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WETLAND FORESTS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: The Endangered Ecosystems
 

WETLAND FORESTS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: The Endangered Ecosystems

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By Mr Mahmud Hj Yussof, Deputy Director of Forestry, Brunei

By Mr Mahmud Hj Yussof, Deputy Director of Forestry, Brunei

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    WETLAND FORESTS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: The Endangered Ecosystems WETLAND FORESTS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: The Endangered Ecosystems Presentation Transcript

    • WETLAND FORESTS INBRUNEI DARUSSALAM:The EndangeredEcosystems INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WETLAND FORESTS 22-23 MARCH 2012 BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN
    • TROPICAL PEATLAND WORLDWIDE ASEAN (estimated): Tropic of Cancer and Capricornin: Cambodia – 50 ha Indonesia – 21 M ha Lao PDR – 20K haSouth America; Malaysia – 2.5 M ha Myanmar – 3.5K haAfrica; The Philippines – 11K haIndia, Singapore – 1 ha Vietnam – 36K haPapua New Guinea; and Brunei – 100K haSoutheast Asia (about 30M ha /60% of the world area) Source: APFP
    • 2008 - MODIS 250m • Peat Swamp ….90,884 ha (19%) • (17% of total land area) • Freshwater ….12,668 ha (3%) • (2% of total land area) • Mangrove ….18,418 ha (4%) • (3% of total land area)
    • HoB in Brunei Darussalam
    • HoB in Brunei Darussalam 58% [1.5% of HoB]Forest types:-•Montane•MixedDipterocarp•Peat Swamp•Old SecondaryForest Forest land uses:- 57.7% •Production HoB]•Secondary/shrub [1.5% ofs/Bush •Protection (water resources) Land Status:- •Conservation •Forest Reserve •Agriculture (Other •State Land development projects) •Private land •Villages
    • Estimated Number Of Tree Species in Brunei Darussalam according to their forest types and habitats (Ashton 2003)Forest Type Estimated No. of Species Percentage Borneo endemismSea shore 25 0Mangrove 33 0Back-Back-mangrove, bank of brackish rivers 50 5White water and rocky river banks 200 35Rivers of the plains, alluvium river banks 200 15Floodplains (freshwater swamp forest, empran) 600 25PSF 200 25Kerangas 300 50MDF, sandy, sandy clay soils 1200 50MDF, clay soils 900 35Upper dipterocarp forest 600 40Lower montane forest 500 45Upper montane forest 100 50 Wetland forests = 1383 of 4908 (30%)
    • ORK EW AM FR Y OL IC Land status P L& E GA Forest Act Forest reserveL Wildlife Act Stateland Land Code By sectoral - agriculture , museum etc.. TCP Master Plan (private land) EIA NFP 1989
    • Peatland Degradation:30% PSF to Agriculture30% PSF to logged / degraded over3M ha – burntASEAN - 12 M ha cleared On- On-going threats (Brunei): - Global warming / increase in ambient temp. – increase rate of decomposition - Frequent Forest fires - Poor natural regeneration - Improper conversion - Infrastructural Development - Loss of water logged - Sand mining
    • ON-GOING TREND OF CONVERSION : -Change in forest ecosystemChange in vegetation composition /plant communitiesChange in forest genetic /erosionReduce / loss of biodiversity / species diversityReduce conservation & ecotourism valuesProne to frequent firesProne to artificial calamities Loss of carbon stock / peat High associated cost – economic damage, health of people Loss of wildland & Culture
    • O NE B OR OF RT HEA NEIB RU Under sustainable forestry management Institutionalization of the status Vital Roles: Projects Economic – plants, fish, ecotourism Ecological & Environmental – reduce flood peak, maintain base flows in rivers, water supply Ethnic - source of livelihood Food security - repository of food
    • 58%[1.5% of HoB]
    • Conservation forests LS Ecotourism paradise IA NT Botanical paradise (wildlife) TEPO Research and Education Environmental asset
    • Prominent biodiversity hotspots
    • Substantial Reductions in Carbon Annual Reductions in GlobalLoss from Improved Forest Management Carbon Emissions that Would Result fromat Scales of a Hectare of Malaysian Adoption of Improved Tropical ForestForest Management Practices Francis E. Putz*, Pieter A. Zuidema, Michelle A. Pinard, Rene G. A. Boot, Jeffrey A. Sayer, Douglas Sheil, Plinio Sist, Elias, Jerome K. Vanclay, 2008
    • 1990 2000 2005 2010 Tonnes Per ha (million tonnes) (million tonnes) (million tonnes) (million tonnes) (2010)Brunei 81 76 74 72 188DarussalamCambodia 609 537 495 464 46Indonesia 16335 15182 14299 13017 138Lao PDR 1186 1133 1106 1074 68Malaysia 2822 3558 3362 3212 157Myanmar 2040 1814 1734 1654 52Philippines 641 655 660 663 87SingaporeThailand 908 881 877 880 46Vietnam 778 927 960 992 72 Carbon stock in living forest biomass (FA02010)
    • Conclusion Wetland forests in the brink of extinction Need multi-sectoral efforts to protect and conserve the ecological island Need to align the policies and promote more adaptive developmentgrowth Establish market for environmental services of the wetland forestse.g. PPP – polluters pays principle / carbon trading mechanism
    • WETLAND FORESTS OF BRUNEI DARUSSALAM GATEWAY TO NEW DISCOVERIES GETAWAY PARADISE ONE OF THE PILARS OF THE ECONOMICGROWTH