greeks andRomans;7. believed the aim of education to be social–the “good man”;8. stressed that faith and good work resulted in a well-ordered socialstructure;9. believed a liberal education produced an ideal society;10. believed in the public school–not tutors;11. believed that education by experience contained risks;12. believed that knowledge and history were better than philosophy asa theory.d. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)1. was a “political scientist,” not a teacher or scholar;2. developed political theories from political activity in Florence, Italy;3. became a political writer as a result of political life;4. studied qualities of an ideal republic;5. believed the voice of the people needed to be taken seriously;6. placed emphasis on classical works and his own experience;7. wrote The Prince. In this book, Machiavelli believed the role of theprince was to gain and maintain power because success or failureof the city depended on the leadership of the prince.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 5124. The Reformers – Who are some key people and their contributions toeducation?a. John Wycliffe (1320-1384)1. Oxford lecturer, later ordained a priest;2. believed that “charity begins at home”–England needed the tributespaid to Rome more than Rome did;3. did not believe church or priest should have property; believersshould own property in common;4. translated Bible into English with the assistance of two priests whowere poor;5. charged that church corruption heightened peasant dissatisfactionthat lead to the peasant riots of 1381;6. believed that everyone should read the Bible.b. John Huss (1369-1415)1. the most popular preacher of his time;2. believed in realism rather than nominalism that was favored byGermans (nominalism, the theory that only individuals and noabstract entities exist);3. leader of the Bohemian reformist part movement;4. condemned and burned at the stake.c. Martin Luther (1483-1546)1. after earning a Master of Arts Degree, entered Augustinianmonastery;2. ordained a priest;3. appointed lecturer in philosophy at the University of Wittenberg;4. later studied theology and received a doctorate;5. believed one could receive the grace of God through faith;6. he favored movement away from the Roman Catholic Churchbecause of the authority of the pope, “sale” of indulgences andcertain sacraments;7. in 1517 he distributed 95 Theses: reform propositions posted atWittenberg;8. in 1521 he was declared an outlaw;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 529. believed education was necessary to Christian life: family, state,and church comprised three spheres of human life that contributedto salvation;10. composed hymns;11. translated Bible into German;12. emphasized that each person was responsible for salvation; meansto salvation found in scripture;13. believed in state obligation to fund education;14. wanted free education;15. believed spiritual and secular education complemented each other.d. Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560)1. friend and colleague of Martin Luther;2. he systematized and implemented many of Luther’s reforms,resulting in demand for popular education;3. saw humanism as a means to promote evangelical principlesthrough eloquence and usefulness;4. believed traditional studies aided clear expression;5. believed history encouraged patriotism and reflected the humanexperience;6. emphasized the use of humanism as an educational tool;7. believed knowledge should be judged by its purpose;8. wrote and translated texts, summaries, and theological papers;9. was a consultant in school reform (especially with universities);10. said learning should be divided into three areas:a. thinking and reading (classical languages, logic, and rhetoric);b. natural reality (physics, cosmology, physiology, and“psychology”);c. ethics and politics for practical life.e. Ignatius Loyola (c. 1492-1556)1. Spanish knight who became a major figure in CatholicReformation;2. decided to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land; later became apriest;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 533. his lifestyle and preaching often came under suspicion;4. began study as a Dominican priest, but formed his own religiousgroup in 1534 that was approved by the Pope in 1537; in 1540 hisSociety of Jesuits was officially recognized as a religious order inthe Catholic Church;5. during his life he approved the foundation of 39 colleges anduniversities of which 33 actually opened;6. believed all education had a religious purpose;7. believed that studies should help others to discover God’s work inthe world; theology supreme in the curriculum;8. goal of education was to make each person a more useful memberof the church and citizen of the community and the state;9. education transformed society as well as the individual;10. developed a practical approach to the curriculum;11. systematized teacher education.f. John Amos Comenius (1592-1670)1. aim was to compel savages to civilization, thus the church had amajor role in education;2. Protestant born in Moravia (now Czech Republic) near Hungarianborder;3. called for Protestant unity; strongly opposed to Roman Catholics;4. emphasized child development as an appropriate determination forchild readiness in learning;5. emphasized a pleasant physical environment for the child;6. emphasized the use of pictures in textbooks;7. believed women as intelligent as men but held a primarilyhousehold role;8. devoted life to the church;9. believed ideas come direct from sense perception;10. believed children should teach each other;11. wanted student dramas to aid learning;12. his general attitudes were shared by colonial leaders in NewEngland from 1630s to 1670s.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 5425. The New Educators – Who are some key people and theircontributions to education?a. John Locke (1632-1704)1. an Englishman known as “America’s philosopher”;2. a student of medicine and experimental science;3. a lecturer at Oxford; influenced political theory and epistemology;4. recommended empowering people through the legislature underjurisdiction of electors;5. some of Locke’s thoughts concerning education (1693):a. criticized corporal punishment;b. recommended tutors instead of schools that provided peerinfluence to be “unlearned”;c. wanted four outcomes of educating “gentleman”:1. virtue–result of good religious training;2. wisdom–result of the mind and experience;3. good breeding;4. learning–thought and understanding to replace rote learning,Latin, and Greek;6. advocated the study of sciences;7. emphasized utility as the basis for selecting curriculum;8. formulated tabula rasa theory of the mind; knowledge comes fromexperience;9. believed the emphasis on utility fit the needs of new worldsocieties.b. Jean Jacque Rousseau (1712-1778)1. a moralist who attacked the concept that progress results fromadvances in science and technology;2. believed humans are by nature good and society’s institutionscorrupt them;3. emphasized using the environment for learning;4. wrote Emile, his major work that described the ideal education of ayoung boy; rejected original sin and attacked fundamentals ofChristianity; author was banished to Switzerland; book was burned
