2. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 2CHAPTER 1–INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN SCHOOLINGA. OVERVIEWChapter 1 presents information regarding the status of public education in thiscountry. Specific content focuses on the magnitude of education, currenttrends, effective schools, and future possibilities in public school programs.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSA NATION AT RISK - this report issued in 1983 by a government commissioncalled for far-reaching reforms.ACCOUNTABILITY - responsibility related to quality of educationalprograms.AFT - American Federation of Teachers, a major teacher union. The AFT hasmore than 825,000 members.BILINGUAL EDUCATION - a component of multicultural education thatfocuses on attempts to teach English skills to non-English speakers. Thestudents are taught in their native language until they become proficientenough in English to receive the majority of instruction in English. In somecases instruction in the child’s native language receives equal attention withEnglish.CONSERVATIVE MOVEMENT - calls for returning to the basic purpose ofpublic schools such as:a. return to emphasizing the basic core of academic subjects;b. a de-emphasis on extracurricular activities;c. an emphasis on moral education;d. inclusion of school prayer;e. more control of the education process by the family.CRITICAL REPORTS - the most critical report was A Nation at Risk issuedin 1983 by the National Commission of Excellence in Education.CULTURAL PLURALISM - pluralists reject the traditional Americanizingfunction of the public school because it has meant assimilation andacculturation into the white, middle class pattern of American Society; arealization that the melting pot theory of American culture had not occurredand probably would not occur.
3. CHAPTER 1–INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 3CURRICULAR REFORM - a back-to-the-basics reform movement started inthe 1970s. Many believe the basic curriculum should have greater emphasis.DECLINING ENROLLMENTS - changing enrollments have a major effecton the educational system:a. affecting state funding;b. impacting on the number of teachers needed;c. altering class sizes;d. causing redistricting of school boundaries;e. changing school plant needs.HOME SCHOOLING - a conservative movement by parents to formallyeducate their children at home or in a small group setting.MELTING POT - the theory that people from all cultures form a commonbond.MERIT PAY - a plan of providing extra pay for superior performance byteachers.MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION - a concept predicated upon afundamental belief that all people must be accorded respect, regardless of age,race, sex, economic class, religion, nationalism, physical or mental ability;innovative ways for dealing with the education of minorities.NEA - National Education Association, one of the two major teacher unions:NEA is the larger and more powerful of the two– with 2.2 million membersnationwide.NEW RIGHT - a coalition that includes traditional conservative groups andcertain fundamentalists religious groups who advocate extreme viewpoints.PUBLIC EDUCATION - free, government-supported schools open to allchildren. Note: Resident alien children and illegal immigrant children areallowed to attend USA public schools.REFORM REPORTS - critical reports issued in the 70s and 80s by educationreform groups that listed many solutions to the problems faced by publiceducation.SCHOOL DISTRICTS - a division of public school programs within a state.TAX REFORM - a tax reform movement that is funding increased taxes foreducational reform.THREE R’s - reading, writing, and arithmetic.
4. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 4Total Number of School Districts in AmericaStateTotal Numberof Districts StateTotal Numberof Districts50 States and D.C. 14,367 Missouri 525Alabama 127 Montana 465Alaska 55 Nebraska 653Arizona 214 Nevada 17Arkansas 311 New Hampshire 164California 999 New Jersey 582Colorado 176 New Mexico 89Connecticut 166 New York 709Delaware 19 North Carolina 119District of Columbia 1 North Dakota 234Florida 67 Ohio 611Georgia 180 Oklahoma 548Hawaii 1 Oregon 233Idaho 112 Pennsylvania 500Illinois 905 Rhode Island 36Indiana 292 South Carolina 95Iowa 383 South Dakota 173Kansas 304 Tennessee 138Kentucky 176 Texas 1,044Louisiana 66 Utah 40Maine 228 Vermont 251Maryland 24 Virginia 132Massachusetts 248 Washington 296Michigan 593 West Virginia 55Minnesota 383 Wisconsin 426Mississippi 153 Wyoming 49Source: U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics. (1999). Common core of data,national public education survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Adapted withpermission.
