Dr. B.C. DeSpain, National Forum Journals, www.nationalforum.com
NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
VOLUME 28, NUMBER 1, 2010-2011
LEARNING FROM THE BEST:
A STUDY OF AASA’S
SUPERINTENDENT’S OF THE YEAR
Ben C. DeSpain
West American College of Acupuncture
& Oriental Medicine
Robert L. Marshall
Chablis P. DeSpain
The AASA National-Superintendent-of-the-year program is twenty-five years old. For
the past eight years we have been conducting an annual survey of these public school
superintendents who are selected by their colleagues to represent their respective states
in the national recognition program. The survey instrument continues to undergo
refinement as we gather data in an effort to glean from this group of leaders the lessons
they have mastered in their careers. This is the first publication of the research effort.
he Annual National Superintendent-of-the-Year program,
sponsored by the American Association of School
Administrators (AASA), has now completed its first quarter
century of recognizing its brightest and best. As the recognition
program enters its twenty-sixth year, it appears that the program is
becoming more successful with each passing year in truly recognizing
those school leaders who are among the very best serving children and
community schools throughout the nation and even beyond. Each
statewide superintendent organization annually selects a representative
who is identified as the State Superintendent-of-the-Year. This
individual automatically becomes the nominee from his/her state for
49 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
the national award, conferred each year at the annual conference in
February. In addition to the state nominees, there are also selections
from the U.S. Territories and from the Dependant Schools operated
through the Department of Defense. While the exact number
fluctuates, there are usually about fifty-two to fifty-four nominees.
Each nominee presents a portfolio of his/her experiences to a review
committee which selects four finalists who are identified before the
annual conference. All state nominees attending the national
conference are recognized at the annual conference and the four
finalists are introduced and have their career highlights noted. The
National Superintendent-of-the-Year is then identified from this group
and announced. It is a poignant moment for the thousands in
Origin and Development of the Study
Beginning nine years ago, two of us initiated a study via a
survey instrument “to gain a broader understanding of leadership
practices and the persons who engage in that practice,” as we wrote in
the introduction to that first survey. That initial effort was aimed at
collecting demographic data, information on personal reading habits,
and other select activities of the lifestyle of the superintendent. After
three years of this somewhat limited-in-scope effort, we determined
that this group of school leaders was not the subject of study by
anyone else. We determined that we should formalize our efforts and
make considerable changes to probe more areas. As a result, the
instrument underwent a major revision and significant expansion. Our
investigation addressed three primary objectives which continue, after
five years, to serve as a compass for our annual effort: “1) to
conceptualize the activities and actions demonstrated by these
successful school leaders beginning in the early years and moving into
adulthood, 2) to identify past/present reading habits of educational
leaders, and 3) to collect preliminary information for follow-up
research regarding employment practices and the accountability
movement.” (Introduction to the Study)
Ben C. DeSpain, Robert L. Marshall, and Chablis P. DeSpain 50
Along the way, the initial colleague moved back to public
education to become a superintendent and a new colleague was added
along with a willing spouse. Each year has seen minor adjustments to
the survey instrument, often at the suggestion of those who participate
each year. Thankfully, we have always enjoyed over a 70% response
rate and on occasion more than 90% of the population has given time
from their busy schedules to respond to our survey which is now
administered on line with the use of Survey Monkey. Today the
instrument contains sections collecting: 1) demographic data, 2)
historical data on residence and family during elementary, middle, and
high school, 3) personal activities engaged in during the school age
years which were sponsored by the home, community, or school, 4)
reading habits and preferences, 5) a personal assessment section
dealing with perception of self and style, and how they handle
criticism and, 6) five questions calling for short written responses. The
five questions are very telling and provide considerable insight to the
heart and soul of these extraordinary leaders. One asks the respondent
to recall and describe the first experience when they realized they were
or wanted to become a leader. The second question asks them to list
the most important elements they expect to find in an outstanding
leadership candidate’s professional file. The third question addresses
the most important “things”—qualities, characteristics, responses—
they want to find in the first moments on an initial interview with an
outstanding educational leadership candidate. The fourth question asks
the person to give their impression of “the accountability movement”
and its impact on their performance as a school leader. Finally, the last
question asks the respondent to give a list of their “must read” books
for educational leaders.
