There are many connections between the ocean and the early towns and harbors of NewEngland. These connections are all intertwined like the threads that make up a spider web.In this web there different aspects such as social aspects, politics, and religion, but the gluethat holds it together economics. The economics of the time had many interlocking forms: Fishing Trade Social Services Ship building Privateers and Pirates Whalingand all of these center around sailings ships and the ocean.
Even before the settlements appeared along the coast of New England the fishing in the near by waters were a large economic asset. Many of the European countries were sending ships to fill their nets well before the settlement at Plymouth. Once the New England settlements took root the value of fishing as a food source and economic source grew. In this picture they are not just off loading the fish, they are laying the fish out to be cured and preserved for sale and or trade.This etching can be found on page 35 of The Pine-tree Coast by SamuelAdams Drake (1891) in the chapter titled "Isles of Shoals."From the Maine Historical SocietyHttp://www. Mainememory.net/item/6313
Trade to the New England towns and ports had different points of value: • To fill the towns peoples’ needs Fruit Tea Cloth News and mail ect. • Economics – buy low, sell high The value of trade goods fluctuated from port to port and one time to another. Hence the right port at the right time was good fortune.“Robert Sandeman (1718-1771), co-founder of the Sandemanianreligious sect, gave the snuffbox to Nathaniel Barrell (1732-1831) ofYork when based in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Barrell was amember of the Sandemanian sect. It was originally covered withJames Phillipsleather over a paper base. The leather on the bottom is tooled.The silver band around the side of the cover is inscribed ‘Ex donoR Sandeman 1767. to N. Barrell’”.Http://www. Mainememory.net/item/11241
There many risks on the open sea: • Storms • Rocky shores • Other ships that are hostile (Pirates, Privateers and Military vessels from other countries ) • Disease • Fire All of which have a cost socially and economically. One of the ways to tell other ships of trouble was the use of flags as the Peabody Essex Museum note of this picture, “Flag upside down in distress, [in] May 1840”.Ship POLAND Burning at Sea from Peabody Essex Museumhttp://www.pem.org/sites/archives/mpd/images/l1207.jpg The Irish Rover by Album kavel 57( folk from the Sealers Crushed by Icebergs, W. Bradford, 1866, From New Bedford vroom barn) by artist kavel 57 through Jamendo.com Whaling Museum and creative commons http://whalingmuseum.org/explore/exhibitions/past/american- landscape-seascape-paintings
Not all troubles happen at sea but the effects cross over. These effects are both social and economical andthe cost was not just to the individuals but to the communities. As Marcus Rediker writes in Villains ofAll Nations “the poplar image of the pirates as man with a patched eye, a peg leg, and a hook for a hand isnot wholly accurate, but it speaks an essential truth: [a sailor’s life and work] was… dangerous… [and]destructive to the human body” (Rediker n.p.). This being said, it ties in with Iron Men, WoodenWomen, Ruth Wallis Herndon writes, “Seamen [and their families] fell into [the]… needy category quiteoften. By their lack of wealth, they were already near a servant class” (Creighton & Norling, 59). AlsoHerndon notes, “The domestic cost of seafaring for Rhode Island communities: a lame and pennilesssailor was the responsibility not of his former employer but of his town of legal residence” (Creighton &Norling, 56). http://www.jules-cheret.org/Reproduction-of-a-poster-advertising-a-Charity- Party-in-aid-of-the-Society-for-the-Relief-of-Families-of-Shipwrecked-Sailors,- Palais-du-Trocadero,-Paris,-1890.html
With many New England industries connected to the sea (whaling, fishing, trade, and more) the industry of ship building would be another economic need. Ship yards where in many New England ports: • New Bedford • Salam • Boston • Portsmouth • And moreFrom Peabody Essex Museumhttp://www.pem.org/sites/archives/mpd/images/l0073.jpg From the Maine Historical Society Http://www. Mainememory.net/item/4197
