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Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei
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Jonathan Davies: Priorities for Research in the Wetland Forests of Brunei

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14 dr jonathan davies

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  • 1. PRIORITIES FOR RESEARCH IN THE WETLAND FORESTS OF BRUNEI Paper presented at:THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WETLAND FORESTS “FORESTS FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVING” 22-23 MARCH 2012, THE RIZQUN INTERNATIONAL HOTEL BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN, BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
  • 2. STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATIONBRIEF OVERVIEW OF EACH WETLAND FOREST TYPERESEARCH PRIORITIESDETAILS ON RESEARCH PRIORITIESGENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS ON RESEARCHACTIVITIES
  • 3. OVERVIEW OF WETLAND FORESTS IN BRUNEI FOUR TYPES OF WETLAND FORESTMANGROVEClassified into 5 typesFRESHWATER SWAMP FORESTUnclassified (only levee and backswamp)PEAT SWAMP FOREST6 major types distinguishedKERAPAH(Develops within waterlogged kerangas areas) Based on Anderson & Marsden (1984)
  • 4. SUMMARY OF AREA OF WETLAND FORESTS IN BRUNEI WETLAND AREA (ha) PERCENTAGE FOREST TYPE OF AREA OF BRUNEI MANGROVE 19,217 3.55 MANGROVE/PEAT 3,343 0.58 SWAMP FOREST TRANSITION PEAT SWAMP 95,410 16.55 FOREST FRESHWATER 12,761 2.22 SWAMP FOREST TOTAL 130,731 22.70 Based mainly on Anderson & Marsden (1984) data
  • 5. MANGROVES: MAINLY TEMBURONG DISTRICT:ALL SUB-TYPES PLUS PSF:MANGROVE TRANSITION
  • 6. SELIRONG ISLAND 1.1: RHIZOPHORA
  • 7. OTHER MANGROVE SUBTYPESNYIREH BUNGA(Xylocarpus granatum) NYPA / DUNGUN Nypa fruticans / Heritiera globosa (Bornean endemic)
  • 8. MANGROVE : PEAT SWAMP FOREST TRANSITIONCOAST INLAND Oncosperma Mixed peat swamp forest Nypa TRANSITION
  • 9. SUGGESTED RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR MANGROVE UPDATED STATUS: INTACT , DISTURBED & CLEARED ECONOMIC VALUATION: esp IMPORTANCE AS FISHAND SHELLFISH BREEDING, FEEDING & NURSERY AREAS (BRUNEIBAY incl. SABAH & SARAWAK?) DISEASES / INFESTATIONS REHABILITATION STRATEGIES: LOGGED AREAS OF RHIZOPHORA: colonisation by fern Acrosthicum inhibits good regeneration of Rhizophora RE-VEGETATION ALONG CLEARED TIDAL CREEKS & SURVEY OF ACID SO4 SOIL DISTRIBUTION (PROBLEM WITH ACID SULPHATE SOILS) Sg DAMUAN (1998): The pH of the soil mean of 2.54
  • 10. DISEASES & INFESTATIONSDEFOLIATION OF RHIZOPHORABRUNEI BAY MARCH 2011
  • 11. DISTURBANCE OF ACID SULPHATE SOILS:OCHRE DEPOSITS IN CLEARED AREA OF MANGROVE ALONG Sg DAMUAN,1998 (CANALISATION)LARGE AREAS OF Rhizophora CLEARED RECENTLY: HOW TO REHABILITATE??