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 55in France; book emphasized that children learn corruption ofsociety through field trips to the city and the study of thehumanities;5. highly criticized by Voltaire, who resented Rousseau’s popularity;6. advocated state-funded, secular system of education;7. emphasized moral training provided by a tutor and parents setting agood example; nature to be tutor’s guide;8. children learn from the consequences of actions rather thanpunishment;9. woman’s role was to serve man; her education should be plannedin relationship to her role in the man’s world; believed womenwere not naturally as good as men;10. believed in justifiable rebellion whenever a government failed tosatisfy the people it ruled.c. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)1. feminist theorist and writer of pedagogic stories;2. through her writing, developed argument for extending humanrights to both sexes;3. believed submissiveness of women that was learned was notnature;4. believed women and men should live equally in relation to eachother;5. challenged male supremacy through her best known book,Vindication of the Rights of Women;6. believed education was a means to achieve a new society;7. schools should be agents of change;8. became a leading political radical; first feminist philosopher;9. emphasized that the power of reason had been excluded fromwomen’s education; rational education would produce independentwomen and equality between sexes;10. recommended national system of education to produceindependent women;11. proposed an elementary school: no distinctions on basis of sex orclass; stressed school uniforms to eliminate distinctions.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 56d. Victor of Aveyron (1788-1828)1. considered as the “wild boy” found wandering in southern France;given to the care of Dr. Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, a physicianinterested in the study of retardation and sensory impairment;2. years of training in social, sensory, emotional, and speech skillsshowed progression in all these areas except emotional;3. reflected a new meaning for definitions of who could be educatedand to what extent (birth of special education); tested learningexperimentally;4. developed numerous materials for learning; laid groundwork forMontessori.e. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827)1. Swiss pioneer in “psychologizing” education;2. credited with new method and approach to elementary teaching;3. emphasized that experience is better than words;4. operated “poor school” experiment for four years, taking poor andorphaned children and working them hard for meager pay as ameans to teach them skills necessary for their “condition” orstation in life;5. believed schools should be modeled on good home; love mustguide the teacher and firm discipline maintained;6. believed aim of education is harmonious development of humanpower and development of social responsibility;7. provision must be made for teacher education and that teachers canlearn skills in experimental schools;8. remembered as the “Father of Modern Elementary Education,” buthis colleagues developed many of the ideas with which he wascredited.f. Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852)1. his early education took place in a girls school;2. was an apprentice to an agriculturalist to become a forester;3. saw value in learning;4. in 1826 published The Education of Man, an account of hiseducational theories and principles;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 575. in 1837 opened the Institute for the Occupations of Little Childrenafter several other school ventures;6. developed “gifts” and “occupations,” emphasized self activitywhich was the basic principle of Froebel’s philosophy.26. The Americans – Who are some key people and their contributions toeducation?a. Bernardino de Sahagun (1499-1590)1. Spaniard who joined Franciscan order, moved to Mexico City atage 20;2. provided instruction to Aztecs in Laine;3. wrote History of Ancient Mexico; text first written in Nahuatl thentranslated to Spanish; illustrated by Mexicans who learnedEuropean art techniques.b. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (1648-1695)1. nun, poet, playwright, feminist, and educator; nicknamed “TheTenth Muse” (muse absorbed in thought);2. at an early age she asked to be allowed to dress as a male so shecould attend the university;3. gained reputation as an intellectual;4. joined a convent to pursue studies instead of marriage; poor healthcaused her to leave; later joined another convent where religiouslife and scholarship was more compatible;5. her life reflected inventive responses of women on the “AmericanFrontier”;6. accused of rebelling against masculine authority of the churchbecause she criticized a Jesuit sermon;7. advocated equal education for women and men.c. Christopher Dock (1698-1771)1. a Mennonite; became a schoolmaster and wrote hymns and poetry;2. believed the best teaching methods were those that emphasizedChristian method for educating children;3. believed equal education for rich and poor;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 584. rejected corporal punishment–encouragement and peer pressure inits place.d. Noah Webster (1758-1843)1. believed success was based on virtues, knowledge, religion, andmorality;2. curriculum should reflect American ideas; promoted concept ofliterature based on American history; ideals and heroes rather thanforeign nations/foreigners;3. value of education measured by usefulness;4. stressed Calvinist view–tying religion and morality to education asbasis for political and social stability;5. wanted to develop a national system of education–general systemof education for all Americans;6. advocated “electives” in higher education;7. emphasized the study of language should be a concrete appeal tothe senses (visible objects and their properties) rather than parts ofspeech;8. advocated specialization instead of broad education;9. no education is better than a bad one;10. teachers should be models of esteem, respect, and authority;11. believed morality defeated barbaric diversity;12. in 1783 published A Grammatical Institute