A word of caution concerning a lingering, though diminishing
issue, should perhaps be injected at this point because it has been
mentioned each year by a very limited number of the respondents. We
offer it here to simply acknowledge its existence and provide a
51 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
perspective on the matter as it has become less an issue with each
passing year. Perhaps the “accountability movement” itself has
hastened the demise of this matter more than any other thing. We
speak of the comments of a few superintendents who have taken time
to remind us of what we already had experienced firsthand from our
years as public school leaders. Namely, that the annual selection of the
Superintendent-of-the-Year in some states has been little more than
the honoring of one of the favorite “Good Ole Boys” by his (and on
rare occasions, her) colleagues. While that may still occur on occasion,
there is absolutely no question on our part that the overwhelming
majority of the state selections each year are among the finest and
most able leaders from the many hardworking public school servants
in America. Their answers and their grasp of the issues are simply
stellar. We applaud them, their efforts, their dedication, and their
justified selection and recognition by their peers.
Related Applicable Studies
It has already been noted above that this eight year effort is the
only study of this select group of superintendents. There have, and
continue to be, studies including many doctoral dissertations which
focus on school superintendents. Many of those focus on the tasks of
the position, job satisfaction, key responsibilities, critical issues, length
of tenure in a position, etc. Our efforts were and continue to remain
focused on the personal attributes, habits, and driving forces
motivating the individual and how he/she came to discover and
develop those skills and habits essential to their success as a leader in
A review of the literature revealed that there were efforts to
study superintendent’s attitudes and characteristics in earlier studies.
Some of those studies offer a benchmark for our efforts in this study.
In a 2007 study of attitudes of Wisconsin Superintendents toward No
Child Left Behind (NCLB) (Allen and Leverich, 2007) reported that
only 27% of the respondents agreed with the statement, “NCLB has
Ben C. DeSpain, Robert L. Marshall, and Chablis P. DeSpain 52
improved the quality of education in my district.” The 63% rate of
response from the superintendents of the 267 school districts across
the state led the researchers to conclude that most superintendents
expressed opposition to NCLB and want changes in the law. The
superintendents also believed that only a few of the sanctions offer any
hope to improve educational quality.
In a 2006 meta-analysis of 27 identified research reports
conducted since 1970 on the effect of superintendents on student
achievement, researchers (Waters and Marzano, 2006) at the Mid-
continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) produced
four major findings. The key findings were: 1) District level leadership
matters, 2) Effective superintendents focus their efforts on creating
goal oriented districts, 3) Superintendent tenure is positively correlated
with student achievement, and 4) Effective superintendents appear to
provide school leaders with “defined autonomy.”
In a 2008 study of superintendents in Illinois, conducted in
cooperation with the Illinois Association of School Administrators
(Berg, 2008), many interesting questions were posed which offered
real insight into the careers of the subjects. Additionally, there were
several queries which obtained demographic data, personal
information, and professional activities and opinions on a wide range
of topics. This study reported that the mean number of years served as
a superintendent by the respondents was just over 7 years. Another
question addressed the age of the respondent which was 51.2 years.
One gender question revealed that the respondents were 24% female
and 76% males. No questions in this study, as is typical of a large
number of studies reviewed, addressed the type of community the
respondent served (rural, urban or suburban) or whether the
respondent had worked outside the field of education prior to
becoming a school administrator. Neither were there questions in any
of the studies which sought information on family background,
siblings, or activities engaged in during elementary, middle, or high
school. Questions were also missing about reading habits, teacher
perceptions of the respondent as they were growing up, their thinking
53 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
process as compared to classmates, whether they had a mentor early in
their life, how they got along with others, and how they handled
criticism. These types of questions and the responses received, the
researchers believe, offer great insight into the success of this unusual
group of school leaders.
Responses on Commonly Shared Questions
One of the short answer questions in our survey was also asked
in one of the studies identified above. That question presented in the
earlier study asked: “Has NCLB improved the quality of education in
my district?” The response in that survey was positive from 27% of
the superintendents. While our survey asked the question as a
qualitative question: What is your impression of “the accountability
movement” and how is it impacting your performance as a school
leader? A sample of the positive short answer responses received is
provided as follows:
• Accountability is both necessary and acceptable. NCLB has
made my job a little less enjoyable.