  • 12. ACID SULPHATE SOIL LOCATIONS UNDERLYING MANGROVE AND PEAT GREALISH et al. (2008)
  • 13. DISTURBED ACID SULPHATE SOILS:REHABILITATION / REVEGETATION POSSIBILITIES: Cerbera odollam
  • 14. BRUNEI BAY-WIDE STUDY ON MANGROVE SUPPORT TO COASTAL FISHERIES
  • 15. RIVERINE VEGETATION ZONATION:REHABILITATIONOF CLEAREDAREAS:SUITABLE SPECIES? GLUTA VELUTINA/
  • 16. RESEARCH IN PROPAGATION OF SUITABLE SPECIES Barringtonia conoidea ALL 4 SPP PROMISING CANDIDATES Gluta velutinaMIXED FRESHWATERTIDAL ZONE:BarringtoniaracemosaHorsfieldiairiya
  • 17. FRESHWATER SWAMP FORESTMANY DIFFERENT SUB-TYPESRelated to depth and frequency of flooding,nutrient status of incoming water & type of soil
  • 18. FSF ALONG MAJOR RIVERS FSF dominated by Pternandra corulescens & SyzygiumFSF dominated byVatica umbonata,dry period
  • 19. FSF DOMINATED BY RAMIN,Gonystylus bancanus, TASEKMERIMBUN
  • 20. NUTRIENT-POOR FSF, BUKIT SAWAT
  • 21. SUGGESTED RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR FRESHWATER SWAMP FOREST VEGETATION TYPES IN RELATION TO EDAPHIC AND HYDROLOGICAL FACTORS (Water quality and depth and frequency of flooding, soil type) IMPORTANCE OF FSF AND TRIBUTARIES FOR SPAWNING, FEEDING AND NURSERY AREAS FOR FISHES: e.g. IKAN TAPAH (Wallago leerii) IMPORTANCE OF FRESHWATER FISHES FOR LOCAL PEOPLE REHABILITATION POSSIBILITIES
  • 22. FISHERIES & FRESHWATER SWAMP FORESTWALLAGO LEERII:SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCETHOUGHT TO SPAWN IN TRIBUTARIESOF MAJOR RIVERS
  • 23. CREEK, BELAIT RIVER – LUAGAN LALAK MIGRATION OF FISHES AND USE OF FSF RESOURCES IMPORTANCE OF FISHERIES TO LOCAL PEOPLE
  • 24. REHABILITATION POSSIBILITIES IDENTIFICATION & PROPAGATION OF SUITABLE SPECIESVatica umbonata Calophyllum macrocarpum Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum
  • 25. KERAPAHAREA AND LOCATIONS NOT MAPPED, VEGETATION COMMUNITIES DISTURBED KERAPAH ON SAND RIDGE, LUMUT PIPELINE ROAD
  • 26. PEAT SWAMP FORESTMOST PEATLANDS FOUND IN LOWER BELAIT DISTRICT: SOME SHARED BETWEEN SARAWAK AND BRUNEI
  • 27. MOSTLY OCCUR AS PEAT DOMESLOWERBELAITDISTRICT Anderson and Marsden (1984)
  • 28. PEAT DOMESProfile fromBaram basin VERY FEW STUDIES ON PEAT DOMES IN BRUNEI DEPTH STUDIES Profile from shared peat dome between Baram & Belait rivers
  • 29. Vegetation Communities on PeatSequence of vegetation with peat depth in northwest Borneo(Sarawak & Brunei) Modified from Anderson (1961), shown in Whitmore (1984)
  • 30. PHASIC COMMUNTY 3: THE DIPTEROCARP SHOREAALBIDA (alan bunga) FOREST FORMING PURE STANDS,BELAIT DISTRICT, BRUNEI
  • 31. PHASIC COMMUNITY 6TOP OF HIGHLY DEVELOPEDPEAT DOMES(ONLY ULU MENDARAM INBRUNEI)
  • 32. FSF & PSF OFTEN OCCUR AS MOSAICS WITH OTHER FOREST TYPES
  • 33. SUGGESTED RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR PEAT SWAMP FOREST IN BRUNEI Carbon dynamics of intact and degraded areas (SMART-MIT) Hydrological dynamics Peatlands within whole catchments: effect of upstream activities on downstream peat areas Economic valuation – values taken into account in land use planning Whole dome studies: profiles (depth) & factors controlling vegetation Rehabilitation strategies, including research on propagation of potential reforestation species (UBD, BAP) - Shorea albida
  • 34. Paleaobotanical studies Biodiversity: fish fauna Resource use by people Effects of projected climate change incl. sealevel rise Permanent plots - intact and disturbedareas: Subsidence, succession… Sustainable forestry and agriculture onrehabilitated peatlands: low impact use:multi-cropping?
  • 35. WHOLE DOME STUDIESLOWER BELAIT:TWO COMPLETELY UNDISTURBED
  • 36. UPPER BELAIT VALLEY: INTACT PEAT BLOCKS IN A MOSAIC WITHOTHER UNDISTURBED FOREST TYPES:LINKAGES BETWEEN ECOSYSTEMS & MOVEMENT OF FAUNA(Sg INGEI FAUNAL SURVEY PROJECT)
  • 37. WHAT FACTORS CONTROL TYPE OF VEGETATION ON A DOME? Sarawak data from Tie (pers comm)
  • 38. PALAEOBOTANIC STUDIES:WHAT IS THE VEGETATION SEQUENCE FOR PEAT OVER SAND?ANDERSON & MULLER (1975):BARAM BASIN STUDY OF PEATOVER MANGROVE CLAY
  • 39. RESEARCH ON SHOREA ALBIDA (ALAN) “EXTREME” MAST-FRUITING SPECIES Last mast fruiting not known THREE TYPES OF COMMUNITIES Ided: ALAN BATU ALAN BUNGA PADANG ALAN WORK BY: Sukmaria & Salim (nd) DBH, tree height and crown width were significantly different between all Alan populations The Alan populations appear to be genetically similar Morphological variations did not seem to be related to biochemical or genetic variations
  • 40. BUT: “LOCALISED GREGARIOUS FRUITING” MARCH 2010 WHAT FACTORS CONTROL FLOWERING? WHY LOCALISED FLOWERING? POSSIBLE TO RESTORE LOGGED OVER ALAN BUNGA AREAS?