The out fitting of a ship is a serious economic endeavor . This can be broken in to three main parts: • The ships needs – Canvas for making and mending sails Rope and rigging to replace worn and broken ones Ect. • The crews needs- Food Soap Ect. • The needs for the task or job- Canons Supplies for fishing Supplies for whaling Ect.From the Maine Historical SocietyHttp://www. Mainememory.net/item/21406
This Painting of the Privateer Brig Grand Turk is the one mentioned by Samuel Eliot Morison in The Maritime History of Massachusetts. What is a privateer? Marcus Rediker writes, “Half- commercial, half-military privateers (private men-of-war), which were mobilized by kings and queens to… plunder the trading vessels of wartime enemies” (Rediker, n.p.). I would like to note that even countries with out kings and queens during war time turned to privateers to boost their navy. What makes the privateers different from pirates? Rediker notes, “John Atkins, the naval surgeon, spoke of the transition from privateer to pirate as going from ‘plundering for others, to do it for themselves’” (Rediker, n.p.).Brig GRAND TURK of Salem and Built 1812, WiscassetMaine, 309 tons, 14 guns William Austin commander FromPeabody Essex Museumhttp://www.pem.org/sites/archives/mpd/images/l1174.jpg villains of all nations
The two many ways of becoming a pirate: Pirates goals, and traits: Mutiny – forcibly taking over the ship • Take each ship with as little force necessary - for the ships This was the path that led William Fly to the gallows on themselves had value. July 12, 1726 and Fly’s last words were a warning not to those To this end the pirates goal was to use terror to get their who would become pirates but those who he felt responsible. pray to surrender. Fly said : “All Masters of Vessels might take Warning by the fate of the Captain (meaning Captain Green) that he had murder’d • “Take no married man” – not all pirate leaders had this [sic], and to pay Sailors their Wages when due, and to treat them better; saying, that their Barbarity to them made so many turn policy, but many did. Pyrate [sic]” (Rediker n.p.). • Pirates for the most part did not want to engage navel Volunteering – sailor joining the pirates when their vessels – this was for the simple fact of high risk and low vessel is taken reward. This was do for the most part by the same aspects that Fly addressed and the work load. Rediker acknowledges, “A transatlantic merchant ship of 250 tons, which would have had a working crew of 15 to 18 ‘hands,’ would[,] if taken and refitted by pirates, have been manned by 80 to 90 men” (Rediker, n.p.). This would lead to more men to do the same amount of work
Pirate name total shipsBartholomew Roberts More than 400 (1719-1722)Edward Low Approx. 140Blackbeard FewerSam Bellamy More than 50Edward England and Charles Vane At least 50Charles Harris 45Francis Spriggs 40James Phillips 34George Lowther 33Richard Holland 25
Whaling was made of many different tasks: Types of whaling: • Drift whaling Hunting • Shore whaling Harpooning and spearing the whale (athletic) • Deep sea whaling Factory work At one point Whale Oil and other Whale products was the biggest export to England. From New Bedford Whaling Museum http://whalingmuseum.org/
The economic affects of the sea on the communities where far reaching and not just by the physical (money, fish, trade,whaling, and ect.). Their was also poplar culture: Books Moby Dick biographies –Hannah Shell, Horace Lane, Richard Henry Dana Jr. and more Plays The Beggar’s Polly And more Songs Jack Monroe The Cruel War is Raging And more
Burns, Ric, dir. American experience: Into the Deep America, Whaling & the World. PBS, 2010. DVD.Creighton, Margaret S., Lisa Norling. Iron Men, Wooden Women: Gender and Seafaring in the Atlantic World. Baltimore:The John Hopkins University Press, 1996. Print.Kavel 57. The Irish Rover, Jamendo.com. Web. 6 Jun. 2012.Maine Historical Society. Maine Historical Society. MHS, 2012. Web. 4 Jun. 2012.Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts: 1783 – 1860. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1979.Print.New Bedford Whaling Museum. New Bedford Whaling Museum. NBWM. 2012. Web. 11 Jun. 2012.Peabody Essex Museum. Peabody Essex Museum. PEM. 2012. Web. 21 May 2012Rediker, Marcus. Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. Boston: Beacon Press, 2004. Kindle File.The Great Ships: The Pirate Ships. A&E Television Networks, 2006. DVD.