• Makes me focus on every little thing trying to cover all the
bases—rather stressful at times. Closing the achievement gap
is very important.
• The moral intent is noble—the actions taken to achieve the
intent are flawed. I use the moral intent to hammer home the
importance of closing the achievement gap.
• I have no problem with being held accountable. I simply want
our society and the decision makers to place as much emphasis
on public education as they do entertainment.
• Accountability is necessary and has made a positive impact.
• I spend more time thinking about improving student
achievement than I did in the past. We are constantly working
to improve data systems so we can adjust instruction for
youngsters who are not making progress.
Ben C. DeSpain, Robert L. Marshall, and Chablis P. DeSpain 54
• I always felt I was accountable to my community. It does not
impact my performance at all.
• About time, helps keep the organization focused on the right
• Movement has many positive aspects and some areas that need
improving. It has helped me stay focused.
• First, I hold myself accountable and then those around me to
accomplish our mission.
• Accountability has forced all of us to rethink the way we
approach our work and the work we are doing for student
learning. It has refocused the conversation around data and
• Mostly, it is a very good influence. It has sharpened my
leadership focus and focused my professional attention.
• Get it done, accomplish the mission. That is the only answer.
The above responses were all judged as positive by the
researchers. Such responses were received from a surprisingly large
number of the superintendents. Where the Wisconsin study of Allen
and Leverich (2007) found only 27% responding positively, our study
revealed that 71% of the respondents were positive. In fact, even
among comments judged negative we found some strong support for
the concept but negative on the failure to adequately fund and the
approach to testing. It is perhaps worthy of noting that this percentage
has been growing over the last few years, but this is the first time it has
The meta-analysis of 27 reports done by Waters and Marzano
(2006) identified at least one finding that has relevance with this
current study’s findings as revealed above. The second finding of
Waters and Marzano was that “Effective superintendents focus their
efforts on creating goal oriented districts.” The comments presented
above seem to mirror their findings from earlier studies. We have
already stated that we accept that the selected superintendents are
selected, in large measure, for their success and effectiveness.
55 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
When the data from this study were compared with the Illinois
study by Berg (2008) on the three comparable questions, the results
were somewhat similar. For example: on the question concerning age,
the Berg study found the Illinois superintendents had a mean age of
51.2 years. Our study revealed that 20% were between the ages of 46-
55 and 80% were 56 years or older. Further, The Illinois study found
that the mean number of years the respondents had been a
superintendent was 7.1 years. This study asked for information on the
length of the service in the current position as superintendent which
was 8.6 years. The last similar question related to the gender of the
superintendents. The results of the gender question were the same on
the two studies with each being 24% females and 76% males.
Findings Not Presented by Other Researchers
The data from the 2008 survey of the Superintendents-of-the-
Year covers a wide range of topics. Space here does not provide the
opportunity to discuss all of the findings but we will offer some of the
more revealing information. This year’s (2008) State-Superintendents-
of-the-Year (covering February 2008 to February 2009) had 3%
serving in districts of less than 1000 students, 14% in districts of
1,001-2,500, 43% in districts of 2,401-5,000, and 40% in districts over
5,000 students. 26% of the districts were categorized as rural, 17% as
urban and 57% as suburban. The typical respondent in this survey had
been an educator 34.7 years, had been an assistant superintendent and
superintendent for a combined total of 17.5 years. Of the six (6)
respondents who had careers outside education, the average length of
those careers was 6 years. The range was from 2 years to 22 years
among this group, with the 22 year career being in the military.
Ben C. DeSpain, Robert L. Marshall, and Chablis P. DeSpain 56
Early Family Demographics
The demographic data from the early years of the respondents
proved very interesting. Nearly 58% of the respondents were born and
lived through elementary school in a rural residence, while 21% lived
in a suburban residence and 21% in an urban residence. Only one
participant (3%) did not have a two parent family from birth through
elementary school. At the time of graduation from high school, 82% of
the respondents still enjoyed a two parent family. A small percentage
(3%-6%) had other family members living in the home (grandparents)
until graduation from high school. Of the 34 respondents, 9% were the
only child, 67% had 1-3 siblings, and 24% had 4 or more siblings.