5. CHAPTER 1–INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 5SNAPSHOT FORECAST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS(Estimations 2002/2003)1. Public school enrollment, K-12, increased between 1985-2002.2. Private school enrollment has changed little over the past decade.3. Approximately 11% or about 6 million students attend private elementaryand secondary schools.4. Elementary and secondary school enrollments will continue to rise.5. Pre-kindergarten and kindergarten enrollment of 3- to 5-year-oldsincreased about 30% between 1990-2002. The enrollment of 5-year-olds inkindergarten programs has changed little since 1990.6. The enrollment rates of 5- to 17-year-olds has remained steady since 1990,about 96%.7. Practically all elementary-aged children are enrolled in school.8. The proportion of minority students in public elementary and secondaryschools increased between 1990 and 2002. During this time, the proportionof Hispanics in public elementary and secondary schools increased at afaster rate than the proportion of African Americans.9. In 1976-77, 8% of children were educated in programs for the disabledcompared with 14% in 2002.10. The proportion of 18- and 19-year-olds attending high school or college isabout 63%.11. The proportion of 20- to 21-year-olds attending high school or college isabout 45%.12. Total college enrollment has continued to grow since 1990. Much of thisgrowth can be attributed to the increase in the number of women over 24years of age attending college.13. Projections indicate that from 2002 to 2010, there will be an 18% growthin enrollment of persons 25 years age in college.14. Projections indicate enrollments of persons over 25 years of age in collegewill be stable from 2002-2010.15. The proportion of American college students who are minorities has beenincreasing. In 2002, about 27% are minorities.16. Graduate school student enrollment has been rising steadily. As of 2002,graduate enrollment rose about 20%.
6. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 617. The number of women in graduate school has exceeded the number ofmen.18. The number of male full-time graduate school students increased by 22%.19. The number of elementary and secondary school teachers has risen about25%.20. The ratio of pupils per public school teachers is estimated to be about 17pupils per teacher.21. The ratio of pupils per private school teachers is estimated to be about 15pupils per teacher.22. The average salary for public school teachers has remained steady over thepast 10 years, reaching $39,485.00.23. The teaching force in public elementary and secondary schools includes74% women and 88% non-Hispanics.24. Approximately 66% of teachers have at least 10 years of full-time teachingexperience.25. The proportion of high school graduates who completed the full collegepreparatory program recommended by the Commission on Excellence wasabout 30%.26. The number of high school graduates totaled about 2.8 million. About 2.5million graduated from public schools and about 300,000 graduated fromprivate schools.27. Many students complete high school through alternative programs, such asnight schools and the General Educational Development (GED) program.28. About 84% of all 25- to 29-year-olds have completed high school or itsequivalent.29. The dropout rate in high school has declined over the past 20 years. Thedifference in dropout rates between the races has narrowed. The dropoutrate for Hispanics remains high at 30%, compared to 8% for Caucasiansand African Americans.30. About 90 million adults or about 21% of the United States adult populationperform at the lowest levels of literacy.31. Adults with higher levels of educational attainment have higher levels ofprose literacy.32. Adults aged 19-54 have higher average literacy attainment than those 55and older.
7. CHAPTER 1–INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 733. The differences in literacy between younger and older adults may be dueto the higher level of educational attainment among younger adults.34. Americans are becoming better educated. Within the past 30 years theadult population graduation rate has increased from 54% to 84%. Duringthe same time period, the proportion of adults with at least four years ofcollege increased from 11% to 25%.35. The number of degrees conferred by institutions of higher education isestimated to be about 564,000 associate degrees; 1,176,000 bachelor’sdegrees; 390,000 master’s degrees; 78,000 first professional degrees; and44,000 doctor’s degrees. Women earn the majority of degrees at theassociate, bachelor’s, and master’s degree levels.36. Expenditures for public and private education, from preprimary throughgraduate school, are estimated at approximately 621 million.37. The expenditures of elementary and secondary schools are expected tototal about $775 billion, while institutions of higher education will spendabout $250 billion.38. The total expenditures for education are expected to amount to about 7.5%of the gross domestic product.39. The state share of revenues for funding public elementary and secondaryschools grew through most of the 1980s, but in 1987 the trend began toreverse.Between 1986-87 and 1993-94, the local share of school funding rosewhile the proportion from state government dropped.By 2002, a greater proportion shifted back to the states as 47.5% ofrevenues came from state sources, 45.9% came from local sources, and6.6% came from the federal government.40. The estimated current expenditures per student in average daily attendanceis about $6,951.00. After adjustment for inflation, this represents anincrease of 15% since 1988-89.41. Private colleges are heavily dependent on tuition for revenues, receiving43% from tuition.42. Public colleges and universities receive about 40% of revenues from stateand local governments.43. Expenditures per student at institutions of higher education through the1990s has been slow in growth.
8. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 844. After adjustment for inflation, current fund expenditures of highereducation per student rose about 16% between 1980-1981 and 1988-89,but increased only 8% between 1992-2002.45. Annual undergraduate charges for tuition, room, and board are estimatedto be $8,218.00 at public four-year colleges and $19,980.00 at privatefour-year colleges.46. On a per student basis, adjusted for inflation, expenditures for scholarshipsand fellowships rose about 85% at public universities between 1986-2002,compared with 9% for instructional expenditures.47. On a per student basis, expenditures on scholarships and fellowships roseabout 68% at private universities between 1986-2002.48. Research expenditures in public institutions of higher education rose by31% per student at public universities and 36% at other public four-yearcolleges.49. Students at private colleges are more likely to receive aid than students atpublic colleges.50. College students obtain financial aid through a variety of programs; 56%receive some sort of federal aid, and 11% participate in work-studyprograms.51. Private colleges provide aid from internal sources to over half of their full-time undergraduates.52. For all full-time undergraduate public and private college students, theaverage student aid package from all sources totaled about $6,932.00 in2002.53. Federal support for education was sizeable between fiscal years 1965-2002. Large increases occurred between 1965 and 1975. After a period ofrelative stability between 1975-80, federal funding for education declinedapproximately 16% between 1980 and 1985. From 1990-2002, federalfunding for education increased by 29%.Note: Much of the information provided is available at the: United States Department of Education. (1999).Mini-digest of education statistics. Washington DC: National Center for Education Statistics, (NCES).C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS1. How many pupils are served in public education in the U.S.?Fifty-four million students for the 2002/03 school year; about 6 millionstudents in private schools; about 40 million for the ’87-’88 school year in15,713 school districts; 1985 was the first year in 14 years where there was
9. CHAPTER 1–INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 9an increase in enrollment; an additional 5.6 million students were inprivate schools.2. What were the major criticisms voiced in the reports on education inthe early 80s?a. Major portions of the public are functionally illiterate, as are many ofour 17 year olds.b. Science and math participation was down as were science and mathscores.c. More than 40% of our high school students were in a generalcurriculum rather than a college preparatory one.d. Students in this country spend less time in school and less timestudying than in most other industrialized countries.e. Teachers were coming from the bottom of their graduating classes–both high school and college–partly because the pay was $17,000 onthe average for a teacher with 12 years experience.3. What is the status of reforms initiated during the early 80s?The very substantial and ever increasing dollars spent for education havenot yet given us the results our children deserve.4. What is the purpose of public education?The original purpose was to teach students to read well enough to be ableto understand their Bible readings. It evolved to teaching the Three R’s ofReading, wRiting, and aRithmetic. Now we expect our schools to teacheverything from the basic R’s to include civic, vocational, artistic, andpersonal goal instruction and fulfillment.5. What goal is the Conservative movement playing in public education?The New Right believes our schools have gotten away from their purposesand from traditional values. They are lobbying fora. reduction or removal of extra-curricular activities (all of them);b. more academic emphasis;c. emphasis on moral education;d. reinstatement of school prayer;e. more family control of the educational process. They are attempting towrite legislation that the states can all copy. They want to promotecreationism, to censor textbooks and library books, to promote interests
10. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 10of “Christian” schools, to end the unions and their influence, and tofight “secular humanism.”Some Christian values promoted in the curriculum by the Conservativemovement include:a. promotion of two-parent families with the father working and themother at home;b. sexual abstinence before marriage;c. abstinence from smoking, drinking, and drugs;d. the immorality of gay and lesbian lifestyles;e. forbidding abortion;f. patriotism;g. obedience to and respect for authority;h. politeness;i. courtesy;j. honesty;k. prayer;l. humility;m. reverence for God.6. What has been, and is emerging as, the federal government’s role inpublic education?The federal government’s role has been one of a watch dog and a guidedog combined. It was supposed to ensure that the schools in all areas of thecountry were adequately run and adequately funded. The true failure hasbeen in the short-sighted view of “adequate” achievement.7. What is multicultural education?It began as a movement to promote racial equality and harmony.Americanization has meant blending into/with the white dominant middleclass. Correcting errors of omission, stereotyping, and misinformation, aswell as information dissemination, has been replaced/absorbed bymulticultural education. Now the goal is to assimilate reliable culturalpluralism into the overall curriculum, a concept predicated upon afundamental belief that “all people must be accorded respect, regardless ofage, race, sex, economic class, religion, physical, ethnic origin, or mentalability.”
