Spain is the 2 rd largest country in Western Europe after France, is located in southwestern Europe and comprises about 85% of the Iberian Peninsula. Its national capital is Madrid . The Straits of Gibraltar , at its narrowest extent, separate Spain and Morocco by only 8.1 mi. Spain is comprised of 17 autonomous communities which are divided into 50 provinces . These provinces are further subdivided into 8,112 municipalities Its total area is 194,897 sq mi of which 192,874 sq mi (98.96%) is land and 2,023 sq mi (1.04%) is water. Spain’s Total Coastline: 3,084.49 miles. The Atlantic coast is 441 miles long. Total land border is 1,191.7 mi. Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa ( Ceuta and Melilla ), that border Morocco. Furthermore, the town of Llivia is a Spanish exclave situated inside French territory. SPAIN
Mainland Spain's highest point ( Mulhacen at 11,461 feet ) stands in the Sierra Nevada. Topography of Spain The most important topographical feature of Spain is the great, almost treeless, central plateau, called the Meseta Central , sloping generally downwards from north to south and from east to west, and with an average elevation of about 2,000 ft above sea level. The tableland is divided into northern and southern sections by irregular mountain ranges (sierras). Between many of the mountains are narrow valleys, drained by rapid rivers. The country is drained by an estimated 1,500 rivers ( mostly small ). The longest and most important rivers include the Douro ( Duero ), Ebro, Jucar, Tagus ( Tejo ), Guadiana and Guadalquivir The coastal plain is narrow, rarely as much as 20 miles wide and, in many areas, broken by mountains that descend to the sea to form rocky headlands, particularly along the Mediterranean coast. These deeply indented coastal areas include countless bays and coves, and most have sandy beaches. In the far northwest, along the Bay of Biscay, rugged cliffs front the coastline.
Land use: Ariable Land: 30% Permanent Crops: 9% Permanent Pastures: 21% Forests and Woodland: 32% Other: 8% Spain Fauna The Spanish fauna includes the wolf, lynx, wildcat, fox, wild boar, wild goat, deer, and hare. Among the more famous domesticated animals are the bulls for bullfighting. Birdlife is abundant, with varieties of birds of prey. Insect life abounds. Mountain streams and lakes team with fish such as barbel, tench, & trout. Land Utilization in Spain
Climate of Spain Due to both its geographical situation which exposes only its northern part to the Jet Stream’s typical path and its orographic conditions, Spain experiences diverse and extreme temperatures with generally low rainfall (less than 24” except for in the north). <ul><ul><li>Continental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variations in temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low precipitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall in autumn and spring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm winters / Hot summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-Arid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely hot summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The climate becomes colder at high elevations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main form of precipitation is often snow, often with stronger winds. </li></ul></ul>
Overview <ul><li>Spain has the 9 th largest economy in the world which has grown from its trade since the 16 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain established colonies in all of the New World from Alaska to Cape Horn except Brazil, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain was the most powerful state in Europe and foremost global power in the 16 th and greater part of the 17 th century. </li></ul>
Trade In Spanish Society Much of the culture in Spain revolved around trade, It was the main source of income to the government and the people. The use of gold and silver from the Spanish American mines were used to pay for the But more importantly food and perishable items are what kept the economy going for the people.
Religion When King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella ruled Spain in the 1400s and 1500s, they decreed that all Spaniards must become Roman Catholics. People who practiced other religions, such as Islam or Judaism, where forced to change religions. If they did not, they were killed or exiled from Spain. Today, almost 97 percent of Spain´s population is Roman Catholic, although Muslims and Jews in the country now practice their religions freely. Roman Catholicism is one of the oldest denominations of Christianity. Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, whom Christians believe is the Son of God.
A R T <ul><li>Diego Valazquez was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in King Phillip IV. He was an important artist who is valuable in the history of Spain because of his work with royal families and prominent figures. He gave a face to those who we are studying now. </li></ul>Spain is known for having the artist who brought about some of the artistic styles we know in history and today . Francisco Gayo was a portraitist and court painter to the Spanish Crown, a chronicler of history, and, in his unofficial work, a revolutionary and a visionary. Goya painted the Spanish royal family including Charles IV of Spain and Ferdinand VII.