of the EnglishLanguage;13. in 1828 published An American Dictionary of the EnglishLanguage.27. The Friends of Education – Who are some key people and theircontributions to education?a. Horace Mann (1796-1859)1. identified with “common school” developments;2. came from farming family in Massachusetts;3. educated at home and in common school;4. graduate of Brown University and later Tapping Reeves LawSchool;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 595. career in corporate law led to a decade in Massachusetts GeneralCourt (legislative);6. fought for state assistance for the insane; helped secure first statehospital for the insane in Massachusetts;7. elected as state Senator of Massachusetts and later acceptedsecretarialship of the Board of Education; became an advocate forthe centralized school system;8. state-wide study of education in Massachusetts, elements were:a. all common (elementary) schools to be tuition free;b. curriculum and texts to be standardized;c. all schools in each township to be under direct control ofsuperintendent;d. pupils grouped by age into grades;e. all teachers to be licensed by state after “normal” training;f. mandatory attendance by all children;9. advocated a state system of schools instead of communitycontrolled schools–became official view of most Americaneducators;10. founded and edited the Common School Journal;11. advocated democratic ideals and training in self government;12. in 1839 assisted with first tax funded supported normal schoolopened in Lexington, Massachusetts.b. Robert Owen (1771-1858)1. believed character formed by environmental forces, antagonistic toorganized religion;2. wrote A New View of Society, proclaiming education conducive tosocial change;3. theorized creation of a new society based on the equality ofpersons inhabiting a community of common property;4. believed infant education–first step to conditioning children andfitting men and women to live in the communal society.c. John Hughes (1879-1864)1. key person in developing Catholic schooling in America;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 602. he was an Irish Catholic motivated by experiences of religiouspersecution;3. became a champion of Catholic rights;4. in 1839 became Bishop of New York;5. his intention to obtain funding for Catholic schools helpedsecularize public schools and led to the development of anintensive network of Catholic schools.d. Sheldon Jackson (1834-1909)1. Presbyterian minister;2. taught in Choctaw boys schools as well as other missionary schoolundertakings in Indian Territories;3. first General Agent for Education in Alaska;4. believed in the superiority of Protestant, Christian world view.28. The Progressives – Who are some key people and their contributionsto education?a. G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)1. studied positivistic philosophy in Germany;2. studied with William James at Harvard and in 1878 received thefirst Ph.D. in psychology in the United States and the firstdoctorate in philosophy from Harvard;3. developed theories of child development based on evolution;argued for scientific study of children;4. became president of Clark University which developed into agraduate institution with a scientific orientation;5. instrumental in founding of the American PsychologicalAssociation, APA, serving as its first president;6. prominent spokesperson for child study movement;7. published Adolescence: his major work regarding a person’smovement to adulthood;8. introduced Freud and Freudian psychology to America in 1908;9. first to apply psychology as a science to education.b. Francis W. Parker (1837-1902)1. “Father of Progressive Education”;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 612. saw education as great unifier of the people;3. began rally against traditional education;4. as supervisor of school system in Dayton, Ohio, began to use theGerman community’s “object lessons” and “kindergarten”;5. became superintendent of schools in Quincy, Massachusetts in1875;6. gained widespread attention with “Quincy System”;7. promoted educating children for a social democracy;8. believed traditional education intensified social class divisions;9. believed transmission of knowledge a means not an end ineducation;10. favored education with utility and vocation;11. thought everyone should be trained into a love of work;12. believed in spiraling of subject matter from simple to complex tofollow human development;13. believed in the concept of “integratism” to unite people into acommunity of common purpose;14. developed “theory of concentration” with child-centeredcurriculum;15. believed teachers should make themselves indispensable throughmerit;16. became dean of education at the University of Chicago until hisdeath in 1902.c. John Dewey (1859-1952)1. best known education theorist of the 20thcentury in the Englishspeaking world;2. graduated from the University of Vermont;3. spent two years teaching high school in Ohio and later in anAcademy in Vermont;4. taught philosophy at the University of Michigan and University ofMinnesota;5. in 1864 accepted a position at the University of Chicago to chairphilosophy, psychology, and pedagogy;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 626. was influenced by the social settlement work of Jane Addams andprogressive education of Francis Parker;7. established “Laboratory School” at the University of Chicago in1896;8. believed every social experience was educative;9. greatest contribution: formulation of underlying philosophicfoundations of progressive educational methods;10. in 1904 began a professorship at Columbia University TeachersCollege;11. associated with liberal political circles to work for social reforms(women’s suffrage, formation of NAACP, New York Teachers’Union, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), AmericanAssociation of University Professors (AAUP).d. Margaret Haley (1861-1939)1. emphasized that democracy worked through public control ofschools;2. father’s financial collapse caused her to seek a teaching career;3. teaching in Chicago put her in contact with Francis Parker;4. joined a group of teachers who organized for better workingconditions; led to Chicago Teachers’ Federation (CTF);5. worked full-time to get back taxes from powerful corporations tobe awarded to the board of education;6. instrumental in getting the Chicago Teachers’ Federation toaffiliate with the Chicago Federation of Labor–the first teachinggroup to do so;7. worked to make Ella Flagg Young the first female president of theNational Education Association (NEA);8. lobbied continuously for legislative reform;9. in 1934 helped secure national loan to bail our Chicago cityschools during the Great Depression.e. Ella Flagg