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Best Practices for End Users for CNG, LPG & Electricity

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This presentation will help you to learn the best practices for end users for CNG, LPG and Electricity. We had a representative from the Gas Technology Institute in Illinois who gave an overview of …

This presentation will help you to learn the best practices for end users for CNG, LPG and Electricity. We had a representative from the Gas Technology Institute in Illinois who gave an overview of the available alternative fuels and technologies and the current Fleet Best Practices. A representative from Clean Cities gave an overview of the tools available on the AFDC website and the current incentives for alternative fuel vehicles. Also, representatives from Paper Transport, Alpha Baking Company, and the City of Milwaukee spoke about their firsthand experiences using alternative fuels and technologies.

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  • 1. Best Practices for Transportation End Users: Propane, CNG, and Electricity Gas Technology Institute March 2014
  • 2. 22 Objectives A. Intro to Fuel Type – Fuel 101 B. Fueling Station Basics C. Fueling Basics D. Safety Hazards E. “Typical” Applications
  • 3. 33 Propane Autogas 101 oLPG or Propane or Autogas has the chemical formula C3H8 oIt is transferred into a vehicle as pressurized liquid and will vaporize at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. oLike gasoline or diesel, propane gas is heavier than air. oPropane is burned in internal combustion engine to power vehicle. oPropane is dispensed and sold by liquid gallon.
  • 4. 44 Propane Fueling Basics oService pressure of a propane system is at least 240 psi. At this pressure the LPG will stay a liquid at temperatures of 120° F or less. oBy code, LPG fuel tanks are only allowed to be filled to roughly 80% of volume. oPropane Autogas station is similar to gasoline station. oFueling time is similar to gasoline station; about 10 -12 gallons per minute.
  • 5. 55 Propane Station Basics
  • 6. 66 Propane Safety Hazards oSimilar to gasoline, Propane is a flammable fuel and ignition sources are forbidden in fueling areas. oPropane is stored and pumped into vehicles in pressurized liquid state. Hazards of pressure exist. oOperators can be freeze burned from contact with liquid propane. oPropane is an asphyxiating gas which will displace oxygen if trapped in enclosure.
  • 7. 77 CNG 101 oCompressed Natural Gas (CNG) is predominately Methane (chemical formula CH4). oNatural Gas typically exists in a gaseous vapor form. oUnlike gasoline, diesel, or propane; natural gas is lighter than air. oCNG is burned in internal combustion engine to power vehicle. o5.66 lbs (~125 SCF) of natural gas is a Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE)
  • 8. 88 CNG Fueling Basics oNominal pressure of CNG storage in U.S. is 3600 psi. Older 3000 psi systems are mostly phased out. oCNG pressure is 3600 psi at 70° F (settled pressure), and no more than 4500 psi at any temp. oFueling is typically done as a “fast-fill”; about 5-10 “gallons” per minute. “Time-fill” for overnight fueling can take 4-10 hours. o“Fast-fill” station is similar to gasoline station. oHome fueling can be done in residential garage.
  • 9. 99 CNG Station Basics
  • 10. 1010 CNG Safety Hazards o Similar to gasoline, CNG is a flammable fuel and ignition sources are forbidden in fueling areas. o CNG is stored at high pressure. High pressure gas is an energy hazard and poses risk to operators. o Natural gas is an asphyxiating gas which will displace oxygen if trapped in enclosure.
  • 11. 1111 Electricity as Trans. Fuel 101 oAC power is delivered to the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) (often referred to as a charging station) and is typically converted to DC power in the vehicle. oDC power is stored in a battery to drive the vehicle’s electric motor. oElectricity is sold per kWh. It can be sold in many different ways commercially as a vehicle fuel (e.g. subscription, per hour, per charge, per kWh, etc.).
  • 12. 1212 EV Charging Basics oFueling can be performed in a residential garage or at commercial location: o Level 1 - Standard household 120 VAC, 12 A, 7 to 16 hours for full charge. o Level 2 - 240 VAC, 20 A, 3 to 7 hours for full charge. oDC Fast Charge - requires 480 VAC to charger, DC current goes directly to battery, charges vehicle to 80% capacity in 30 minutes.
  • 13. 1313 EV Station Basics
  • 14. 1414 EV Safety Hazards o Electricity poses an energy potential, fire, and shock hazard to operators. o Higher voltage and current can pose increased risks.
