NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL VOLUME 26, NUMBER 3, 2009-2010 WHAT WILL THE EVOLUTION OF A FRESH FRAMEWORK FOR 21ST CENTURY HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATION DO TO RETAIN HIGHLY QUALIFIED HUMAN CAPITAL? Loretta A. Terry Prairie View A & M University William Allan Kritsonis Prairie View A&M University ABSTRACTHuman resources management for 21st century education will involve theevolution of a fresh framework for recruitment and retention of highlyqualified employees. A fresh framework approach will consist of the change. Anorganization is a web of interconnections; a change in one area triggers animbalance in other areas. Consequently, managing change is a dynamic processthat requires organized, thoughtful planning and alignment of human resourcesmanagement practices and policies with the student achievement goals, teacherperformance competency, and instructional practices. IntroductionS kill levels of the workforce is a common theme that virtually pervades forecasting of strategic human resources planning for any organization. High quality public education is especiallycrucial today, as advances in the U. S economy have made cognitiveskills more important that ever in determining labor market success(Murnane, Steel, 2007). Human resources management for 21st centuryeducation will involve the evolution of a fresh framework forrecruitment and retention of highly qualified employees. Schools areplagued with instability because of high teacher turnover rates, low 122
123 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________student academic performance, disgruntled stakeholders andineffective human resources management. Peter Senge (2006) assertsthat “Our schools are paralyzed, overstressed teachers andadministrators try desperately to vend off pressures from dissatisfiedbusiness leaders and fearful parents. Yet, we all know the educationfor the twenty-first century must change profoundly from education ofthe Nineteenth and twentieth centuries” (p. 362). A fresh frameworkapproach will consist of the change. Managing change frommethodologies that no longer work to instituting pragmatic policiesand procedures that will improve the entire scope of human resourcesmanagement in education. An organization is a web ofinterconnections; a change in one area triggers an imbalance in otherareas. Managing change is a dynamic process that requires organized,thoughtful planning and alignment of human resources managementpractices and policies with the student achievement goals, teacherperformance competency, and instructional practices. Background Murnane and Steele (2007) noted that historically, the demandfor teachers has been driven by local preferences, and hiring decisionshave not always been based on estimates of teachers’ instructionaleffectiveness.” Since the inception of the No Child Left BehindStatute (NCLB) human resources directors and administrators inschool districts have been hard pressed to recruit highly qualifiedteachers who help to meet accountability standards and adequateyearly progress requirements. The NCLB included a mandate that byJuly 1, 2006 all public schools employ teachers who are highlyqualified at every grade level and in every core academic area(English, reading or language arts, math, science, history, civics andgovernment , geography, economics, the arts, and foreign language)(Spradlin and Prendergast , 2006, p. 1 ). Teacher quality has emergedas a primary importance in considering a candidate for employment.With the massive exodus of baby boomers that are rapidlyapproaching retirement, school districts across the nation are
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 124struggling to fulfill the NCLB mandate. Spradlin and Prendergast(2006) pointed out that an aging workforce and increasing studentenrollment are realities in many states; yet, recruitment and retentionof teachers in schools should be the focus of attention rather thanpreparing higher numbers of new teachers to enter the profession. Non-traditional teacher education further threatens teacherquality. The alternative education program grew out of the deficit inthe supply of teachers across the nation. Alternative teachercertification programs are designed to recruit degreed individuals fromother professions and offer them fast-track certification programconcurrent with a paid teaching internship. According to Solis (2004),in addition to retaining new teachers in the profession once they arerecruited, trained, and placed in school, keeping teachers who havecome to the field through alternative route certification programsexacerbate the retention problem. Colgan (2004) argues that no teachersupply strategy will ever keep our school staffed with quality teachersunless we reverse the debilitating turnover rates. The National SchoolBoards Association (2004) noted the inability to support high-qualityteaching in many of our schools is driven not by two few teachersentering the profession, but by too many leaving it for other jobs.Whether the terminology retention rate or turn over rate, both haveimplications of an indispensable problem, school leaders arecompelled to address with pragmatic solutions. Employee retention has always been an important focus forhuman resources managers as well as school leaders andadministrators. Once an organization has invested time and money torecruit and train a good employee, it is in their own best interest toretain that employee, to further develop and motivate the employee sothat the employee continues to add value to the organization. Yet,employers must also recognize and implement what is in the bestinterest of their employees, if they intend to retain them. When anorganization overlooks the needs of its employees and focuses only onthe needs of the organization, retention or turnover issues results.