Young (1845-1918)1. first female superintendent of city schools of Chicago;2. unable to attend school until age of 11; taught herself to read andwrite;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 633. graduated from normal department of a Chicago high school;4. worked as a teacher, assistant principal, and principal at variousChicago schools until she became assistant superintendent;5. supported teachers developing curriculum;6. earned doctorate at University of Chicago;7. formulated and practiced philosophy of learning by experience;8. advocated social freedoms for schools to be run democraticallyfrom the superintendent to the student;9. in 1909 elected as superintendent of schools of Chicago schools;10. in 1910 first female president of the National EducationAssociation.29. The Outsiders – Who are some key people and their contributions toeducation?a. Emma Willard (1787-1870)1. advocated women’s education;2. contributed to the development of women’s education throughpublications, lectures, and membership in educational associations;3. educated at home and in district schools in Connecticut;4. at age 17, became a teacher in a children’s school; later taught andattended female seminaries, academies;5. in 1808 became headship of a female school in Middlebury,Vermont; in 1814 opened Middlebury Female Academy;6. believed education of men and women should differ because ofwomen’s roles as mothers and influence in child-rearing;7. believed education should guide girls to intellectual goals andproper values to be passed on to their children for the continuanceof a republican form of government;8. in 1819 presented Plan for Improving Female Education to theNew York legislature;9. in 1821 received building aid from Troy, New York to build TroyFemale Seminary where she was principal for 17 years; became ateacher training center;10. in 1840 elected superintendent of schools in Kensington,Connecticut; perhaps first women to hold such a position;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 6411. in 1910 Troy Seminary was renamed Ella Willard School.b. Mary Mason Lyon (1797-1849)1. educated in one-room schools in Massachusetts where at age 14she became a teacher;2. received advanced training at a seminary and alternated teachingwith study;3. established Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, opening in 1837;became one of the most successful New England women’s schools;4. believed development of household skills to be a familyresponsibility, not the schools’.c. Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) & Emily Blackwell (1826-1910)1. pioneers in medical education;2. daughters of English dissenter of Church of England;3. both barred from English public schools because of father’sreligion;4. in 1832 family moved to New York;5. in 1836 father died and sisters taught school to support the family;6. both had motivations to be physicians but had difficulty gainingadmission to medical school;7. Elizabeth graduated from Geneva in 1849 and Emily from WesternReserve in Cleveland in 1854;8. in 1853 Elizabeth opened a clinic that expanded to become theNew York Infirmary for Women and Children which Emily laterjoined; in 1868 they established Women’s Medical College thatwas associated with the infirmary;9. in 1870 Elizabeth returned to London as professor of Gynecologyat the London School of Medicine for Women; Emily remained inthe United States working to expand the New York Infirmary andteaching obstetrics and gynecology.d. Sara Winnemucca (1844-1891)1. Paiute Indian who worked in the home of an Army officer;2. enrolled in convent school but was forced to withdraw becausewhite parents objected to her presence;3. continued education alone;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 654. worked as a translator and spokesperson between Pauites andwhites;5. spoke out against the Bureau of Indian Affairs;6. in 1875 worked as a teacher’s aide;7. in 1886 founded a school for Paiute children on her brother’s farm;8. advocated Indian-controlled education and Indians’ right to runtheir own lives.e. Fanny Jackson Coppin (1837-1913)1. advocate of vocational schooling for African Americans;2. born a slave in 1837 in the District of Columbia; aunt bought herfreedom;3. moved to Rhode Island and worked in a household of a family whoallowed her to study one hour every other afternoon;4. attended a local black school and took private music lessons;5. graduated from Rhode Island State Normal School, then OberlinCollege;6. in 1865 one of the first women to receive a bachelor of arts degree;7. in 1869 first woman to be head principal of the Institute forColored Youth in Philadelphia; began vocational program in 1889;8. in 1902 began missionary work in Africa with her husband.f. Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)1. educational spokesperson and speech maker, preaching gospel ofself-help for blacks;2. criticized by some for accepting separate and unequal educationalopportunities for African Americans;3. born a slave of a cook on a small white “plantation”; father was awhite man he never knew;4. self-taught; required to quit school to assist stepfather with familyincome;5. attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute;6. influenced by General Samuel Chapman Armstrong’s strongphilosophy for vocational education to produce black self-reliance;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 667. graduated from Hampton and taught at Malden; then enteredWayland Seminary in Washington, DC, a theological seminarywith a liberal arts emphasis;8. convinced a liberal arts education was not practical for mostblacks;9. in 1895 speech at Atlanta Exposition marked his entry to thenational scene; first time an African American appeared on thesame program as white dignitaries in the South;10. became principal advocate for blacks under Theodore Roosevelt’sadministration;11. helped to create a favorable climate for education for blacks thatmet southern resistance;12. believed schooling should improve the social, political, andeconomic lives of people.g. Rafael Cordero y Molino (1790-1868)1. black educator, born in San Juan;2. contributed to the development of elementary education in PuertoRico;3. educated through home and self-schooling because formal schoolwas denied to blacks;4. in 1810 opened a small school in San German, Puerto Rico toteach black and poor white children; his methods of teaching alsoattracted rich white children; taught rich and poor alike for no fees.h. George I. Sanchez (1906-1972)1. noted advocate of Mexican-American and Latino educational rights;2. American southwest student who became a teacher in a one-roomschool;3. served as Director of the Division of Information and Statistics forthe New Mexico State Department of Education;4. received Ed.D. from UCLA;5. 