Tugas morfo lengkap


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Tugas morfo lengkap

  1. 1. GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION 1. Subject Think of a staff meeting, for example. There are different kinds of people, different ages,sexes, qualifications, etc and partly because of these differences; each person plays a differentrole in the meeting. Likewise words in a sentence: there are different kinds of words – nouns,verbs, adjectives and so on, and they each play a different role in the sentence. Each role givescontributions to the sentences meaning. For example, Pat likes beans, the subject Pat contributesthe `like-er (subject) and the object beans contributes the `like-ee (object). If we do not knowabout the rule, surely we do not know about the meaning of the sentence. In learning grammatical function, there will have a set of terms of grammaticaldescription. The terms are subject, object, oblique object, indirect object, complement andadjunct. In terms of subject, a distinction is frequently drawn between grammatical subject,logical subject, and thematic or psychological subject. Grammatical subject is the grammatical forms that can function as the subject. Forexample, in English grammar, the grammatical subjects are noun phrases, prepositional phrases,verb phrases, and noun clauses. Sometimes, the subject of a sentence can be a nominalzedsentence or sentence like constituent, as in: - That Edinburgh’s New Town is magnificent is undeniable - For you to run off with Mary would be madness.When no such constituent is available to act as subject a ‘dummy’ subject is supplied; this is thecase with ‘weather’ expressions. E.g. It is raining. Where a nominalized sentence is extraposed,it will become: - That Edinburgh’s New Town is magnificent is undeniable - It is undeniable that Edinburgh’s New Town Another item that operates like a dummy subject is there. Existential asserts the existence ofsomething. Eg. There are glasses in the drinks cupboard. Deictic point to something. Eg. Thereis the glass. There are differences between deictic and existential. In deictic, pronounced withnon-reduced form.E.g. there is /ðɛəriz/, there are /ðɛəra/; There need not be a subject (Forinstance, The glass is there); There can be questioned (Where is the glass?); Definite NP meansthere typically restricted to sentences with definite NP ( the) . In existential, pronounced with reduced form. Eg. there is /ðəz/, there are /ðəra/; There must 1
  2. 2. Derived frombe a subject (For example: There is a glass); There can’t be questioned (where are the glasses inthe drinks cupboard?); Indefinite NP means there typically restricted to sentences with indefiniteNP ( a and an) E.g. A glass is on the table. Subject in the grammar of English can be derived from transformational approach todescription. In this approach, we distinguish an underlying from a surface level of description.Suppose the sentence: Everyone believes that Charlie is handsome Everyone believes (Charlie is handsome) → Underlying structure Derived from Everyone believes Charlie to be handsome → Alternative realization Logical subject is usually related to sentences involving an (agent) participant. Agent isthe "doer" who or what that causes the action.For instance: William invaded England in 1066. G L England was invaded by William in 1066. G L There are many typical roles for the subject in logical subject. First, agentive subjectperforms the action as in John beat the dog. Second, instrumental subject is used to carry out theaction as in The axe smashed the door. Third, dative subject as in Harry knows that his wife isunfaithful. Fourth, goal subject where the action is directed towards/from as in Harry received agold medallion from the Royal Society. Fifth, source subject is where the action originated as inThe Royal Society presented a gold medallion to Harry. Sixth, locative place subject where theaction occurs as in Edinburgh is cold, wet and windy. Seventh, patient subject undergoes theaction and changes its state as in The butter is melting. Last, neutral subject mindlessly performsthe action as in Mary is very tired. Thematic subject is characterized by textual considerations – this is what the sentence isabout. For example;