125 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________Excessive turnover in an organization is a prime indicator that changeneeds to take place in the employee environment. Purpose and Research Questions This article will delve into what the current research delineatesabout the issue of employee retention in education and addresses sixquestions effective school leaders and administrators should answer inorder for a fresh framework for 21st century education humanresources to evolve. Research questions include: 1) What does theresearch say about employee retention? 2) Why do employees stay?3) What does an effective leader do? 4) What does an effective leaderseek? 5) What does an effective administrator do? 6) What does theliterature indicate about alignment models? Methodology This article explored the literature available on employeeretention in education leadership and human resource managementpractices. The primary focus of the literature review was relevant tothe research questions. The literature review included the span of yearsbetween 2003- 2008. These restrictions are imposed to provide acurrent overview of the state of employee retention as one of thechallenges for 21st century human resources management. What Does the Research Say About Employee Retention? Nationally, almost half of new teachers leave the professionwithin their first five years of teaching, demonstrating that teacherattrition is not just due to an aging workforce. In fact, during the1999-2000 school years, retirees accounted for only about 28% of thetotal leaving the teaching profession (NCTAF, 2003). Many schoolsmust hire teachers with a provisional, or temporary, licensure status to
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 126staff classrooms; emergency licensure became a regular practice in the1990’s (Strawn, Fox and Duck, 2008, p. 271). Administrators continueto struggle with challenges of hiring teachers to meet the highlyqualified teacher mandate as well as ensuring diversity. The problemsnew teachers encounter in their first year in the class room that resultsin their decision to leave the profession has implications for bothteaching practices and policies (2008). Growing evidence supports theidea that individuals educated in strong teacher preparation programsmanage these challenges more successfully than individuals who donot have adequate training (Darling-Hammond, 2006). Impact of Teacher Preparation Programs on Retention As a result of working with provisionally licensed and teachercandidates for a total of twenty-one years, Strawn, et.al, (2008)developed a system based on school-university partnership withGeorge Mason University’s Graduate School to prevent teacher failureas they proposed the following six keys to success for teacherpreparation programs: 1. Work actively with school districts in your area to ascertain the norm of provisionally licensed teachers in each school district, identify their areas of endorsement, and integrate them into appropriate teacher education programs. 2. Offer more flexible degree and course options geared to meet the needs of the school districts and their teachers. In addition to the traditional, on-campus master’s degree in teacher education, colleges and universities can offer other paths to licensure. 3. Create partnerships with schools in which teacher effectiveness is taught and modeled every day in carefully supervised or co-taught classrooms. 4. Align all the licensure courses and assessments with national standards and accreditation requirements and
127 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________ include performance-based assessments within course and program experiences. 5. Incorporate into teacher education programs culturally responsive pedagogy based on principles of social justice. 6. Encourage teacher retention by emphasizing mentoring and offering degree programs that focus on long-term career goals.“Solid licensure preparation can rescue new teachers from the sink-or-swim mentality and help them develop a strong foundation for successin the classroom” (Strawn, et. al., 2008, p. 276). Higher educationinstitutions preparing educators are engaging in avenues to provideongoing and meaningful professional development that result in highteacher retention. Impact of Induction and Mentoring Programs on Retention Ingersoll and Kralik, (2004) denoted that there is extensiveresearch demonstrating that low levels of employee turnover arenormal and beneficial to organizations since limited turnover helps toprevent stagnancy and eliminates many of the least-committed, lowcaliber workers. Ingersoll and Kralik (2004) located 150 empiricalstudies on induction and mentoring programs but only ten wereincluded in their comprehensive report to the Commission of theStates. The studies incorporated in the report satisfied three criteria 1)quantitative data to determine the value added of the individualsprograms 2) evaluation and outcomes to evaluate effects of inductionfor the teachers who were mentored and 3) comparisons to comparethose individuals mentored who were not mentored to provideunequivocal conclusions about value added. The most current studyincluded in the report that falls within current literature perimeters forthis research paper was conducted by Fuller (2003). The review of thestudies included:
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 128 Texas Beginning Educator Support System-Fuller (2003) alongwith the Charles A. Dana Center (2002) at the University of Texas atAustin conducted a study with an evaluation of the Texas BeginningEducator Support System (TxBESS), to obtain information fromteacher mentors, along with other support-team members such asschool and district administrators education service center staffmembers and faculty members from teacher preparation programs.The data was collected through an annual mailed survey questionnaire,and a state personnel database. The study found program participationhad positive effects on beginning teachers’ retention and the TxBESSparticipants left teaching at lower rates than beginning teachers whohad not participated in TxBESS for each of their first three years onthe job. The difference between the participants in TxBESS andnonparticipants was statistically significant (2003). While the studies reviewed here provided some empiricalsupport for the premise that teacher mentoring and induction programsproduced a positive impact on teachers and their retention, there werestill limitations. “Most of these studies do not or are not able to controlfor other factors that also cold impact the outcomes underinvestigation” (Ingersoll, Kralik, p.14). Induction additionallyimproves the satisfaction of veteran teachers. Experienced teachersserving as mentors or evaluators improve their own teaching practicesby observing and coaching new teachers and intern teachers. The Impact of State Strategies A high level of turnover, such as that in the teacher workforce,has been connected with performance problems in organizations; ahigh turnover rate has negative consequences for American’s schoolsin addition to making the 100% high quality teacher goal difficult toachieve (Spradlin, Prendergast, 2006). Moreover, Spradlin andPrendergast (2006) submitted in the Education Policy Brief a summaryof their finding while exploring the factors and circumstances behind
129 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________the national struggle to meet the highly qualified teacher requirementunder NCLB. The researchers presented strategies being considered inIndiana and other states to improve recruitment and retention of highlyqualified teachers. The following tables document their findings:Table I. Recruitment StrategiesStrategy #States with State Program Indiana’s Programs Examples ImplementationScholar Programs 32 Illinois Special Minority Education Waiver Teacher/Special Edu. Exemption from Scholarship tuition fees for up to 4yrsLoan Forgiveness 39 California’s Federal TeacherPrograms Assumption Loan Forgiveness Program of Loans Program for Education-up to $19,000. for outstanding education loansAlternate Route 47 Academy for Transition toPrograms Urban school Teaching (TtoT) –to Leadership- produce more funding for teachers in subject teaching at low shortage areas income schools Troops to TeachersRecruitment 14 Arkansas Signing Not AvailableBonus BonusImproved Hiring 35 Teach in Virginia Prof. Edu. Employee ReferralGrow your own 11 Illinois “Grow No State Program your Own”Rehiring Retired 17 Hawaii House Bill Indiana CodeTeachers 1862–hires retired 5-10.2-4-8-retired teachers to teach teaches in shortage areasNote. The data from the table are from “Emerging Trends in Teacher Recruitmentand Retention in the NCLB Era,” by T. E. Spradlin and K. A. Prendergast, (2006)Center for Evaluation & Educational Policy, 4 (12). p. 6-7. Copyright 2008 byCenter for Evaluation & Education Policy
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 130Table II. Retention Strategies Strategy States with State Programs Indiana’s Programs ProgramsMentoring and 17 Kentucky Indian MentoringInduction Teacher Internship and AssessmentPrograms Program- Program (IMAP)- Teachers with less remodeled version than two years of of 1988 Beginning experience must Teacher Internship complete a 1 yr. Prog. “Internship”…Improved/Targeted 35 Ohio’s Professionalprofessional Reconfigured DevelopmentDevelopment Professional Grant-$14 million Development- 12 distributed to regional service public and private centers created school’s professional development.Diversified 18/35 A++ in Florida:- DifferentiatedCompensation/ each school Staffing Proposal-Retention Bonuses district must adopt a salary schedule with differentiated pay by 2007-2008Note. The data from the table are from “Emerging Trends in Teacher Recruitmentand Retention in the NCLB Era,” by T. E. Spradlin and K. A. Prendergast, (2006)Center for Evaluation & Educational Policy, 4 (12). p. 9. Copyright 2008 by Centerfor Evaluation & Education Policy Impact of Compensation and Working Conditions on Retention Salaries are virtually the largest funds allocation on school’sbudget. Employee compensation packages have the power to attract,retain and motivate employees. Districts that offer competitive salariesand benefits invariably are in a position to attract and retain highly
131 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________qualified teachers. In other words money matters. Hansen, Lien,Cavaluzzo, Wenger (2004) analyzed data from a large urban school toexamine the determinants of teacher retention and the impact ofcompensation on the attrition of math and science teachers. TheAnnualized Cost of Leaving (ACOL) model a framework developedby military manpower analysts, to estimate the effect of current andfuture relative earnings on teacher retention was used. The ACOLpresumed that someone with t years of teaching experience has twochoices: remain as a teacher for an additional y years or separate fromthe teaching profession immediately (p. 10, 2004). Hansen, et.al(2004), analysis suggested that relative teacher compensation doeshave an effect on teachers’ retention, even when controlling or otherfactors. Their results implied the across the board increases incompensation will have only modest effects on rates of secondaryteacher (2004). There was a great deal of evidence that working conditions hada large effect on teachers’ retention. Hansen et. al. (2004) asserted thatrather than measure specific compensation characteristics of workingconditions and estimate each factor’s effect on retention, others haveused school-level fixed effects models to control working conditions.The data available to the researchers suggested that workingconditions in this district did not play a role in teacher retention.Consequently, several studies have concluded that higher teacher payincreases the likelihood that a person will continue to teach whilehigher opportunities outside teaching will cause people to leave theprofession (2004). Why do Employees Stay? Employees stay for some of the same reasons they enter theprofession. The employee may stay because of trust, confidence andfaith in their students. Knowledge of the subject matter, rewards ofestablishing meaningful relationships and the inner motivation to makea difference are important to teachers too. A teacher’s decision to stay