1935-1938 was president of the New Mexico EducationAssociation;6. in 1940 accepted first professorship in Latin American Studies inthe United States;7. worked to discredit ethnically biased standardized testing;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 678. active proponent of litigation involving education of Mexican-Americans.30. The Critics – Who are some key people and their contributions toeducation?a. Maria Montessori (1870-1952)1. advocated reforming schools to make them less teacher centered;2. born in Italy; one of few women of her time to pursue technicalcurriculum; first engineering then medicine;3. entered University of Rome’s medical school; first woman in Italyto graduate with degrees in medicine and surgery;4. early work was in asylums increased her compassion for children,concluding mental deficiency was educational rather than a mentalproblem;5. became director of the “orthophrenic school” for “deficientchildren”;6. appointed chair of anthropology at the University of Rome whereshe wrote her first book, Pedagogical Anthropology;7. worked with children in slum areas of Rome that resulted infounding of Children’s Home and developed a developmentaltheory of education;8. believed children have strong need for order and psychologicaldeviations can be cured;9. many toy manufactures were influenced by her methods andtheories.b. John Watson (1878-1958)1. applied the emerging field of psychology to the study of education;2. born in a harsh, literal Baptist home in South Carolina;3. received master’s degree and pursued a doctorate at the Universityof Chicago during John Dewey’s tenure;4. moved away from traditional psychology to behaviorism–the goalsof psychology were to predict and control behavior;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 685. in 1915 elected president of the American PsychologicalAssociation;6. developed environmentalist theory of individual differences causedby early experiences;7. aided development of animal studies by comparing animal andhuman behavior.c. Margaret Naumburg (1890-1983)1. believed that society could be improved through education and thateducation could be improved through psychoanalytic principles;2. went to Europe to study with Montessori and returned to NewYork to teach at Lillian Wald’s Henry Street SettlementKindergarten that was organized around Montessorian principles;3. believed in combining regular school subjects and real lifeactivities, regarding subjects as means to living not ends of life.d. William E.B. DuBois (1868-1963)1. developed “talented tenth” concept that cultured intellectualswould lead the black masses;2. born in Massachusetts of French Huguenot, Dutch, and Africanstrains;3. graduated as only African American in class of 12; entered FiskUniversity where he was introduced to southern racial biases;4. taught in the rural south where he learned of the hardships andpoverty of the southern black;5. earned bachelor of arts in philosophy and master’s in history fromHarvard; thesis entitled The Suppression of African Slave Trade tothe United States of America;6. studied at the University of Berlin and traveled Europe;7. received Ph.D. from Harvard and took appointment at the Universityof Pennsylvania and Atlanta University in the area of black studies;8. director of publication and research for NAACP;9. wrote Souls of Black Folk as a eulogy to the death of his infant sonwho was denied health care because he was black;10. friction grew with liberals, especially with the NAACP as DuBois’ideas grew further away from Booker T. Washington;11. supported female suffrage as a vote for black women;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 6912. in the 1930s advocated development of an independent black cul-ture;13. in 1958 won the Lenin Peace Prize from the USSR;14. headed the Peace Information Center of the World Congress of theDefenders of Peace;15. gave up American citizenship to become citizen of Ghana.e. George S. Counts (1889-1974)1. leading educational theorist for five decades;2. known as a “reconstructionist” in education;3. noted scholar of Soviet culture and education;4. saw history as an instrument to shape a plan for a new society;5. wrote Dare the School Build a New Social Order in the depths ofthe economic depression of the 1930s;6. born and grew up in Baldwin, Kansas;7. earned bachelor’s degree from Baker University and a doctoratefrom the University of Chicago;8. criticized high school for serving upper socioeconomic class at theexpense of the poor;9. believed education was related to a given civilization and itsproblems at a particular time in history, thus schooling could be aninstrument of national policy;10. believed educational philosophy was an instrument for dealingwith changing issues in a changing world;11. developed a theory of social change to replace competitiveness andexploitation with cooperation, planning, humanness, anddemocracy in a technological society.f. Miles Elwood Cary (1894-1959)1. indirect “reconstructionist” schools should furnish environment tocriticize society’s wrongdoings and develop corrective socialactions; rejected class struggle as an enduring social order;2. believed schools should be seen as places to discover conflict inone’s cultural heritage, reinterpret the meaning of democracy andas community centers for study and activity; democracy was themeans for a future culture;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 703. born and educated in the state of Washington where Progressivismwas gaining a foothold;4. became principal of McKinley High School in Hawaii, where thestudent body largely descended from plantation work force;5. master’s thesis at University of Hawaii laid out plan to vitalizecurriculum at McKinley High School in order to transform socialstructure of Hawaii;6. earned Ph.D. at Ohio State University;7. believed that vitalized curriculum included core curriculum,student government, and communication;8. McKinley High School earned national recognition as a laboratoryfor democracy;9. wrote and published Educational Leadership;10. saw cultural democracy contributing to World Culture.31. Paradigm Shifters – Who are some key people and their contributionsto education?a. Thomas S. Kuhn (1922- )1. earned bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees from Harvard inphysics, but changed interest to history and philosophy of science;2. believed that all knowledge is ultimately paradigm depended;3. advocated that because each paradigm provides satisfying answersto some questions but not others, crises occur from time to timeand paradigms shift or are abandoned for new ones.b. Howard Gardner (1943- )1. known for developing a theory of multiple intelligences;2. earned doctoral degree from Harvard and continued on the facultythere;3. challenged Piagetian assumption that all children go through aseries of identical development stages;4. believed seven separate intelligences exist:a. linguistic;b. musical;c. logical/mathematical;