  3. 3. 1. John (G,L,T) took the largest kitten 2. The largest kitten (G,T) was taken by John (L) 3. The largest kitten (T), we (G,L) gave away. 2. ObjectIn active declarative sentence with unmarked word order, these four grammatical featurescharacterize the object: 1. Directly follows the verb 2. Not in construction with a preposition 3. Can become the subject of the corresponding passive sentence 4. An obligatory constituent with transitive verbsOne kind of objects is object of result and it is also called an ‘effected’ or ‘factitive’ object. e.g. • Maggie move the table • The workmen are cleaning the horse cagesIt can become the subject of a passive sentence, and there are no paraphrases involvingpreposition.Meanwhile, the other object is ‘cognate object’. The relevant NP in this object usually contains anoun morphologically derived from (and hence cognate with) the verb stem. e.g. • Mother sewn a sewing • She draw a beautiful drawingThe other object is called ‘object of concern’. They are clearly neither affected (direct) noraffected (resultant) objects. e.g. • Nunung is sipping his coffee • Nindi is watching Troy 3
  4. 4. There is a hierarchy of ‘objecthood’. The considerable example is the Direct Object (DO).The characteristics are: • Has a particularly close tie to the main verb • Is an obligatory sentence constituent • Immediately follows the main verb • Will not occur in a paraphrase involving a preposition • Can be the subject of the corresponding passive sentence Study this example: 1a America supplied tanks to the Israelis 1b America supplied the Israelis with tanksIn 1a, tanks is a DO (direct object) while Israelis is an (OO) oblique object. On the other hand, in1b, tanks is an OO while Israelis is a DO.Since those sentences are close in meaning –both of them describe events of supplying tanks- wecan see them as containing the same roles (agent, patient, neutral). They differs only to whichrole is chosen as direct object and so that presented as more central, because more closely relatedto the verb.Note that they cannot occur with a preposition in this position, instead of they could becomethe subject of the corresponding passive: 2a *America supplied with tanks to the Israelis 2b *America supplied to the Israelis with tanks 2c Tanks were supplied to the Israelis by America 2d The Israelis were supplied with tanks by America Then, 2e *America supplied with tanks But when the PP is omissible, they will become: 2f America supplied tanks
  5. 5. 2g America supplied the IsraelisThe NP in the PP is an OO because the NP in the PP might, as it were, have become the object,had the other NP not done so. The OO is omissible, as we have observed, and cannot generallybecome the subject of a passive sentence: 2h *The Israeli were supplied tanks to by AmericaThe effect of becoming an object is important. The syntactic effect has been discussed; but thereis also a semantic effect, which varies from cases like number 2. 3. Indirect Object a) Exist when a verb is followed by two NPs, neither of which is associated with a preposition. See this sentence: 3 Yucha gives Nindy (IO) a candy (DO) b) May occur as an OO (Oblique Object), and can usually be omitted without affecting the grammaticality of the sentence, whereas the DO cannot be omitted [see the example on page 326-328] Below are the passive formation cases on DO and IO: 4a Nunung lent that map (DO) to Yuni (OO) 4b That map was given to Yuni by Nunung While, 4c Nunung lent Yuni (IO) that map (DO) 4d Yuni was lent that map by Nunung But not always like those, because we can see these sentences: 5a Nindy asked Yucha a help 5b ?Yucha was asked a help by Nindy And also study these: 6a Sister played me Dakon 6b *I was played Dakon by sister 5
  6. 6. The NP that immediately follow the verb has a privileged status, both syntactically andsemantically. When only one NP is available for this role (that is, in two-place propositions)there would seem to be a hierarchy of ‘objecthood’. When two NPs are available for the role inthree-place propositions, the situation is more complex. 4. ComplementThese sentences below are Attributive complement because they describe the class membershipof the subject noun, or ascribe an attribute to it: 7a Cinderella was pretty 7b Cinderella was a princessThose can also be called ‘subject complement’ cause it relate back to the subject noun. Then, in7b the noun ‘a princess’ is a ‘nominal complement’. Those complements are ‘statecomplements’ since they are found in stative sentences and describe states.Those sentences below are the type of ‘result complements’: 8a The mangoes are turning yellow 8b Yucha became a bachelor of english departmentThe complement cannot become the subject of a passive sentence.Meanwhile, the identify complement can be shown in: 9a Nunung is the man with a bunch of dollar in his wallet.The NP is always a definite NP. That sentence can be reversed: 9b The man with a bunch of dollar in his wallet is Nunung.Let us study this: 9c Nunung is (to be identified as) the man with a bunch of dollar in his wallet.The locative complement can be shown in: 10 Yuni is in her study roomLocative complement is usually a prepositional phrase. Sometimes it is used as a place adverb.Corresponding on that, we can also recognize a ‘directional complement’ in sentences, like: 11 Nindy hid under the table
