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1G-01-P101-EP
Lesson Objectives• List three elements used to  determine fire danger rating.• List the five ‘standard’ fire danger  ratin...
Introduction• Fire Prevention/Mitigation Specialists  should constantly be aware of the fire  weather conditions and forec...
Introduction• This is an overview of the fire danger  ratings, and the NFDRS and is not  intended to be a lesson in fire  ...
The National Fire Danger Rating            System• Determines fire danger in the area• Managers may impose  restrictions/c...
The Importance of FireBehavior to Fire Prevention                          1G-06-P101-EP
• The importance of the basic aspects of  fire behavior – ease of ignition, rate of  spread, and the rate of combustion – ...
• Fire behavior components are principle  keys to fire danger rating.• It sets the numbers that managers can  use for limi...
Understanding Fire Danger• Fire Danger is a description of the  combination of both constant and  variable factors that af...
Understanding Fire Danger• Since 1974, five Adjective Fire  Danger levels have been used in  public information and signin...
Fire Danger Level• Fire starts are unlikely. Weather and  fuel conditions will lead to slow fire  spread, low intensity, a...
Fire Danger Level• Some wildfires may be expected.  Expect moderate flame length and rate  of spread. Control is usually n...
Fire Danger Level• Wildfires are likely. Fires in heavy,  continuous fuel will be difficult to control  under windy condit...
Fire Danger Level• Fires start easily and may spread faster  than suppression resources can travel.  Flame lengths will be...
Fire Danger Level• Fires will start and spread rapidly. Every  fire start has the potential to become  large. Expect extre...
Fire Danger Level• Information only. This element is being  used in several areas as a management  and public relations to...
Fundamentals of Fire DangerFuel Moisture• Live Fuels• Dead Fuels                                 1G-17-P101-EP
Fundamentals of Fire DangerLive Fuel Moisture                                 1G-18-P101-EP
Fundamentals of Fire DangerDead Fuels                                 1G-19-P101-EP
Fundamentals of Fire Danger•   Dead fuels•   1 hour•   10 hour•   100 hour•   1,000 hour                                  ...
Fundamentals of Fire DangerRelative Humidity                                 1G-21-P101-EP
Drought Indicator Systems• Several drought map systems are in  use, the Keetch - Byram Drought  Index (KDBI) is a common o...
Keetch – Byram Indicators•   KBDI = 0-200•   KBDI = 200-400•   KBDI = 400-600•   KBDI = 600-800                           ...
Lower Atmosphere Stability             Haines Index•   2 – Very low potential•   3 – Very low potential•   4 – Low potenti...
Energy Release Component• Based on the estimated potential  available energy released per unit  area in the flaming front•...
Energy Release Component• Defined as the potential available  energy per square foot of flaming fire  at the head of the f...
Ignition Component• The ignition component is a number  that relates to the probability that a  fire will result if a fire...
Spread Component• The spread component integrates the  effects of wind and slope with fuel  bed and fuel particles to comp...
Summary and Review Lesson          Objectives• List the elements used to determine  fire danger rating.• List the five ‘st...