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 71d. spatial;e. bodily/kinesthetic;f. intrapersonal;g. interpersonal;5. believed people have potential for all seven intelligences but thatmost develop one or more at the expense of others and that schoolsconcentrate on logical/mathematical in defining intelligence.c. Frantz Fanon (1925-1961)1. Algerian psychiatrist noted for analyzing and critiquing policiesand results–especially violent results–of colonialism;2. attended school in Martinique with three brothers and four sistersin a family that reflected middle class French tastes;3. after medical training in Paris and marriage to a white Parisian, hepracticed medicine in Martinique and served in the French army;4. radicalization began as he watched white French troops mistreatnative women on his home island;5. wrote four books that reflected his disillusionment and hisdeepening understanding of both the processes and results ofcolonial domination;6. saw that colonizers seek to “help” the natives but ended upultimately maintaining control through the use of force;7. worked to secure Algerian independence;8. died in 1961 at the age of 36, soon after contracting leukemia, buthis influence continued to inspire anticolonial activities, includingthe civil rights movement in the United States.d. Malcolm X (1925-1965)1. fourth of eight children born to Early and Louise Little;2. ward of the state and often in trouble with the law after his fatherwas killed by suspected Klu Klux Klansmen;3. converted to Elija Muhammad’s National of Islam (BlackMuslims), Malcolm soon became a powerful force in advancingthe Muslim cause of black separatism;4. founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) toadvance African American self-development, calling for extensiveschool reform to give black youth knowledge and self-confidence;
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 725. moderated his former anti-white stance after a trip to Mecca inSaudi Arabia;6. broke with Elijah Muhammad in 1964, charging Elijah withextravagant living and sexual promiscuity;7. assassinated in 1965 by men “believed to be sympathetic to BlackMuslims”;8. a significant educational critic, theorist, and leader.9. realized his capacity for academic self development by constantlyreading while incarcerated.e. Paula Freire (1921- )1. Brazilian intellectual and activist known for his ideas andleadership in “popular education”;2. known for literary work;3. stresses “problematizing,” “dialog,” and “conscientization”;4. used “circle of culture” to facilitate adult learning.f. Michel Foucault (1926-1984)1. known as a critic of “modernism” and for his personal lifestylethat included explorations of the relationships between pain andpleasure;2. wrote prolific historical and philosophical examinations of suchtopics as sexuality, sanity, and criminality;3. saw as a central tendency to use power on ourselves and others todominate, control, and coerce;4. before dying of complications from AIDS in 1984, he asserted thatthe “idea of truth is itself a fiction . . . and everything that we holdas solid and certain about the world is . . . demonstrably accidental,contingent, or false . . .”g. Ivan D. Illich (1926- )1. known for challenging several contemporary bureaucraticorganizations–for example, churches, schools, and hospitals–andfor calling for their disestablishment as we have known them;2. classically educated in Vienna, Florence, and Rome and ordained aRoman Catholic priest;3. pastored in Puerto Rican neighborhood in New York City and afour-year stint in charge of the Catholic University of Ponce in
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 73Puerto Rico found him an outspoken advocate of respect forestablished cultural sensitivity;4. believed “Schools . . . confuse process and substance . . . The pupilis there by ‘schooled’ to confuse teaching with learning, gradeadvancement with education, a diploma with competence, andfluency with the ability to say something new”;5. went from an object of press attention to obscurity;6. although continued to write and lecture, critics say that he is nowignored because educators do not want to hear that the institutionof schooling cannot deliver individual or social salvation.Source: Smith, L., & Smith, J. (1994). Lives in education: A narrative of people and ideas.New York: St. Martin’s Press. Adapted with special permission.32. What background do we need to know about testing?Source: Nos. 32-35 by Dr. Neil T. FaulkTesting has played an integral part in education. Trends in educationaltesting have been labeled as “high stakes” testing. This testing hassignificant social, economic, and political effects on those being subjectedto the “high stakes” testing movement. Students are denied promotionwhereas teachers, principals, and superintendents could also be deniedtenure or be removed from their positions due to low “high stakes” testscores. Governance of some local school districts have been overtaken bystates due to low test scores. This has indeed been a major concern forlocal school districts and professional personnel. The opposite could occurif a district had high test scores. There are those who believe that we havegone too far with the “high stakes” testing movement, yet others disagreeby stating that greater emphasis in testing leads to greater gains inaccountability. Testing is not a new endeavor, as it has been with us forquite some time.The first formal tests were administered in China some 4000 years ago.These tests were considered civil service type exams given by order of theemperor. The result of the test would be that a court position held by aperson would either be retained or lost depending on the result of theindividual’s test score. As centuries progressed in China, these testsbecame more formal and were in written format. These same type ofwritten tests existed in China from a time period spanning 1300 A.D untilthe early 1900s.The use of tests came later within the western hemisphere. Written examsappeared within British universities in the 1760s. It was not until the 1840sthat written exams appeared within American colleges and universities.The English used written civil service exams during the early to mid-