  • 15. 1515 Best Practice and Application o All of these alt fuels are a triple win: o Economic advantages o Environmental benefits o Energy security benefits o All of these alt fuels offer “dedicated” and “bi-fuel” options; option to use traditional fuel and/or alt fuel o Idle reduction and driver training are first steps towards greening your fleet o Training is key to every safe deployment
  • 16. 1616 Best Practice and Application o Getting “buy-in” from the whole organization (drivers, maintenance personnel, management) is key to every successful deployment o Knowing vehicle needs and driving characteristics is critical in selecting the correct alternative fuel(s) o If you don’t know your fleets characteristics, let the National Renewable Energy Lab help through the Fleet DNA Program. http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/fleettest/researc h_fleet_dna.html
  • 17. 1717 Propane “Typical” Applications o Low fueling station cost and maintenance garage similarities leads to low upfront capital investment Propane Fleet “Sweet Spot” Range Limits (miles) 400 to 800 (varies by vocation) Fleet Size Small to Large (>5) Vehicle Class Light Duty; Medium Duty Fuel Usage High (>1000 gal/yr.) Time of Day Ops 24/7 Station Cost $30,000 (Small Fast Fill) - $175,000 (100’s of vehicles/day) Fuel Cost per year1 (LD Fleet vehicle) $2,533 (25,000 miles ; 26.4 mpg; $2.67 / gallon) 1. Fuel cost from Clean Cities Alt Fuel Price Report (Oct 2013, Midwest); Fuel Economy 85% of LD vehicle
  • 18. 1818 CNG “Typical” Applications o High Fuel use vehicles have very fast Return On Investment because of low per gallon cost CNG Fleet “Sweet Spot” Range Limits (miles) 200 to 600 (varies by vocation) Fleet Size Medium to Large (>10) Vehicle Class LD; MD; HD Fuel Usage High (>2000 gal/yr.) Time of Day Ops 24/7 Station Cost $40,000 (Small time- fill) - $2M (100’s of vehicles/day) Fuel Cost per year1 (LD Fleet vehicle) $1,508 (25,000 miles ; 31 mpg; $1.83 / GGE) 1. Fuel cost from Clean Cities Alt Fuel Price Report (Oct 2013, Midwest); Fuel Economy of 2012 Honda Civic Natural Gas
  • 19. 1919 EV “Typical” Applications o Zero tailpipe emissions and high motor efficiency lead to local environmental benefits EV Fleet “Sweet Spot” Range Limits (miles) 30 to 100 (varies by vocation) Fleet Size Small to Medium Vehicle Class Light Duty; MD/HD (limited) Fuel Usage Low Time of Day Ops 8 hours / day Station Cost $1,000/vehicle (Level 1) - $75,000 (DC Fast Charge) Fuel Cost per year1 (Light Duty Fleet vehicle) $1050 (25,000 miles; .35kwh/mile; .12/kwh) 1. Fuel cost from EIA (Midwest, 2013); Fuel Economy from US DOE eGallon
  • 20. 2020 Acknowledgement of Support
  • 21. 2121 Questions? Thank you for your time.
  • 22. Gene Keck & Bob McGuire Alpha Baking Company, Inc. 5001 W Polk St, Chicago, IL 60644 (773) 261-6000 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Propane) Fleet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h7TM034W89k
  • 23. • Headquarters in Green Bay, WI – Over the road, truck load carrier • Currently operating 330 diesel tractors and 80 CNG tractors • Over 7,000,000 miles on CNG trucks • First CNG truck placed in service in February 2010 • CNG benefits = Economic, Environment, American Fuel • Making a change to CNG takes a commitment to change and a desire to be better. Jeff Shefchick, President Paper Transport, Inc. 2701 Executive Drive Green Bay, WI 54304 (800) 317-3650
  • 24. Milwaukee’s CNG & EV Experience Best Practices for End Users for CNG, LPG, and Electricity Jeffrey A. Tews, CPFP Fleet Operations Manager City of Milwaukee Department of Public Works Operations Division, Fleet Services Section
  • 25. Diverse Fleet  123 different types of equipment, from aerial lifts to welders  City of Milwaukee Fleet: – Diesel units 929 pieces – Gasoline units 1,670 pieces – Propane units 138 pieces – CNG Units 29 Pieces – Non-Fuel units 995 pieces  Annual Fuel Use: – Diesel fuel 1,000,000 gallons/year – Gasoline 600,000 gallons/year – Propane 17,000 gallons/year – CNG 165,000 DGE’s
  • 26. CNG Equipment 21 Refuse Packers w/Plows 22 more Refuse Packers on Order 5 Cargo Vans 3 Mid-Size Cars
  • 27. 1980, 1992 CNG Initiatives  Low Power  3,000 PSI  Conversions  Slow-Fill Station  Short Range
  • 28. Current Refuse Units  15 Rear-Loading Refuse Packers  6 Automated Side-Loading Refuse Packers  320 HP engines, automatic transmissions  42, 75, 80 DGE Tanks
  • 29. Snow Plowing, 2010
  • 30. CNG Fueling Stations  Compressor drives both public and City access  Dual 250 Hp electric motor driven compressors  Two 3-stage storage cascades
  • 31. CNG Fueling Stations  Front – Public Access  3000 / 3600 PSI  Credit card access only  Open 24/7
  • 32. CNG Fueling Stations  Rear – City Access  3600 PSI  Employee card access  RFID or Mag-Stripe
  • 33. CNG Fueling Stations  Slow-Fill  16 Vehicles  Block Heaters  Sequential Fill
  • 34. CNG Problems  Leaks at Cascades  O-Ring  Relief Valves  Leaks in Systems  Relief Valves  ESD Switches  Connected Drive-Offs
  • 35. EV Equipment  1 Plug-In Hybrid Car – 11,586 miles per year – Previous gasoline 23.48 mpg – Current MPG: 277.7  16 Hybrid Cars – 8,119 miles per year – Previous gasoline 23.48 mpg – Current MPG: 36.9  19 Hybrid SUV’s – 8,602 miles per year – Previous gasoline 18.48 mpg – Current MPG: 25.3
  • 36. Thank You!