Catholic Monarchy and the Habsburgs <ul><li>Marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon leads to creation of the Kingdom of Spain (1469) </li></ul><ul><li>Second daughter, Juana married Philip the Handsome tying the royal line to the Habsburgs </li></ul><ul><li>King Charles I/Emperor Charles V (1516) is both King of Spain and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He divides his inheritance into two parts, the Holy Roman Empire and Spain with holdings in the Netherlands </li></ul>Wedding portrait of Isabella and Ferdinand
Habsburg Dynasty <ul><li>King Phillip II inherited the kingdom. Even with all the initial failures of his rule, the silver coming from the colonies, its armies, and the rebuilt navy made Spain a strong Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>1700, Charles II dies without heir. Charles II was the end result of 200+ years of interbreeding within the Habsburg tree. </li></ul>
War of Succession <ul><li>With the death of Charles II, the War of the Spanish Succession. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Louis XIV of France wins, control is passed to the Bourbon dynasty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phillip V is new king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace deals forbid the uniting of France and Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1715, Philip V signs the Decreto de Nueva Planta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revokes historical rights of the individual kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codifying the Spanish empire under the laws of Castile </li></ul></ul>King Phillip V of Spain
How it affected the Spanish Empire <ul><li>Formation of Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquering Emirate of Granada in 1492 provided funds for voyage of Columbus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habsburg Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With ties to Holy Roman Empire, Spain was not subject to much impediment in its drive to expand. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bourbon Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace treaty kept France out of Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Navy ensured their protection </li></ul></ul>Royal standard of the Catholic Monarchs Royal standard of the House of Habsburg
Very Early Spain <ul><li>Early Spain and it’s military have been around for 2200yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>As a base in the western Med, many battles were launched from there. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time Spain had it’s problems with invaders & instability from the ‘Visigoths’. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain's biggest problem was being on the front lines; after the fall of Rome in a religious battle between Christians and Islam. </li></ul>
Spain’s build up <ul><li>Wars wage back and forth everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>The rise and fall of the Christians or Muslims was in flux and the rest of Europe was also. </li></ul><ul><li>It took Spain several centuries to get out from under. When they did it was because they had become the military superiority of Europe. They had some ideas. </li></ul>
Spain’s Land Power <ul><li>Spain’s land power centered on a military unit called a ‘Terico’ that is an infantry term of a regiment of 3000. </li></ul><ul><li>They had 2 weapons that helped a lot. The top one is the ‘Arquebuses’, a muzzle loading rifle that had a sharp turning stock. Also their battle sword the “Tizona’. You can see how sharp it is. That kept it from becoming stuck in someone's ribs! </li></ul><ul><li>By 1492 the Spaniards under Isabella & Ferdinand II won after 8 centauries freedom from Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>After all the fighting in Italy and the low lands the Spanish were the toughest guys around. </li></ul>
Spain’s navy 1500-1700 <ul><li>You can’t say anything short about Spain’s Navy. Their greatest Admiral Alvaro de Bazan was famous for the battle at ‘Lepanto’ against the Ottoman Empire 1571 his Spanish marines played a dominate role. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Armada’s defeat in 1588 lead to reforms thru-out the service. </li></ul><ul><li>After 1589 the Spanish Navy had to deal with raiders of all kinds against their treasure fleets along the Spanish-main & the west Indies </li></ul>
Spain in decline <ul><li>From 1570 the Dutch rebellion always challenged Spanish & Portuguese sea power. </li></ul><ul><li>Big attacks came in 1607 at Gibraltar. Small Dutch vessels would go after Spanish Galleons </li></ul><ul><li>This war took global dimensions, from the Philippines to the west Indies. </li></ul><ul><li>At the battle of Downs 1639 the Dutch delivered a massive blow to the Spanish, and their troop-carrying fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1650 the English also with the French started a campaigns against the Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom ship is a Dutch warship used to sink the troop ships of the Spanish. See the top ‘Little ship?’ that’s a Dutch Pirate ship at Gibraltar. </li></ul>
Spanish defeats <ul><li>After fortifying Havana, Veracruz, and Cartagena de Indies, they lose Jamaica to the British. </li></ul><ul><li>They did keep their treasure ships going for another 200 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>In the last decades the Spanish Habsburgs neglected naval affairs. With an explosion of piracy the Spanish lost efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Losing a number of islands in the Caribbean, with other losses it would be the Dutch to help them keep their territories in the Pacific & Mediterranean linked together. </li></ul>
Spanish Influence in North American and Caribbean Economies Melissa Mariscal
<ul><li>The Spanish Empire includes Spain's overseas colonies in the Americas, Asia, Oceania and Africa, but some disputes exist as to which European territories are to be counted </li></ul><ul><li>These actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from Alaska to Cape Horn (except Brazil), as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown. </li></ul><ul><li>The Castilian Empire abroad was initially a disappointment but it did stimulate some trade and industry which also the trading opportunities were limited </li></ul>
<ul><li>During the 16th century, Spain held the equivalent of US $1.5 trillion in gold and silver received from New Spain </li></ul><ul><li>The wealthy preferred to put there fortunes in public debt, which were backed by these silver imports, rather than in production of manufactures and the improvement of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Matters began to change in the 1520s with the large scale extraction of silver from the rich deposits of Mexico's Guanajuato region </li></ul><ul><li>The silver and gold whose circulation helped facilitate the economic and social revolutions in the Low Countries, France and England and other parts of Europe helped stifle them in Spain </li></ul>
<ul><li>Before the European contact At the time of the European discovery of most of the islands of the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish conquest… The Spanish, who came seeking wealth, enslaved the native population and rapidly drove them to near-extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain claimed the entire Caribbean </li></ul>
<ul><li>Caribbean countries had money invested in agriculture and lacked any core industrial base </li></ul><ul><li>The “New World” plantations were established in order to fulfill the growing needs of the “Old World” </li></ul><ul><li>The economy of Spain bankrupt several times </li></ul><ul><li>The sugar plantations were built with the intention of exporting the sugar back to Britain which is why the British did not need to stimulate local demand for the sugar with wages. </li></ul><ul><li>The result of this economic exploitation was a plantation dependence which saw the Caribbean nations possessing a large quantity of unskilled workers capable of performing agricultural tasks and not much else. </li></ul>