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 741800s. The United States did not use written civil service exams until themid to late 1800s. Printed tests appeared within Boston schools in the1850s and 1860s.Joseph Rice had utilized one of the first spelling tests in the 1890s. Hisspelling test was noted as being a rudimentary skills test. Colleges anduniversities began to use entrance exams in the early 1920s. The SAT wasfirst given in the late 1920s. The Educational Testing service produces anddistributes many of the standardized tests we now use in education. TheACT was first used in the late 1950s. The ACT is used extensively in themajority of states. CLEP exams have also been popular in recent years.These tests are produced by the College Entrance Examination Board.Universities and colleges give credit for college coursework depending onthe results of the CLEP exams.A brief review of testing must include intelligence tests developed at thebeginning of the 20thcentury. Alfred Binet first developed an intelligencetest in 1906. This intelligence test was revised in later years to moreclosely match age and level. In 1917, a German named Lewis Termandeveloped a scale of intelligence which would become known as theStanford-Binet Intelligence scale. This test remained so until recentlywhen it was revised during the 1980s. David Wechsler also developed anintelligence test. This test was used extensively after World War II.Wechsler eventually revised his intelligence test and developed a separateintelligence test. The WAIS was an adult intelligence test while the WISCwas for school children aged 7 to 16. Wechsler later revised the WISC anddeveloped the WPPSI that was used to test preschoolers aged four to sixand a half years of age. Wechsler’s tests were used extensively after WorldWar II. Famous psychologist James Cattel did much to promote the adventof intelligence testing that eventually took place.E.L. Thorndike was a major advocate of the promotion of the use oftesting in schools. In 1908 Thorndike produced the Stone Arithmetic Test.A year later in 1909, he produced a handwriting test. Thorndike has beencalled the “Father of the Testing Movement” in the United States.Two other distinguished scholars that advanced the testing movement wereA.S. Otis and Robert Yerkes. Both did the background work that led to thedevelopment of the Army Alpha test that was an intelligence test formilitary personnel. The U.S. Army also developed a similar test ofintelligence that was for those who could not yet read. The beginning ofWorld War I brought on the Army Alpha test and the Army Beta test. Inthis way the war had a positive impact on the development andadvancement of testing in the United States.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 75The 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s saw testing slowly gaining much moreacceptance and validity within the United States. Tests such as the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Testwould eventually be widely used in American Schools. The 1970s and1980s saw the popularity of several tests grow. Tests such as the CAT,ITBS, MET, and STEP became commonly known by school officials.These tests assessed academic skills and achievement of students.The NTE became a household test in education. School accountability andteacher accountability issues seemed to advance the utilization andpopularity of such teacher competency testing. Even though the NTE hadbeen around since the 1940s, it did not gain widespread use until the 1970sand 1980s. Accountability issues have continued to cause school districtsand states to turn to tests such as the NTE and the ITBS to measureteachers and students within the schools.A recent trend in testing is that several states have developed their owncriterion-referenced tests to measure and assess students achievement,teacher performance, and school district accountability. Testing did notbegin just yesterday, and it does not seem as if it will end any time soon.33. What are some milestones in educational testing?Year Milestones in Educational Testing4000 B.C. Oral tests given in China, maintain court position.1300 A.D. Written tests given in China to maintain civil service typepositions.1213 A.D. College degree exams given at University of Bologna.1760s Written exams given in British universities.1830-40s British civil service type exams given.1840s U.S. universities gave written exams.1850s U.S. civil service exams given.1840-50s Printed tests appear in Boston Schools (Boston Survey).1896 Joseph Rice used a rudimentary spelling test to measurehundreds of school children.1906-07 Alfred Binet developed intelligence test.1908 Thorndike produced Stone Arithmetic Test.1909 Thorndike developed Thorndike Handwriting Scale.1915 Lewis Terman developed scale of intelligence test thatbecame Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale.1917 U.S. Army developed Army Alpha and Army Beta
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 76intelligence tests.1926 SAT published.1939 David Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.1940 NTE published.1949 Wechsler developed Wechsler Intelligence Scale Children.1953 ACT published.1967 Wechsler develops Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence.34. What are some popular standardized tests used in education?California Achievement Test (CAT) - series of tests whose mainobjective is to assess academic achievement in basic skills such as reading,math, social studies, science, spelling, language, and reading. The levels ofthe tests range from K-12.Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) - tests that cover basicacademic areas such as reading, language, math, study skills, science,spelling, and social studies. The levels of these tests range from K-12.Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) - tests that represent an attempt toassess students on a wide range of basic skill areas within the academicrealm. Basic skill areas are reading, math, and language. The completebattery test is comprehensive as it covers six basic areas of math, science,reading, social studies, language, and sources of information. Tests coverlevels from K-9.Metropolitan Achievement Tests (MET) - the objective of these tests isto assess academic achievement in areas such as reading, math, science,language, and social studies. Critical thinking is emphasized. Tests coverall areas from K-12.Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) - tests cover grades K-12. The testscover a comprehensive academic area such as reading, math, science,social studies, and language. Tests are both multiple choice and openended with specific questions and tasks.Tests of Achievement and Proficiency (TAP) - tests are designed toassess high school students in core academic areas and basic skills.35. What are some common statistical measurement terms used ineducational evaluations?