  • 41. POTENTIAL REFORESTATION SPECIES SHOREA ALBIDA SHOREA PACHYPHYLLA VATICA UMBONATA DRYOBALANOPS RAPPA DYERA POLYPHYLLA OTHERS: COMBRETOCARPUS ROTANDATUS JACKIA ORNATA AGLAIA RUBIGINOSA LITSEA spp
  • 42. SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY & AGRICULTURE ON REHABILITATED PEATLANDSJelutong plantations?(Central Kalimantan) Forestry: Shorea spp., Dryobalanops rappa Crops? Sago? Multi-cropping?: Closed canopy desirable? Jauliainen et al. (2012): CO2 emissions Inevitable in any agricultural development on peat
  • 43. BIODIVERSITYSURVEYS:BLACKWATER FISHDIVERSITY SURVEYS Fishes from blackwater sites, Peninsula MalaysiaPaedocyprisWorld’s smallest vertebrate(Kottelat et al. 2005)
  • 44. HEART OF BORNEO INITIATIVE 95% OF WETLAND FORESTS WITHIN HoB AREA TWO OF HoB BRUNEI OBJECTIVES:• To conserve representative forest and freshwater habitats, aswell as the full range of biological diversity therein; for theenjoyment and benefit of future generations of Bruneians. • To re-establish forest connectivity and the greening of degraded areas, through forest rehabilitation, afforestation, reforestation other rehabilitative means. INTERVENTIONS: BIODIVERSITY SURVEYS Survey of endangered cats in Brunei Survey of amphibians in Brunei Survey of insect biodiversity in Brunei Large mammal survey in the Inter-riverine Zone Survey of fish and aquatic invertebrates in Brunei
  • 45. IMPORTANT ROLE OF MONITORING: FOR PHENOLOGY OF POTENTIAL REFORESTATION SPP.(COLLECTION OF SEEDS & FRUITS): USE OF PERMANENT PLOTS? MONITORING HEALTH OF ECOSYSTEMS RECORDING OCCURRENCE OF SPECIESe.g. PENAGA NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETYBRUNEI NATURE SOCIETY PHNS DATA TO BIRDLIFE: IMPORTANT BIRD AREAS (IBAs)MONITORING HEALTH OF ECOSYSTEMS IDENTIFIES ISSUES WHICH MAY NEED RESEARCH INPUT
  • 46. MONITORING: PERMANENT PLOTS PHENOLOGY OF POTENTIAL REFORESTATION SPECIES: WHEN TO COLLECT SEEDS & FRUITS PEAT: DISTURBED AREAS: SUBSIDENCE MEASURING POLES, SUCCESSIONSET UP IN DIFFERENT VEGETATION COMMUNITIESIN WETLAND FORESTS; e.g. the 6 phasiccommunties on peat domes
  • 47. SUMMARYMAIN TRENDS IN SUGGESTED PRIORITIES:BASE LINE DATA ON FUNCTIONING OF UNDISTURBED ECOSYSTEMS:(INTACT NATURE & ACCESSIBILITY)CARBON DYNAMICSIncluding mangroves and FSF as well as PSFBIODIVERSITY VALUESINTER-LINKAGES OF ECOSYSTEMS AT LOCAL & CATCHMENT LEVELECONOMIC VALUATION & RESOURCE USE BY LOCAL PEOPLERESTORATION & REHABILITATION OF WETLAND FORESTSVEGETATIONAL HISTORY
  • 48. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL WETLAND INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH PLAN FOR WETLAND FORESTS(In collaboration with regional and international institutions: e.g. FRIM,universities) REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION IN RESEARCH:HEART OF BORNEO INITIATIVE; ASEAN (APFP); University to UniversityPartnerships, British High Commission…. REGULAR CONSULTATION WITH RELEVANT GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTINGAND PLANNING AGENCIES DURING LIFE OF PROJECTS INFORMATION PRESENTED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO EASILY FEED INTOGOVERNMENT PLANNING PROCESSES AND TO FULFIL INTERNATIONALOBLIGATIONSCBD: NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGYUNFCC: CARBON ACCOUNTING: EMISSION REDUCTION TARGETS etcLAND USE MASTER PLANS & NATIONAL PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM
  • 49. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION TERIMA KASIH

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