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 132or leave a particular school might be contingent on a variety of factors—that may be associated with the school’s culture and environment.Goldhaber, Goss and Player, (2007) found in a study to assess thecareer transitions of teachers and their implication for the quality ofthe teacher workforce, on average, teachers who have been shown toincrease their students’ academic performance stay in the teachingprofession longer. Although challenging environments generallyincrease the likelihood of teacher attrition, those teachers who aredeemed more effective are also more likely to stay in these lower-performing school (2007). According the NCTAF (2003) teachers who work in highpoverty school have an annual turnover rate of 20 percent, while thosein low poverty schools have a rate of 12.0 percent. Students attendingthe most-disadvantaged schools should not be neglected nor should theteacher who are making a difference with the students and have adesire to stay. Lower turnover rates of effective teachers amongchallenging schools is optimistic. What Does an Effective Leader do? Retaining highly qualified teachers requires effort, andeffective school leaders turn to research to help develop the skillsneeded to facilitate the personal and professional development ofteachers and to provide avenues that manifest teaching into acontinuously rewarding and satisfying experience. One of the drivingforces behind student success is the quality of the teachers. Leadersmust clearly understand the standards outlined by the federal lawNCLB defining “highly qualified.” To be considered highly qualified,new teachers must: (1) have at least a bachelor’s degree, (2) have fullcertification and licensure as defined by the State Education Agency(SEA), and (3) demonstrate competence (as defined by the SEA) in thesubject area to be taught (United Department of Education [U.S. ED],2006).
133 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________ What Does an Effective Leader Seek? The effective school leaders seek to retain a staff of highlyqualified teachers to produce students who are well educated, criticalthinkers, high performers able to compete and meet high standards ofthe global society. School leaders recognize the human value in theemployees that leads to development of the best practices and policiesto support professional growth. Robore (2007) discussed theleadership transcendental theory from the human resourcesmanagement perspective. “The basis premise of transcendentalleadership is that a person acts from the totality of who he or she is asa human being” (2007, p. 23). While school leaders take the blame forlow student academic performance on standardized tests, low teacherperformance, outdated curricular, school violence, and dispassionateparental involvement, they persist with the power of influence. Schoolleaders seek to maintain a human disposition to create a positiveculture of concern, empowerment and support of employees.Transcendental leader could affirmatively impact employee retention. What Does the Effective Administrator do? In all American school districts, people must be recruited,selected, placed, evaluated, and compensated, whether by centralhuman resources or various administrators within the school district.The role of the school administrator in successful schools hastranscended the traditional notions of functional management,behavior style and instructional leadership (Normore, 2006). Schooldistricts delegate a major share of human resources management(HRM) to specialize a department strategically located in the central-office complex operating under the supervision of an assistantsuperintendent or a director of human resources. Equally as importantin human resources management in education is the administrators ofschools who share the responsibility with the central officeadministrators to ensure that staffing needs for their campuses remain
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 134in focus. The human resources function is primarily to manage thefulfillment of staffing needs which requires knowledge of the school’smission, goals and culture. It is incumbent on the human resourcesadministrator to collaborate with the school leaders and be familiarwith the needs of particular a school. Rebore (2007), details that the goals of human resourcesfunction are basically the same in all school systems to hire, retain,develop and motivate personnel in order to achieve the objective of theschool district, to assist individual members of the staff to reach thehighest possible levels of achievement, and to maximize the careerdevelopment of personnel. The following dimensions of humanresources goals were documented by Rebore (2007), p. 11-12): 1. Human resources planning. Establishing a master plan of long- and short-ranged human resources requirements is a necessary ingredient in the school district’s curricular and fiscal planning processes. 2. Recruitment. Quality personnel, of course, are essential for delivery of effective educational services to children, youth, and adults. 3. Selection. The long- and short-rang human resources requirements are implemented through selection techniques and processes. 4. Placement and induction. Through appropriate planning, new personnel and the school district accommodate each other’s goals. 5. Staff development. Development programs help personnel meet school district objectives and also provide individuals with other opportunity for personal and professional growth. 6. Performance evaluation. Processes and techniques for evaluation help the individual grow professionally and help the school district attain its objectives.