Home Sponsored Activities
Within the school age years, respondents were asked to tell us
which home sponsored activities, which school sponsored activities,
and which community sponsored activities they engaged in during the
elementary, middle, and high school years.
Sometime from birth through elementary school 45% of the
respondents took music lessons and some sports related lessons such
as swimming. The same was true for middle school. In high school,
those taking music lessons dropped to 20% while those taking sports
related lessons (golf, tennis, swimming, etc) increased to 56%. From
35% to 38% of the group was involved in camping, boating, hiking,
crafts, and collecting coins or stamps with a slightly smaller
percentage engaging in hunting and fishing during the elementary
years. By middle school the percentage involved in hiking, camping,
and boating had grown to 56% and the number hunting and fishing
had grown to 44%. The respondents reported that there are still many
who have maintained the interests of their early years to this day.
57 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
Community Sponsored Activities
Community sponsored activities also gained and held the
attention of many future superintendents in their early years. Church
activities captured the attention of 91% of the respondents from
shortly after birth, and even today 61% report they are still actively
involved in their local church. From 41% to 50% were also involved
in little league sports programs, scouting, or summer programs
sponsored by Parks and Recreation programs in their community. It is
interesting to note that 20% of the respondents were involved in
volunteerism as elementary age children, by middle school it was
32%, by high school it was 50 %. Even today as very busy adults, 60%
are still volunteering their time in their community. No one reported
having a mentor in elementary school but one did (3%) in middle
school and 4 did (12%) in high school. Today, over 30% are involved
in mentoring at least one person. The last area of consideration in this
section is the number who worked part time during the early years.
About 10% worked (mowed lawns, baby sat, etc.) in elementary. That
increased to 44% in middle school and to 80% during high school.
School Sponsored Activities
School sponsored activities did not hold much attraction for
these future superintendents during their early years. While a few did
become active in things like band, choir, acting, or an academic club,
the percentage was not above 12% of the group. Only teamed sports
managed to attract as many as 28% of the group during their
elementary years. By middle school that group had grown to 47% of
the members, and 35% were involved in student government. By high
school, 65% were playing team sports, 60% were in some type of
leadership role, 47% were in student government, while 45% were
involved in interest clubs or academic clubs, and 32% were active in
Ben C. DeSpain, Robert L. Marshall, and Chablis P. DeSpain 58
The original survey of this group of superintendents was
primarily a survey of reading habits. Happily, we have kept and
continued to probe that area of personal habits of these educational
leaders. In this current survey, 92% of the respondents consider
themselves “regular readers,” with an even higher percentage (94%)
reporting they regularly read books, and 100% reporting they regularly
read magazines/journals. (The 92% is perhaps an error on the part of
one respondent who should have marked “yes” on being a “regular
reader.”) Many among the group read fiction and nonfiction books
with 43% reporting they prefer fiction and 57% preferring nonfiction.
When asked how many books they read per year, the range was
from 0 to 100 books with 15 books being the mean. While the range
this year is not the largest in the history of the research, the mean of 15
books is the highest to date and is more than three times the low of a
few years ago!
Respondents acknowledged reading from 0 to 5 daily
newspapers with the mean being 2 per day. Interestingly, only one
respondent (3%) reported regularly reading books via the internet.
About 33% reported regularly reading journals on the internet, and
about 23% acknowledged they are a subscriber to an audio club where
they receive books on CD or tape. All who are regular readers of
books said they plan to read more after they retire. When asked a
desirable or optimal number of books for a superintendent to read each
year, the range was 3-45, with 14 being the mean and 12 being the
Respondents were asked to rate on a scale of 1-5 (1 being low
and 5 being high) how important the regular reading of books and
journals was to their career. They responded with 3% saying a “2”
while 9% rated it a “3”and 11% rated it a “4” and 78% gave it a rating
of “5.” This represents a dramatic increase over the responses to this
questions during the earlier years of this study when there were high
59 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
numbers who responded with a “2” or “3” and responses of “4’ or “5”
were infrequent events. As noted above, there was a short response
question concerning recommended books suggested by the
participants as a “must read.” That list will be presented later.
