Negotiation Skills for Business Analysts and Project Managers

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Although people often think of boardrooms, suits, and million dollar deals when they hear the word “negotiation,” the truth is that we negotiate all the time.

For example, have you ever:

• Decided where to eat with your project team members?
• Decided on work assignments with your team?
• Asked your customer for more time to elicit requirements?

“Negotiation is a process of communicating back and forth for the purpose of reaching a joint decision.” Roger Fisher and William Ury, Getting to Yes

Key takeaways:

1. What negotiation is
2. What are the best negotiation tactics
3. When to use negotiation tactics

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  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • In this video, we discuss the following objectives: 1. Create a 'taglib' directive for a JSP page for a custom tag library or a library of Tag Files.2. Given a design goal, use an appropriate JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL v1.1) tag from the "core" tag library.
  • Negotiation Skills for Business Analysts and Project Managers

    1. 1. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Negotiation Skills for BAs and PMs “A good listener tries to understand thoroughly what the other person is saying. In the end he may disagree sharply, but before he disagrees, he wants to know exactly what it is he is disagreeing with.” – Kenneth A. Wells, Guide to Good Leadership
    2. 2. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Let’s Talk About… • What negotiation is • What are the best negotiation tactics • When to use negotiation tactics
    3. 3. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com What is negotiation? • What do you think are the characteristics of a successful negotiator? • _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________
    4. 4. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Negotiation • Negotiation is a form of conflict resolution – Conflict lies not in objective reality, but in people’s perceptions – As with all conflicts, egos are involved as well as interests • Negotiation is a method for working together to achieve mutual goals • “Negotiation is a give-and-take bargaining process that, when conducted well, leaves all parties feeling good about the result and committed to achieving it” . . . from CORPORATE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: Concepts and Skills, Rout and Omiko
    5. 5. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Patterns of Negotiation Negotiation Defined Negotiation Patterns Summary I think the one lesson I have learned is that there is no substitute for paying attention. – Diane Sawyer
    6. 6. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Negotiations • The purpose of negotiation is to serve your interests . . . WIIFM • Any method of negotiation may be fairly judged by three criteria – It produces a wise agreement if agreement is possible • A wise agreement – Meets the legitimate interests of each side to the extent possible – Resolves conflicting interests fairly – Is durable – Takes community interests into account • An unwise agreement is arguing over positions – It is efficient – It improves or at least does not damage the relationship between the parties
    7. 7. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com What Cannot Be Negotiated? • We need to know what can and what cannot be negotiated • The results of analysis cannot be negotiated – E.g., estimate, solution, recommendation • Risk cannot be negotiated – It exists – Impact of risk might be negotiable • History cannot be negotiated
    8. 8. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com What Can Be Negotiated? For the BA . . . • Optimum reporting periods, i.e., should status be reported daily, weekly, biweekly or monthly? • How detailed should the reports be? • Who should receive what metrics? • And, ____________________________________
    9. 9. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com What Can Be Negotiated? For the PM . . . • Goals, objectives, milestones, deliverables • Tradeoffs in Scope, Time, Cost • Staff assignments • Procurement documents • And, ____________________________________
    10. 10. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com When To Negotiate • All the time – Negotiate the best solution – Determine features to be included in the next release – Where you are going for lunch – The latest line on the basketball game • Negotiate with – Peers – Teammates – Functional Managers – Other entities (projects, teams, organizations)
    11. 11. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Patterns of Negotiation Negotiation Defined Negotiation Patterns Summary A good negotiation is one where the parties depart committed to their agreements. – Steven Cohen
    12. 12. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Patterns To Avoid • Zero-sum game – Playing for all the marbles – My way or the highway • Married to the solution – No alternative solutions • Distributive negotiation – Negotiation is which the goal is to beat the opposition • Getting to “B” – Overestimating or overstating the position to allow room to come back Management asks for 3 weeks Development team estimates 8 weeks Both expect the results of negotiation to be 5 weeks
    13. 13. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com BATNA • Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA) • When the other side has the stronger negotiating position – Richer, better connected – Larger staff and resources • Brainstorm alternatives first • Trip wire – A red flag indicator set to allow reserve to BATNA – Before accepting any agreement worse that the trip wire, take a break and re-examine the situation The better your BATNA, the greater your power
    14. 14. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Problems with the Bottom Line • Bottom line – Lowest price willing to accept . . . Walk Away Price (WAP) – Highest price willing to pay – A position not to be changed – Assists in keeping the negotiator from overstepping • Protects against accepting a bad agreement – Limits authority of agents • Problems – Limits ability to benefit from lessons during negotiation • Forces rejection of all possibilities – Inhibits imagination • Alternate means that might be better – Typically a bottom line is set too high