  7. 7. 12 Yucha walked across the hospitalDirectional complements only occur in nonstate sentences.The italicized constituents in the sentences in 12 are also often called complements: 12a Nunung comes back home safe 12b Yuni talked the issue honest 12c Nindy always buys her spinach fresh 12d Yucha coloured her book green12 a and 12 b are intensive to the subject, then others to the object. In some cases, they can besubstituted by adverbs. We can also make paraphrase constructions like:12 e Nindy always buys her spinach in fresh condition12 f Yuni was honest when she talked the issue, etc. 5. AdjunctsAdjuncts are usually adverbials, whether they are adverb phrases, PP, adverbs, or subordinateclauses of time, place, manner, and so on, that distributionally function like adverbials.Adjuncts are clearly a rather ‘mixed bag’, in that syntactically there are numerous subclasseswhich have different and overlapping distribution, and they fill a variety of semantic roles. 7
  8. 8. Morphological mapping of grammatical functions Introduction How are gramatical functions mapped onto morphological representatios? We will begin with a preliminary discussion intended to provide the necessery background for understanding the key syntactic and semantic concepts that are involved. First introduce the notions of thematic roles, grammatical relations and the teory of case assigment, next explore the morphological effects of syntatic rules that change the canonical pairing of thematic roles with grammatical function. And the final part of the chapter will take the discussion further afield through an investigation of the phonomenon of incorporation whereby the syntax requiresthe inclutionof one word within onother. Predicates, arguments and lexical entries Normaly, sentences are contructed in such a way that some constituents identify particular individuals or things (or more abstract entities like ideas) and other contituents which indicate individuals or entities are called referring expreesions, while those wich attribute to them properties, processes, actions, relations or states are called predicates. e.g : a. my sister cried b. she will go c The car crashed the sentence a refers to an individual and predecates the property crying of that individual at some time in the past. In sentence b the property of going is predicated of the individual she. Finnaly, sentenses c the property of crash is attribute to an entity. Predicates take referring expressions as their arguments (my sister, she, the car).1. Theta-roles and lexical entries Language use syntax and inflectional morphologi to encode some of the sematic relations which obtain in sentence between a prdicate and its arguments. We will use the term theta- roles (0-rules) for these sematic relations. (they are also called (abstract) case relations or thematic relations in the leterature.)
  9. 9. Recognition of 0-rules is essentially based on the intuition which is widely shared among linguists that there is a relatively small number of syntactically relevant sematic properties that play a role in the transitiveity systems of language. Gruber (1965,1976) and Fillmore (1968) define of Theta-roles: Agent is the case of the individual (usually animate) that instigates the action identified by the verb. e.g., (d) Mamat killed the chicken Instrumental is the case of the inanimate instrument used to bring about the state of affairs described by the verb. e.g., (e) mother whashed with a brush Patient is the case of the entity or individual that undergoes the process or action described by the verb. e.g., (f) Toni punched the board Benefactive is the case of the individual who gains from the action or prosess described by the verb.e.g., (g) Kai gave his girlfriend letter. Theme is semantically the most neutral case. e.g., (h) Hari gave Mia new hand phone.Locative is the case that indicates the location, direction or sparial orientation of the event, stateor action identified by the verb e.g., (i) tommorow I will go to beijing. Theta-roles are essentially used to characterise transitivity. They specity the parts palyed by the arguments representing different participants is the action, state or process indicated by the verb. Intransitive verbs are one-place predicates.they occur in frames with one argument. e.g., (j) Agung slept. Transitive verb are two-place pridicates.e.g., (k) Mamat killed the duck. Ditransitive verbs are three place predicates. e.g., (l) Mother put the ice cream in the freezer In order to ensure that a verb appears in the right syntactic frames, the lexicon must specify the 0-roles which it requires. The lexical entries for the verbs in e.g. (j) must contain the following information. 9