The participants were asked to reflect upon their own image
and how others perceived them. We asked seven (7) questions which
follow immediately with the response data.
1. Would your teachers have described you as an “intelligent
young person?” 77% yes, 23% no.
2. Would your teachers have described you as a “strong student?”
57% yes, 43% no.
3. Were you considered a leader (formally/ informally) in your
high school? 85% yes, 15% no.
4. Do you consider yourself to be a competitive person? 94%
yes, 6% no.
5. Do you feel that you have the ability to “think differently than
the crowd?” 100% yes!
6. Did/do you have strong mentors? 79% yes, 21% no.
7. Do you believe you have the ability to “get along well with
other people? 94% yes, 6% no.
In the final section of the survey, we asked seven (7) short
answer qualitative questions. One of those questions has already been
discusses—the one dealing with the accountability of NCLB. We shall
list the remaining questions and provide a sample of the responses to
Ben C. DeSpain, Robert L. Marshall, and Chablis P. DeSpain 60
How do you handle criticism of detractors or criticism as a
All participants responded to this question. Most answers were short
and to the point but nearly all responses contained a key word. Words
like “listen” and “learn” appeared in eight responses each. “Reflect,”
“collect’” and “consider,” were also used three or four times each.
Here are a few samples:
• I listen carefully, consider what I hear, thank the critic and then
decide what has merit and either use it to improve or move on.
• Well, at times it hurts, but I learn from it.
• Listen, respond politely, Look for merits of criticism and make
appropriate changes, if any.
• It always bothers me but I try to learn something from each
• Reflect on it and evaluate it for validity and future direction
Please briefly describe the first time/experience during
which you realized that you were a leader/wanted to be a leader/or
would become a leader.
Thirty four of thirty five responded to this query. Interestingly, all
respondents could provide specific information on this probe. The
events occurred during the elementary school years until after college.
Elementary school was the time when 24%, (8) participants, realized
they wanted to be a leader, high school had 46% (15) respondents
realize it, college had 15% (5) individuals, and post college had 15%
(5) individuals. A few comments are offered as examples of the
• College. Fraternity president. Dealt with a racial issue which
was splitting the organization.
• Elected 9th
grade class president.
• High school church youth group.
61 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
• I made myself a catcher in little league so I could see the field
in its entirety.
• When fellow students asked me for advice during my senior
year in high school
• I was in elementary school and selected captain of the school’s
• Boy Scouts . . . U.S. Army, entered at age 19 as private. . left
22 years later as Lt. Col.
What are the most important elements (content as well as
style) which you expect to find in an outstanding educational
leadership candidate’s professional file?
Once again Thirty four responses were provided. Many excellent
responses were provided which indicate that the respondents can select
good leadership candidates. Examples follow:
• Good academic credentials, evidence of collaboration with
others, ability to make decisions, evidence of high moral
character, and in the case of educational leadership, a
commitment to doing what is good for children.
• Listens well, knowledge of educational issues and strategies,
experience as an educator, committed to the cause, strong
• Strong teaching, character, integrity, work ethic.
• Outstanding letters of recommendation, documented
community service, successful educational experience, and
evidence that the candidate had the ability to lead people.
• I look for experience with curriculum and efforts to address
student academic achievement.
• Willingness and open to new learning. The sincere desire to
grow and change to improve leadership skills.
• Ability to listen, reflect and learn. The courage to accept input,
decide, and act.
Ben C. DeSpain, Robert L. Marshall, and Chablis P. DeSpain 62
• Evidence of integrity, sound judgment, and active commitment
to capacity building with and for others.
• Integrity, analytical, ability to communicate, reflective,
humble. . .
What are the most important “things” (qualities,
characteristics, responses, etc.) you find in the first moments of the
initial interview with an outstanding educational leadership
Thirty-four responses were recorded from participants. Examples
• Energy, enthusiasm, people skills, intellect.