  • 37. Clean Cities Web-Based Tools & Resources Wisconsin Clean Cities South Shore Clean Cities Chicago Area Clean Cities
  • 38. Clean Cities Web Resources • Clean Cities • FuelEconomy.gov • Alternative Fuels Data Center
  • 39. Clean Cities Website
  • 40. Clean Cities Financial Opportunities Become a member of your local clean cities coalition to receive funding announcements!
  • 41. Clean Cities Informational Resources
  • 42. Clean Cities News
  • 43. • Information about alternative fuels, vehicles, and fueling infrastructure. • Laws and Incentives • Interactive Online Tools • Maps and Data • Deployment Case Studies • Searchable Publications Database Alternative Fuels Data Center
  • 44. AFDC Alternative Fuel Price Report
  • 45. AFDC Laws & Incentives
  • 46. AFDC Maps & Data
  • 47. AFDC Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool
  • 48. AFDC Light-Duty & Heavy-Duty Vehicle Searches
  • 49. AFDC Alternative Fueling Station Locator
  • 50. AFDC Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator & iPhone App
  • 51. AFDC Vehicle Cost Calculator
  • 52. AFDC Case Studies
  • 53. Fuel Economy Information  Side-by-Side Comparisons  Fuel Economy Ratings  Energy Impact  Smog Score  GHG Emissions  Fuel Costs FuelEconomy.gov
  • 54. Additional Resources www.ngvc.org/incentives/federalNGV.html www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/air_quality/cmaqEnvironmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov AFLEET Tool http://greet.es.anl.gov/afleet US DOE VICE Model – “Use the accompanying Clean Cities Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) Model to evaluate the return on investment and payback period for natural gas vehicles and fueling infrastructure” and http://www.roushcleantech.com/faq/propane-autogas for propane (LPG).
  • 55. • Clean Cities – www.cleancities.energy.gov • Alternative Fuels Data Center – www.afdc.energy.gov • FuelEconomy.gov – www.fueleconomy.gov • AFLEET Tool – http://greet.es.anl.gov/afleet • Clean Cities Technical Response Service – Email: technicalresponse@icfi.com – Phone: 800-254-6735 • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency • www.epa.gov Websites & Resources • Wisconsin State Energy Office • www.stateenergyoffice.wi.gov • Illinois State Energy Office • www.ilenergynow.org • Indiana State Energy Office • www.in.gov/oed/ • Natural Gas Vehicles for America • www.ngvc.org/incentives/federalNGV.html • U.S. Department of Transportation • www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/air_quality/ cmaq • National Renewable Energy Lab Fleet DNA Program • http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/fleette st/research_fleet_dna.html
  • 56. Sustainability Summit March 26-28, 2014 Milwaukee, WI Energy Independence Summit March 30 - April 2, 2014 Washington, D.C. Green Vehicles Workshop & Showcase April 22, 2014 Milwaukee, WI GREEN DRIVE: Natural Gas Roundtable May 19, 2014 Oshkosh, WI GREEN DRIVE: Natural Gas Roundtable May 19, 2014 Oshkosh, WI Upcoming Events GREEN DRIVE: Alternative Fuels Workshop & WSF Recognition Lunch May 20, 2014 Madison, WI GREEN DRIVE: Chicago Area Clean Cities May 21, 2014 Chicago, IL GREEN DRIVE: WPCA Extravaganza May 22, 2014 Milwaukee, WI http://www.wicleancities.org/events.php http://www.southshorecleancities.org/events.php http://www.wicleancities.org/events.php
  • 57. Contact Information Wisconsin Clean Cities 231 W. Michigan Street, P321 Milwaukee, WI 53203 Lorrie Lisek, Executive Director Office: 414-221-4958 Lorrie.lisek@wicleancities.org Chicago Area Clean Cities 30 N. LaSalle Street, Suite 1100 Chicago, IL 60601 Samantha Bingham, Executive Director Office: 312-744-8096 Samantha.bingham@cityofchicago.org South Shore Clean Cities 9800 Connecticut Drive Crown Point, IN 46307 Carl Lisek, Executive Director Office: 219-644-3690 clisek@southshorecleancities.org