  10. 10. e.g., (k) slep V (agent) kill V (agent patient) put V (agent goal theme ) .0-rules are associated directly with NPs by phrase structure rules, as shown in e.g. a. Sà NPVP (agent) b. VP à V NP <patient> c. NP à Det N d.N à Nsg, Npl e. Det -à the f. V à Vtrns (i.e. transitive verb) The tree should look like this S NP VP (agent) V NP <patient>Det N[sg] V[trns] Det N[pl]The clown tickled the children
  11. 11. We will require each lexical entry for a verb to include the 0-roles which that verb assigns to its arguments.To this and, a wellformedness principle called the Theta-Critorion will be incorporated in the grammar and given the task of ensuring that: a verb is only used in frames where the requisite arguments are present, and those arguments all have the prescribed 0-roles. Symbols X and Y are used as variables to represent any entity or individual that can function as arguments of these predicates with the 0-rules af agent, patient, theme etc. The entry for a verb in the lexicon will include a subcategorisation template showing its argument stucture requerenments. a. tickle V #TICKLE (X? Y?) e.g., The clown ticled the children b. wash: V# WASH 1 (X?) e.g., This curtain washes well# WASH2 (X? Y?) e.g., peter washed the curtains the lexical entries in tell us which senses of wash and tickle require two arguments, and which particular 0-roles hold between those arguments in a particular sense of the verb. To solve this problem we need to add a further dimension to the model of grammatical analysis, namely that of grammatical relations. 11
  12. 12. 2. Grammatical relations Syntactic categories like noun phrase and verb phrase specify the syntactic type of particular constituents.the syntactic type of a constituent is determined by the category og the head of that constituent.A noun phrase is a constituent whose head is a noun while a verb phrase is a constituent whose head is a verb, and so on. o-roles, specify a sematic relationship between a predicate ad its arguments grammatical relations indicate the grammatical relationship that holds between two syntactic constituents in a sentence.they are determined, not by semantic considerations, but by the syntactic position of the particular contituent. The grammatical relations that we shall use are verb phrase, subject, object, second object and oblique. They are defined in tuen below The easient grammatical relation to recognise is verb phrase (VP). The term VP is commonly used ambigously by generative grammarians to refer both to a syntactic category, and to a grramatical realation as we are doing here. The grammatical relation VP has a verb as its syntactic head e.g., Andi came. Andi is S and ame is VP All declarative sentences en English must have a subject (S).the subject is the topic about which the rest of the sentence says nothing, the subject is the NP the has the 0-role og agent, if that role is present, the subject is the NP that precedes the VP, and with which the verb agrees in number. In reality, however, many subject do not hava all these properties, ae we shall soon see.The NP that immediately follow the verb is the object and the NP that comes after that object NP is called the second object. e.g., Andi send Ani latter. Grammatical relations is surronded by a degree of theoretical controversy, there is widespread agreement about the purpose which the serve. Once the need for grammatical relations is regognised, grammars must perform the two tasks: 1. they must state how 0-roles are mapped on to grammar of a particular language. For example, English mapping principles may take this form:
  13. 13. 0-role correspondens grammatical function agent subject patient object of verb locative oblique NP 2. they must state how grammatical functions are maked on the surface, e.g. by word order, prepositions or case inflection. Various syntavtic rules which may mask the grammatical function of a particular NP. Much of the morphological camplexityfound in languages aries from the making og such masked grammatical function.Grammatical Function Changing Rules Grammatical functions are hierarchically ordered across languages. The hierarchydepends on the relative likelihood of NPs associated with particular grammatical functions beingaffected by certain syntactic rules. Keenan and Comrie (1977, 1979) have established thishierarchy: Subject > direct object > non-direct object > possessor Such rules mask the relationship between the surface manifestation of grammaticalfunction (GF), which is often marked case or word order, and the semantic role of an argument.GF changing rule tend to have significant morphological repercussions which typically affectverbs more than other word-classes. these are some repercussion: 1. Passive Often sentences expressing the same proposition can be realised in a variety of ways, depending on how grammatical relations are encoded using the syntax and morphology. Normaly, where such choice exist, one way of expressing a propositions is marked and another is unmarked. 13