• Establishing relationships, thoughtfully addressing questions.
• Confidence, open, personable, friendly, professional in dress,
firm handshake, at ease.
• Communication skills, energy, vision, and curiosity.
• Dynamic, engaged, focused, high energy, interested and
• Looks you in the eye. Is confident. Good listener.
What books do you consider a “must read” for educational
Thirty-three participants responded to this opportunity to select their
favorite books for those aspiring to become school leaders. This is the
last question on the survey and it provided familiar books and authors.
Books from leadership authors and about leadership seemed to
dominate but there were also books by writers like Michael Fullen,
who is recognized for his work in instructional improvement. There
were books written my Steven Covey, John Maxwell, Peter Senge,
Patrick Lencioni, Howard Gardner, Jim Collins, T. L. Friedman, Ken
Blanchard, and numerous others. The two leading books which were
63 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
on eleven lists and ten lists respectively were: Good to Great by Jim
Collins and The World is Flat by T. L. Friedman.
Getting acquainted with this group and having the opportunity
to speak to them and present these findings at the AASA Conference
in Tampa in February 2008, was a delightful experience. They gave a
genuine welcome and were interested to learn more about themselves.
They exhibited gusto for life that was infectious.
It is recognized by the researchers that this is a very small
sample of the more than 13,000 School superintendents across the
United States. Our purpose was never to try to infer any findings from
this select group to the greater group. It was and remains our desire to
try to discover some unique characteristics, common to this group that
may have contributed to their success. Additionally, as students of
leadership and both professors and practitioners of the art of
leadership, we sought to learn from this group in order that we might
better serve our students and mentees. Some remarkable finds were
discovered and are presented here.
1. This group of school leaders became engaged deeply within
their respective communities at an early age. They remain so
today with over 60% still finding time to volunteer.
2. The members of this group are hard working and have always
been committed to working as over 80% worked part time
during high school.
3. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has had a profound impact on
the members of this group but most of it is perceived as
positive. This finding sharply departs from the results of other
Ben C. DeSpain, Robert L. Marshall, and Chablis P. DeSpain 64
4. A large percentage of the members of this group recognized
their leadership gifts while still students with 85% being
involved in a leadership role before leaving high school.
5. Nearly 80% of the members studied reported they were
strongly influenced by a mentor, starting as early as middle
6. All the respondents, without exception, recognize that they
think differently and nearly all think that they get along well
with other people.
7. When considering the role and influence of the school,
community, and home in the development of the members of
this study as they grew up; it appears that there was a change in
the significance of each as the child progressed through school.
In the elementary years, it was the home, and then the
community sponsored activities that held significance in their
development with very little impact by the school aside from
the formal curriculum. During the middle grades , it was the
community and the home based activities sharing most of the
load for impacting the development of the child, with the
school starting to gain influence as students became interested
in the sports program and student government. By high school,
it was school sponsored activities that dominated the interest of
the child with some considerable remaining interest in
community based activities. There was, however a rather
strong interest in home sponsored activities—such as
swimming, camping, boating, hiking, fishing, hunting, etc—
which remained for over 50% of the participants until now.
8. Perhaps it is the impact of the accountability movement, but
the attitudes of this year’s participants and the responses they
65 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL
provided, leads one to think that the “changing of the guard” is
rapidly accelerating as the predicted wave of retirements and
the ushering in of a “new breed” of school leaders seems to
have arrived. They seem to indeed think differently, and appear
more positive about the challenges of the future.
Allen, R. & Leverich, J. (2007). The views of Wisconsin school
superintendents about No Child Left Behind: 2007. Madison,
Berg, R. L. (2008). The Illinois school superintendency: A summary
report of the 2008 (2007-2008 School Year) Survey of Illinois
superintendents. Springfield, IL: IASA.
Glass, T., Bjork, L., & Brunner, C. C. (2000). The study of the
American superintendency, 2000: A look at the superintendent
of education in the new millennium. Arlington, VA: AASA.
Waters, T., & Marzano, R.J. (2006) School district leadership that
works: The effect of superintendent leadership on student
achievement. Denver, CO: Mid-continent Research for
Education and Learning (McREL).