135 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________ 7. Compensation. Establishing programs that compensate quality performance helps to motivate personnel 8. Collective negotiations. The negotiation process gives personnel an opportunity to participate in matters that affect their professional and personal welfare.These dimensions clearly confirm that human resource functionexceeds merely hiring competent or highly qualified teachers. Marrewijk and Timmers (2003) discussed classical personnelmanagement and human resources management, with both startingfrom the position of control exerted over the individual employees bymeans of authority, contract or temptation. Both approaches view theemployee as an allocated resource within the organization. Thisapproach persist with organizations that are trapped in a time zone ofstale methodologies that do not garner maximum employee potential,productivity or yields retention. Although, administrators in humanresources management positioned themselves to be the liaison betweenupper managers and middle managers sometimes the decisions madeare against the interest of the employee. “As a mouthpiece formanagement in unpopular measures, HRM will not be able to gain theconfidence of the employees and therefore, it will not be able to createa culture of trust, involvement, commitment and motivation, in spite ofits intentions” (Marrewijk, Timmers, p. 174, 2003,). As a result, theresearchers devised an alignment model of human resources to thehuman capital. In the model the needs of potential new employees whowere choosing to work in organizational cultures was aligned theirpersonal values and support in their personal and profession growth(2003). The human capital management model consisted of threemanagement disciplines in which human asset managementpredominantly covered operations. Human potential managementcorresponded with human development operations. Human potentialmanagement corresponded with human development. The modelallows the humility characteristic of leaders to evolve with concern
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 136and support for employees. The theory is void of traditionalbureaucratic notions of control and standards that literally suffocatesthe growth, development and retention of employees. What Does the Literature Indicate About Alignment Models? Alignment is a concept that has been utilized in organizations asa tool for grouping processes and applications to add value and orderto organizational practices. In the context of human resourcesmanagement practices for school systems, an alignment modelidentifies and illustrates the various HR practices that could be alignedto the performance competency model linking teacher competency andstudent achievement Herman III, Milanowski, 2004). An alignmentmodel provides support for diagnosing teacher quality issues anddeveloping plans to address the issues. According to Herman III andMilanowski (2004) an effective HR alignment model of a schoolsystem must be preceded by three components: student achievement,teacher competency model and a set of HR practices. These researcheraccede an established teacher competency model, “According toDanielson (1996), its four domains (Planning and Preparation, TheClassroom Environment, Instruction, as well as the ProfessionalResponsibilities) and 22 components constitute a behavioral mappingof” those aspects of a teacher’s responsibilities that have beendocumented through empirical studies and theoretical research aspromoting improved student learning” (p.10). HR practices are intrinsically identified in key functionsincluding recruitment, selection, and induction, mentoring professionaldevelopment, compensation, performance management andinstructional leaders. Each of these components influence teachercompetency. These eight areas cover most of the HR domain in mostdistricts for which alignment is appropriate (2004). Two types ofalignment were portrayed in the model; vertical alignment representedby the degree of linkage between a particular HR functional practicedand teacher performance competency and horizontal alignment
137 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________represented the linkages represented to be internally consistent andreinforcing. An example of the horizontal alignment is the linkagebetween favorable signing bonuses in critical areas to hiring standards.Many districts today are incorporating favorable signing bonuses incritical subjects such as mathematics and science.Figure: 1Model of Human Resource Management Systems AlignmentNote: Heneman III, H., Milanowski, A., (2004). Alignment of human resourcepractices and teacher performance competency. Peabody Journal of Education79(4), 108-125 Copyright 2004, Lawrence Erlbaum associates, Inc.