    15. 15. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Collaborative (Win-Win) Negotiation • Separate the people from the problem – Parties are not “against” each other – Parties are meeting to solve a mutual problem • Distinguish interests from positions – What each party wants is the position, why it is wanted is the interest – Ask “Why do they want that?” instead of “What do they want?” • Good personal communication habits aid in all negotiations – Active listening . . . Head, heart, legs – Miller’s Law . . . 7 + or – 2
    16. 16. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Collaborative Negotiating Guidelines • Negotiate in a consistent manner • Separate the people from the problem – Recognize the emotions on both sides of the negotiation – Listen actively and communicate your views clearly • Focus on interests, not positions – Interest: a stake or advantage you seek to improve or protect during a negotiation • E.g., getting a good budget, due date – Position: stance you adopt during the course of a negotiation to further your interests • E.g., We can’t go past April 15th • Invent options for mutual gain – Explore creative ideas . . . 3 questions • Insist on using objective (measurable) criteria for defining the basis of agreement • Summarize and specify the basis of any agreements
    17. 17. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Negotiation Preparation 1. Determine what can be traded 2. Determine what it is you want to get out of the negotiations (maximum) – Know why you want it (your interests) 3. Determine what the other part wants to get – Know why they want it (their interests) 4. Determine the least you are willing to accept (minimum) – What you are willing to live with – The point that invokes the “implied threat” – Determine the BATNA
    18. 18. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Negotiation Preparation (continued) 5. Prepare documentation to support your side of the negotiation 6. Be prepared to walk away from the table if – The discussions become emotional or personal (take a break) – There is no movement in the negotiations for X minutes (5 –10) – You cannot get the minimum requested 7. Look for common ground for creative solutions
    19. 19. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Triangle Talk Common ground (Propose action in a way they can accept) (Find out what they want and make them feel heard) Their interests (Know exactly what you want) Your interest #1 #2 #3 • People are almost always more open and receptive when you speak to the issues in the order shown above
    20. 20. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Examples of Triangle Talk • “I understand that you feel our first concern should be cost-effectiveness (their idea), and I agree (common ground). I’ve found a new design that’s in line with that priority (your idea).” • “Holding the seminar out of town (their idea) has created a lot of enthusiasm (common ground). I’d like to tell you about one place in particular that I’d recommend (your idea).” “What people say or do to you is not as important as how you respond to it. Triangle Talk lets you choose how you respond, rather than operating on automatic.”
    21. 21. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Developing Triangle Talk • Practice, practice, practice • Every day, practice applying the three steps to some situation • Begin with people toward whom you feel neutral, and work up to those for whom you have strong feelings • Watch your results – Conduct self-checks: What did I do (or not do) to make this happen (or not happen)? – Lessons learned
    22. 22. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Negotiating • Regardless of how well the project runs there will be negotiations – In fact, successful negotiations often mean a successful project • Negotiating takes planning as well as execution • Negotiation is a key interpersonal skill in the PMBOK, 5th edition and the BABOK, 2nd edition
    23. 23. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com NEGOTIATION PLANNING WORKSHEET Project Name: ________________________ Change Request #: ____________________ Negotiation Content: (What are we negotiating about?) Negotiation Context: (Cultural, regional, local setting and politics) Negotiation Process: (That we plan to follow regarding this requested change) Involved Parties and Roles: (directly and indirectly involved stakeholders, individuals)
    24. 24. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Patterns of Negotiation Negotiation Defined Negotiation Patterns Summary He who hesitates is interrupted. – Franklin P. Jones
    25. 25. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com To Sum Up…  What to look for: When can all required parties make it? Where can we meet? Who should attend, and to do what? What is the agenda? Travel? Consider personal characteristics . . . thinking styles, energy periods, etc. Space, type, and what is enough Let’s make reality as effective as it can be It’s likely that reality will be somewhere between the beach and the castle
    26. 26. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Keys to Success • Wise agreements satisfy the parties' interests and are fair and lasting. ... of the other parties' interests and perceptions, and of the existing options. ... in differing interpretations of the facts, it is crucial for both sides to understand the other's viewpoint. [Fisher and Ury, Getting to Yes] • You just can't go into a negotiation on the seat of your pants. You have to put yourself in the other person's shoes, understand their needs so you can get what you want. [Gerald Nierenberg] • You want to cover a broad range of bargaining chips. The greater the flexibility, the greater the chance of a successful negotiation. [Steven Cohen]
    27. 27. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Applying This to Your Job
    28. 28. © Whizlabswww.whizlabs.com Thank You

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