  14. 14. a. Active voice Patient/ object accusative Agent/ subject Esmeralda examined Her Nominative examined The Vet Agent She Oblique NP was examined by the Vet b. Passive voice was examinedbalait-ABSthe by her The sentence above, Patient/ subject man cut the tree with an with the subject as agent axeAntipassivebayihe- preceding the verb and the Nominative ABSthe man cut the tree object, who is patient, with an axeAndrew gave following the verb, are Esmeralda AgentSubjectAndrew gave unmarked. The agent who is AgentSubjectUmwaana also the subject, receives She a.b.a.b.a. b.a. Childthe child has thrown nominative case and the b.a.b.The order of affixes the book in to the patient, who is object reflects the order in which waterUmwaana Childthe receives accusative case. the associated syntactic child has thrown the book Passive can be semi- ‘operations’ apply. into the watera-li- formally stated as in: menyas/he-fut-breaks/he will Subject à oblique (or null) Morphological derivations break Kapares lega-li- Object à subjectmust directly reflect syntactic menyas/he-fut-breaks/he will derivation and the syntactic break Kapares Antipassive derivation must directly legAbalenziBoysthe boys will The antipassive is the reflect morphological cook potatoeskaparea-li- process used in ergativederivationNameCausativeAp fumb-is-aboys SP-future- languages to turn aplicativeReciprocalPassive3T cook-BVSKapere will make transitive verb into anransitive4StativeReversiveNa the boys cook potatoes. intransitive verb. It causesmeCausativeApplicativeReci The evidence of Mirror the object NP to be realisedprocalPassive3Transitive4St Principle as an oblique NP, or to beativeReversiveCausativeAppl deleted. The effect of the icativeReciprocalPassive Mirror Principle was antipassive is comparable to applied in Luganda’s major that of the passive. Just as language, Bantu. the passive demotes the Verbal extensions in original subject to an Luganda oblique NP in a nominative accusative language, the Shape/-is-//-ir-//-agan-//- antipassive demotes the ibu-//-i-//-ik-//- original object of a
  15. 15. ulul-/Shape*/-keun-//gebug- transitive sentence to angebugan//-kena-/Causative- oblique NP and the underlying agent NP argument which should otherwise be in the ergative is put in the absolutive. This can be seen in the example of Eskimo languages below: yugubaɳ gul yara-ɳ gu tree- ABShe-ERGman-ERGcut- PASTyaragunba-l-ɳ a- nyubaguyugu- gubaɳ gubarri-ɳ guman- ABScut-ANTIPAST- PASTit-DATtree-DATit- INSTaxe-INSTABS = absolute; ANTIPAST = antipassive; ERG = ergative; INST = instrumental; DAT = dative Applicative The applicative is another common GF-changing rule with significant morphological consequences. It characterizes using this schema: Oblique Indirect object à object; object à 2nd object Null (or oblique) Some of applicative are: Benefactive: a NP in the benefactive case that has the GF of second object can be realised as a direct object when the applicative rule applies. For example: the flowersto 15
  16. 16. Helenthemebenefactiveobje ctoblique NPHelenthe flowersbenefactivetheme object2nd objectLocative: in many languages theapplicative can be used with locative meaning which is expressed in English using propositions like in, on, at, etc. This is the example from Kinyarwanda languages. y-a-taa-yeigitabomu maaziSP-past-throw- ASPbookin watery-a-taa- ye-moamaaziigitaboSP- past-throw-ASP-APPL (in)waterbook Possessor: when possessor raising take takes place, an NP which function as the ‘possessor’ modifying the head of a possessive noun phrase is turned into the object of the verb. The original object is shuntedinto a new slot and becomesthe second object. Possessor raising is shown below: NP possessor in possessive NP à object of verb Object of verb à 2nd objectThis is example from Bantu Language: okugulukw-aKaperelegofKapereKapere okuguluKapereleg CausativeThe changes in grammatical function caused by thecausative GF process can be stated in this way: Null à subject Subject à object Object à 2nd object