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 77Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) - statistical test used to determine if asignificant difference exists between the means of three or more differentgroups. The letter F denotes the computed statistic.Biased sample - a sample that was selected from the population withoutgiving all subjects of population an equal chance of being selected.Criterion referenced test - tests for a certain level of mastery with apredetermined standard indicative of mastery.Interval scale - a scale of measurement that names, ranks, and has equaldifference between numbers of the same difference. No true zero point iswithin this scale.Mean - the arithmetic average of a distribution of scores. The mean iscomputed by adding all scores and dividing by the number of scores. Themean is the most stable central tendency and is usually denoted by placinga bar over the name or title of the group. The mean of group X would bedenoted by X .Median - the midpoint in a distribution of scores when the scores arearranged in an ascending or descending order. If the number of scores isequal, the researcher should average out the two scores in the middle tofind the median. The median is sometimes used when a skeweddistribution exists. The median is not a mathematical entity since it is onlya middle point. It is the central tendency of second choice.Mode - the score that occurs most often in a distribution of scores. Themode is the measure of central tendency that is least used.Nominal scale - a scale of measurement that uses numbers simply toname. The numbers have no quantifiable or mathematical value. Phonenumbers and social security numbers would be examples of nominal data.Normal curve - (normal distribution of scores) a curve that is symmetricalon both sides of the mean. The mean, median, and the mode are all at thesame point. The theoretical curve can be used to predict chance events andtheir probability of occurring. The descending lines of the curve nevertheoretically touch the base since scores could possibly fall far from themean on either side. Normal curve is also called bell shaped curve.Normality - the condition of a group of scores being very similar or nearexactly similar to the normal curve. It is thought and believed thatintelligence may be normally distributed in nature. An IQ score of 100would be the mean and as one moved farther away from the mean oneither side fewer individuals would possess IQ scores moving right andleft.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 78Norm referenced test - a test that compares students to other studentswho are similar in nature. This type of test ranks or places studentscompared to national norms. The ACT or GRE would be examples.Ordinal scale - a scale of measurement that denotes rank or place amongscores. Equal differences between scores is not denoted by this type ofscale. For example, a score of 3rdplace and 4thplace may not have thesame distance as would the distance between a score of 4thand 5thplace.Parameter - a numerical characteristic of a population. We usually try toestimate parameters with statistical probability because it is too difficult orimpossible to determine the true parameter of a population.Population - all subjects or members of a specific group that is beingstudied.Random sample - a set of a larger population. All the members orsubjects of the population had an equal chance of being selected or chosenin the sample–otherwise it is not random. This type of sampling can bedone by a computer, but using a random table of digits, or by simplypicking names out of a hat. The hat or box method may seem simple, but itis still giving all an equal chance of selection.Range - the simplest measure of variability. The highest number minus thelowest number plus one in a distribution of scores. The range tells us someindication of spread or dispersion within a distribution of scores.Ratio scale - a scale in measurement that names, ranks, has equaldifferences, and has a true zero point. Examples of such a scale would bethe measurement of a person in inches (height) or the time to complete atask. Both of these would have a true zero point.Raw score - the actual score obtained on a test or in an experiment beforeit has been transformed in any statistical manner.Reliability - the condition of having test-retest repeat consistency. Thesame or very similar scores will be recorded considering future scores onthe test. For example, if a class averages 87 on a test and then averages 86and 88 in future administrations of the same test, it could be said that thetest possesses a high degree of reliability.Sample - a set drawn from a larger population.Stratified random sample - a sample drawn with the intent to includecertain groups within the sample.
CHAPTER 2– HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 79Skewed distribution - a distribution of scores that is asymmetrical. A fewoutlier scores (large or small) pull the mean away from the median, thusnot allowing normality.Statistic - a numerical characteristic of a sample that is usually used toestimate the parameter of a population.t-test (independent) - stat test used to determine if a significant differenceexists between the means of two independent groups (two differentgroups).t-test (correlated) - stat test used to determine if a significant differenceexists between two pairs or between pre-post score means of the samegroup.Validity - the condition a test or a measurement would possess if it indeeddid test or measure what it says it measures.z score - a numerical raw score that is transformed and expressed instandard deviation unit.z test - a statistical test of inference based on the theoretical assumption ofthe normal curve.Source: This section written by Dr. Neil T. Faulk, Assistant Professor, McNeese State University,Department of Teacher Education, Burton College of Education, Lake Charles, Louisiana. Othersources cited: Johnston, M., & Spatz, C. (1989). Basic statistics. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks andCole Publishing Company. Adams, S., & Smith, F. (1972). Educational measurement for theclassroom teacher (2nded.). New York: Harper and Row Publishers. Payne, D. (1992).Measuring and evaluating educational outcomes. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company.Hopkins, B., Hopkins, K., & Stanley, J. (1990). Educational and psychological measurementand evaluation (7thed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Kuegler, R., & Smith, H.(1976). Statistics: A beginning. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Impara, J., & Plake, B. (1998).The thirteenth mental measurements yearbook. Buros Institute of Mental Measurement of theUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska.E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. Formal schools have existed in China for perhaps 4000 years.2. In the New England colonies, secondary education was not for the masses.3. Academies offered both college preparatory courses and courses such assurveying.4. The Committee of Ten was the first reform group of high schools.5. Academies were established to prepare students for colleges.
SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 80Multiple Choice1. The first Latin Grammar Schools were formed in _______.a. China b. Greece c. Rome d. New England2. The primary religion of the Southern Colonies was _______.a. Anglican b. Catholic c. Calvinist d. Lutheran3. The New England Primer was _______.a. a prayer book b. a textbook c. an educational lawd. none of the above4. The Common School movement was led by _______.a. Thomas Jefferson b. Benjamin Franklin c. Horace Mannd. John Dewey5. The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was passed at least in partdue to _______.a. a lack of preparation for World War II b. launching of Sputnikc. report of the Committee of Tend. Brown vs. Board of Education court case