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 138 The alignment model presents a clear picture of a frameworkthat links student achievement to HR practices. Student achievement isthe focal point of the model and paramount to the entire gamut ofalignment components. Herman III and Milanowski utilized the abovealignment model to guide and conduct qualitative studies of the HRpractices in the Cincinnati and Washoe County school districts (2004).The researchers collected data from interviews with HR staff and otheradministrators, examined archival documents, and navigated throughthe districts’ Web sites to discover evidence and examples of HRpractices utilizing the alignment model. It was discovered that in bothschool districts, Cincinnati and Washoe County, the TeacherCompetency Model Framework was adopted as the foundation for anew standards-based teacher evaluation system. However, there wasdivergence in the HR practice alignment as well as between the twodistricts. In Cincinnati greater emphasis was on alignment ofrecruitment and selection, whereas in Washoe County mentoring andprofessional development were aligned. Professional development inboth districts was split off from the HR function. Some components ofHR practices were exercised in each district for which no examples ofalignment was found. Concluding Remarks In conclusion, during this era of unrelenting accountability,school administrators must seek new avenues that have the potential toimprove teacher recruitment and retention. Recruitment and retentionof a highly qualified workforce, though challenging, has an overridingaffect on student performance and academic success. New theoriessuch as human capital, transcendental leadership when embraced andutilized by the administrators may have positive impact teacherretention decisions. Perpetual research is still need to investigateteacher preparation programs, employee compensation, induction/mentorship, work conditions as well as recruitment and retention inorder for a fresh framework for 21st century human resourcesmanagement to evolve.
139 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL_________ REFERENCESColgan, C., (August, 2004). Is there a teacher retention crisis? American School Board Journal, 22-25.Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). What matters most: Teaching for America’s future.National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, 65-74.Fuller, E. (2003). Beginning teacher retention rates for TxBESS and Non-TxBESS teachers. Unpublished paper, State Board for Educator Certification, Austin, TX.Goldhaber, D. B. Gross, & Player, D. (2007). Are public school really losing their “best?” Assessing the career transitions of teachers and their implication for the quality of the teacher workforce. Working Paper 12, Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Urban.Hansen, M., Lien, D., Cavalluzzo, L., & Wenger, J. (2004). Relative pay and teacher retention: An empirical analysis in a large urban district. The CAN Corporation, 1-46.Heneman III, H., & Milanowski, A., (2004). Alignment of human resource practices and teacher performance competency. Peabody Journal of Education, 79(4), 108-125.Ingersoll, R. K. (2004). The impact of mentoring on teacher retention: What the research says. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from www.ecs.orgMurnane, R., & Steele, J. (2007). What is the problem? The challenge of providing effective teachers for all children. The Future of Children, 17(1), 15-43.Marrewijk, M., & Timmers, J. (2003). Human capital management: New possibilities in people management. Journal of Business Ethics, 44,171-184.National Commission on Teaching and American’s Future (2003). No dream denied: A pledge to America’s children (Summary Report). Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www.netaf.org/documents/ no-dream- denied_summary_report.pdf
Loretta A. Terry & William Allan Kritsonis 140Normore, A., (2006). Leadership recruitment and selection in school districts: Trends and issues. The Journal of Educational Thought, 40(1), 1-23.Rebore, R. W. (2007). Human resources administration in education. (8th). New York: Pearson Education Incorporated.Senge, P. M. (2007). The fifth discipline. New York: Random House, Incorporated.Solis, A. (2004). The role of mentoring in teacher quality and retention. IDR Newsletter ( June-July) Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www.idra.org/IDRA_Newsletter/June_- _July_2004:_SelfRenewing_Schools%E2%80%A6Leadership/ The_Role_of_Mentoring_in_Teacher_Quality_and_Retention/Spradlin, T., Prendergast (2006 Fall). Emerging trends in teacher recruitment and retention in the no child left behind era. Education Policy Brief. Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, 4(12), 1-16.Strawn, C., Fox, R.,& Duck, L. (2008). Preventing teacher failure: Six keys to success in moving beyond the “sink or swim” mentality. The Clearing House, 81 (6), 271-277.U. S. Department of Education (2006). Frequently asked questions about No Child Left Behind. Retrieved September 22, 2008, from http://answers.ed.gov