  17. 17. This is the example from Luganda language ba-li-fumb-alumondeSP- futore-cook-BVSpotatoesabalenzilumondeboyspotatoesSP = subject prefix; BVS = basic verbal suffix From the example above, the causative introduces a new agentive NP as subject in [b]. The original subject becomes the object and the original object becomes a second object. Equallyimportant, the verb receives the causative suffix –is-. Miror Principle Introduction The traditional view on morphology is that word-formation takes place in the lexicon, and that morphological rules are different in nature and operate on different primitive elements thansyntactic rules: morphology operates on stems and morphemes to produce words, while syntax operates on words to produce phrases and sentences. In other words, the essential property of morphology is, it is concerned with the structure of words; theessential property of syntax is, it is concerned with the structure of sentences. The Mirror Principle The idea of Mirror 17
  18. 18. Principle was proposed byBaker (1985). His argument is that derivation of words and their relationship in a sentence and in meaning couldn’t be based only on functional matter. Reviewing that the morphological derivations must directly reflectsyntactic derivation and the syntactic derivation must directly reflect morphological derivation. In other words, syntactic and morphological orderings stand in a symmetrical relation. Unfortunately, Baker does not specify according towhich general principles are affixes merged into syntactic structure. He argued that the MirrorPrinciple is the result of the strict locality of head movement (of cyclic head movement) through incorporation of a lexical root to a morpheme. It this condition syntax operates on both words andmorphemes, and a complex word can be formed by syntactic rules, and morespecifically head movement. In short, if the morphological structure of a complex word is derivedthrough head-movement ofthe lexical root to the heads where the morphemes are base-generated, the MP follows straightforwardly:“the order of morphemes ina complex word reflects the
  19. 19. natural syntacticembedding of the heads that correspond to those morphemes”The rule of Mirror Principle (Baker 1985): ExampleGlossn-a-mu-zin- is-a‘I made him dance’a-n- zin-ir-a‘he is dancing for me’ba-a-kub-agan-a‘theyhit each other’n-a-kub-ibw-a‘I was beaten’y-a-ba-kaab- y-a‘she made them cry’ga- nyw-ek-a‘it (water) is drinkable’oku-pang-ulul-a‘to unstuck (take things off a pile)’ The data above is analyzedwith : Causative ApplicativeReciprocal Passive (CARP), where the affixation can be classified. As in Luganda language, the changing of affixation can be clearly recognize even there are someinconsistent form. Compare with the sample below, the changing of affixation in Sundanese, Mirrorprinciple cannot be applied perfectly.ExampleGlossAbdimerintahkeun maneha geruagebug eta‘I made himhit’Maneha gebug keurabdi‘he is hittingsomething’Sadayana gebug-gebukan‘they hit eachother’Abdi kena gebug‘I washitManeha merintahkeunsadaya gerua gebug eta‘shemade them hit’Cai eta tiasa 19
  20. 20. dile’leut‘it (water) isdrinkable’Jalma etamindahakeun cai‘she movethe drink.’Analysis using C A R P(Causative ApplicativeReciprocal Passive) ApplicativeReciprocal Passive--- a. Causative-Applicative combination b. Causative-Reciprocal c. Causative-Passive d. Applicative-Causative e. Applicative- Reciprocal1. The counter arguments against Mirror Principle However, as Baker has lacking explanation of his idea on mirror principle, it raises some counter arguments. Federico Damonte (1998) claims: that argument structure changing affixes in Pular are merged in a fixed hierarchy of theta- related functional heads and that the complements they introduce are
  21. 21. merged in the specifiers of these functional projections.Von Stechow (2002) andZeijlstra (20007): the position of affixes does not correspond to the position where they take scope from.Sadock (1985): propose a theory of auto lexical syntax that overview the autonomous of morphology and syntax although they are held together.Hyman and Katamba(1992): morphological position and phonological position infer the changing order of morpheme in words. 21
  22. 22. 2. Conclusion It seems that mirror principle seems to be essentially correct, but languages may show variation in the way which they set their own parameter. As seen from the examples above, comparing Luganda and Sundanese language, the affixation which is essential in Luganda in changing grammar doesn’t appear in Sundanese. It is an evident that mirror principle can be applied in certain languages. Moreover, the grammars of many languages provide alternative ways of expressing the same kind of proportional meaning.
  23. 23. it-INSTaxe-INSTgunba-nbaɳgubarri-ɳgu 23