11. CHAPTER 1–INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 118. What teacher organizations have influence in education?NEA - National Educators AssociationAFT - American Federation of TeachersMany leading authorities believe these organizations are losing authorityand influence. Many people believe strong unions are a barrier toeducational reforms. They have huge lobbying budgets.9. What are some characteristics of effective schools?a. Strong administrative leadership that includes the principal:1. having a clear vision about the desired direction of the school;2. having a commitment to improvement of instruction;3. encouraging participative decision making;4. serving as a buffer for teachers so that they can devote maximumtime to working with students.b. Safe and orderly environment that includes:1. working conditions that support the efforts of teachers to addressspecific problems of their students;2. environment conducive to teaching and learning.c. Emphasis on instruction in the basic skills including:1. the school having a commitment to the basic skills as instructionalgoals;2. basic skills being the foundation for higher order thinking skills.d. High teacher expectations of students to include:1. setting high performance standards for students;2. providing specific instructions and are sensitive to individualdifferences;3. using clear and appropriate rewards to recognize student work.e. Monitoring and reporting of student performance including:1. using systematic methods to assess student progress;2. aligning curriculum across subject areas and grades;3. matching curriculum, desired outcomes, and assessment activities.f. Necessary resources to meet objective including:
12. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 121. making available sufficient personnel and materials in the school;2. providing sufficient time for instructional planning, staffdevelopment, and adapting new innovations;3. providing opportunities for professional growth.g. Culture of the school including:1. positive human interactions among students and teachers;2. continuous growth and development of students and teachers;3. state-of-the-art instructional practices and strategies for teachingand learning.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES1. List some of the criticisms presented in A Nation At Risk.a. 23 million U.S. adults are functionally illiterate;b. 13% of all 17-year-olds & 48% of minority 17-year-olds arefunctionally illiterate;c. SAT scores declined from ’63 to ’80;d. science achievement scores of 17-year-olds declined in ’69, ’73, and ’75;e. remedial math classes in college increased by 72% from ’75 to ’80;f. number of students in general curriculum in high schools increased to42%;g. 31% of high school graduates completed intermediate algebra;h. 25% of credits earned by general track high school students were in PE,health, remedial math, English, and work outside the school;i. students in other industrialized countries spend more time on scienceand math;j. 20% of all four-year universities had to accept all students from statehigh schools;k. 50% or more of credits to graduate could be electives in 13 states;l. U.S. students spend less time in school than many other industrializedcountries;m. average school provided only 22 hours of instruction per week;n. too many teachers came from bottom of high school class and bottomof college class;
13. CHAPTER 1–INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 13o. average salary for teachers with 12 years experience was $17,000.2. What are the status of the educational reforms initiated during theearly 1980s?a. SAT and ACT scores either dropped or remained static;b. minority students increased their scores;c. the graduate rate dropped between ’85 and ’86;d. average teacher pay had risen 38%;e. average pupil spending increased by 50%;f. twelve states instituted minimum competency testing for grade promotionand twenty-four other states planned to implement minimum competencytesting.3. What is the magnitude of public education in the United States?Public education in the United States is big business. Some of theemphasis of school districts and regulators needs to be taken off of thebusiness end of things and concentrated on the education end of things.Some 54 million students are directly affected, along with the teachers andadministrators. Suppliers, knowing they have a captive market, are allowedto gouge schools on a regular basis, just as they do other governmententities. Our schools deserve a fair shake.4. What effect does declining enrollments have on schools?a. affects state funding;b. impacts on the number of teachers needed;c. alters the class size;d. causes redistricting of school boundaries;e. changes school plant needs, buildings, and grounds.Instructional programs are affected. The areas most affected are languagearts, social studies, science, fine arts, and foreign language. This results infewer course offerings and fewer professional positions in these areas.5. What is the role of the federal government in education?Reagan’s White House began returning responsibility to the states andlocalities. As a result, federal spending in education was reduced.Again, the federal government’s role has been one of a watch dog andguide dog combined. It was intended to ensure that schools in all areas ofthe country functioned properly and were adequately funded. The truefailure has been in the short-sighted view of “adequate” achievement.
14. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 14President George W. Bush is planning to initiate numerous educationalreforms during the 2000s.6. What are estimations for schooling in 2002/2003?In the United States:a. over 25% of the people are students or are employed by schools orcolleges;b. of the approximately 250 million people there are:1. 54.5 million students in public elementary and secondary schools;2. 14.3 million students in higher education;3. 3.6 million faculty and teachers;4. 3.9 million non-instructional personnel;5. 68.1 million total participants.c. there are about 14,367 school systems;d. there are over 27,000 private elementary and secondary schools;e. there are over 3,500 colleges and universities;f. there are over 83,425 elementary and secondary schools;g. there are over 26,807 private elementary and secondary schools;h. there are over 2,127 four-year colleges and over 1,408 two-yearcolleges;i. there are over 1,532 private four-year colleges and over 440 privatetwo-year colleges;j. about 28% of elementary and secondary students are African Americanor Hispanic while 17% of college students are African American orHispanic;k. there are approximately 2,744,000 elementary and secondary teachers,of which approximately 2,391,000 serve in public schools and 353,000serve in private schools;l. the average salary for an experienced teacher is $39,385, for abeginning teacher $28,515;m. approximately 30% of teachers are male; approximately 70% arefemale;n. the dropout rate among African Americans 16 to 24 years old droppedfrom 28% in 1992 to 13% in 2002; for all 16- to 24-year-olds was 12%in 2002, down from 15% in 1992;
15. CHAPTER 1–INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN SCHOOLINGPAGE 15o. in 2002, (persons between ages 25 and 29) - approximately 85.8million persons earned high school diplomas (includes GED,equivalency certificates, etc.); 23.6 million persons had attained four ormore years of college;p. in 2002, (persons between ages 25 and over) - approximately 80.1million persons earned high school diplomas (includes GED,equivalency certificates, etc.); 21.5 million had attained four or moreyears of college;q. the education level of the adult population has been increasing since1940; the education level among young adults (ages 25-29) has notincreased significantly since 1980;r. in 2002, approximately 446,000 persons earned Associate of arts,associate of science degrees; approximately 1,044,000 persons earnedbachelor of arts, bachelor of sciences degrees; approximately 320,000persons earned master of arts, master of sciences degrees;approximately 39,000 persons earned doctor of philosophy degrees;approximately 72,000 persons earned first professional degrees:chiropractic, dentistry, law, medicine, optometry, osteopathic medicine,pharmacy, podiatry, theology, and veterinary medicine degrees.Note: Much of the information provided here is available at the United States Department ofEducation, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Digest of education statistics,1999.E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. Public education in the U.S. has been taken for granted for many years.2. All professionals agree with the A Nation at Risk report.3. Multicultural education began in the early 1980s.4. The reforms initiated during the 1980s were all very successful.5. The development of new technologies has not had a major impact oneducation.6. The tax revolt of the late 1970s was a continuation of a trend started in themid-1960s.
16. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 16Multiple Choice1. Recent criticisms of public education began in the _______.a. late 1960s b. late 1970s c. early 1980s d. early 1970s2. Approximately _______ students are served in public schools.a. 25 million b. 30 million c. 75 million d. 54 million3. The conservative movement advocating extreme viewpoints is _______.a. conservative pool b. new right c. far rightd. conservative coalition e. oversight movement4. The tax reform bill passed in Massachusetts in 1980 was _______.a. Proposition 13 b. Proposition 2½ c. Proposition 191d. retrenchment5. The number of schools using microcomputers increased 16% in 1982 to______% in 1988.a. 25% b. 50% c. 70% d. 90% e. 97%