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Transcript of "P 101 ep 1-g"

  1. 1. 1G-01-P101-EP
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives• List three elements used to determine fire danger rating.• List the five ‘standard’ fire danger rating levels. 1G-02-P101-EP
  3. 3. Introduction• Fire Prevention/Mitigation Specialists should constantly be aware of the fire weather conditions and forecasts. The fire danger affects most of what these specialists do on a day-to-day basis. 1G-03-P101-EP
  4. 4. Introduction• This is an overview of the fire danger ratings, and the NFDRS and is not intended to be a lesson in fire behavior. 1G-04-P101-EP
  5. 5. The National Fire Danger Rating System• Determines fire danger in the area• Managers may impose restrictions/closures• Pre-position resources• Make fire management decisions 1G-05-P101-EP
  6. 6. The Importance of FireBehavior to Fire Prevention 1G-06-P101-EP
  7. 7. • The importance of the basic aspects of fire behavior – ease of ignition, rate of spread, and the rate of combustion – cannot be over emphasized since they dictate what is needed to control a fire. 1G-07-P101-EP
  8. 8. • Fire behavior components are principle keys to fire danger rating.• It sets the numbers that managers can use for limiting use, setting restrictions, and for fire planning. 1G-08-P101-EP
  9. 9. Understanding Fire Danger• Fire Danger is a description of the combination of both constant and variable factors that affect the initiation, spread, and difficulty to control a wildfire. 1G-09-P101-EP
  10. 10. Understanding Fire Danger• Since 1974, five Adjective Fire Danger levels have been used in public information and signing. Recently, several areas have added another administrative element. This is not the normal application, and is used here as information only. 1G-10-P101-EP
  11. 11. Fire Danger Level• Fire starts are unlikely. Weather and fuel conditions will lead to slow fire spread, low intensity, and relatively easy control with light mop-up. Controlled burns can usually be executed with reasonable safety. 1G-11-P101-EP
  12. 12. Fire Danger Level• Some wildfires may be expected. Expect moderate flame length and rate of spread. Control is usually not difficult and light to moderate mop-up can be expected. 1G-12-P101-EP
  13. 13. Fire Danger Level• Wildfires are likely. Fires in heavy, continuous fuel will be difficult to control under windy conditions. Control through direct attack may be difficult but possible, and mop-up will be required. 1G-13-P101-EP
  14. 14. Fire Danger Level• Fires start easily and may spread faster than suppression resources can travel. Flame lengths will be long with high intensity, making control very difficult. Suppression and mop-up will require an extended and very thorough effort. 1G-14-P101-EP
  15. 15. Fire Danger Level• Fires will start and spread rapidly. Every fire start has the potential to become large. Expect extreme, erratic fire behavior. 1G-15-P101-EP
  16. 16. Fire Danger Level• Information only. This element is being used in several areas as a management and public relations tool. When conditions are critical, (major fires, extreme weather forecasts, resource drawdown, natural disasters, etc.) this level is used. 1G-16-P101-EP
  17. 17. Fundamentals of Fire DangerFuel Moisture• Live Fuels• Dead Fuels 1G-17-P101-EP
  18. 18. Fundamentals of Fire DangerLive Fuel Moisture 1G-18-P101-EP
  19. 19. Fundamentals of Fire DangerDead Fuels 1G-19-P101-EP
  20. 20. Fundamentals of Fire Danger• Dead fuels• 1 hour• 10 hour• 100 hour• 1,000 hour 1G-20-P101-EP
  21. 21. Fundamentals of Fire DangerRelative Humidity 1G-21-P101-EP
  22. 22. Drought Indicator Systems• Several drought map systems are in use, the Keetch - Byram Drought Index (KDBI) is a common one. 1G-22-P101-EP
  23. 23. Keetch – Byram Indicators• KBDI = 0-200• KBDI = 200-400• KBDI = 400-600• KBDI = 600-800 1G-23-P101-EP
  24. 24. Lower Atmosphere Stability Haines Index• 2 – Very low potential• 3 – Very low potential• 4 – Low potential• 5 – Moderate potential• 6 – High potential 1G-24-P101-EP
  25. 25. Energy Release Component• Based on the estimated potential available energy released per unit area in the flaming front• Variations caused by changes in fuel moisture contents• Derived from predictions of rate of heat release 1G-25-P101-EP
  26. 26. Energy Release Component• Defined as the potential available energy per square foot of flaming fire at the head of the fire and is expressed in British Thermal Units (BTU) 1G-26-P101-EP
  27. 27. Ignition Component• The ignition component is a number that relates to the probability that a fire will result if a firebrand is introduced into a fine fuel complex. 1G-27-P101-EP
  28. 28. Spread Component• The spread component integrates the effects of wind and slope with fuel bed and fuel particles to compute the forward rate of spread at the head of the fire. Output is unit of feet per minute. 1G-28-P101-EP
  29. 29. Summary and Review Lesson Objectives• List the elements used to determine fire danger rating.• List the five ‘standard’ fire danger rating levels. 1G-29-P101-EP
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