Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Through Mangrove Conservation and Rehabilitation

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By Dr Jurgenne Primavera, the Philippines

By Dr Jurgenne Primavera, the Philippines

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  • 1. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION THROUGH MANGROVE CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION J.H. Primavera ZSL Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation Project Iloilo City, Philippines
  • 2. MARINE HABITATS corals mangroves(13+-15 million ha) seagrasses W. Licuanan
  • 3. MANGROVE SPECIES OF THE PHILIPPINES (Primavera et al, 2004) Family Species FamilyCommon name SpeciesAcanthaceae 1. Acanthus ebracteatus Plumbaginaceae -- 20. Aegialitis annulata 2. A. ilicifolius -- Rhizophoraceae 21. Bruguiera cylindricaAvicenniaceae 3. Avicennia alba Api-api 22. B. exaristata 4. A. officinalis Api-api 23. B. hainesii 5. A. marina Bungalon 24. B. gymnorrhiza 6. A. rumphiana Api-api 25. B. parvifloraBombacaceae 7. Camptostemon philippinensis Gapas gapas 26. B. sexangula 8. C. schultzii -- 27. Ceriops decandra 28. C. tagalCombretaceae 9. Lumnitzera littorea Faban 29. Kandelia candel 10. L. racemosa -- 30. Rhizophora apiculata 11. L. roseac -- 31. R. lamarckiicEuphorbiaceae 12. Excoecaria agallocha Alipata 32. R. mucronataLythraceae 13. Pemphis acidula Bantigi 33. R. stylosa Indo-Malay Rubiaceae Tabigi Philippine 34. Scyphiphora hydrophyllaceaMeliaceae 14. Xylocarpus granatum Archipelago 15. X. moluccensis Sonneratiaceae Tabigi 35. Sonneratia albaMyrsinaceae 16. Aegiceras corniculatum Saging-saging S. caseolaris 36. c 17. A. floridum Tinduktindukan S. gulngai c 37. 38. S. lanceolataMyrtaceae 18. Osbornia octodonta -- 39. S. ovataPalmae 19. Nypa fruticans Nipa Sources: Brown & Fischer, 1920; Arroyo, 1979; Fernando & Pancho, 1980; Tomlinson, 1986; Anon, 1996; Spalding et al., 1997; Yao, 1999; Norman Duke, AIMS, pers. comm. Mangrove Species Diversity (Polidoro et al 2010)
  • 4. USES OFMANGROVES Coastal protection Habitat for wildlife Fisheries products Forestry productsArtwork by Ta Luu
  • 5. (Latief & Hadi,2006)
  • 6. NATURAL BUFFERSCoastal Planning for Disaster Management Seminar – June 30, 2006
  • 7. PHILIPPINE MANGROVE GREENBELT/OTHER LAWS (J.H. Primavera)P.D. 705 (1975) Revised Forestry Code: mangrove strips in islands providing protection from high winds, typhoons shall not be alienatedP.D. 953 (1976) Fishpond/mangrove lease holders required to retain or replant 20-m mangrove strip along rivers, creeksBFD A.O. 2 (1979) Min. 25% of total mangrove forest in given area completely protected as Mangrove Wilderness AreasP.P. 2151 & 2152 Declaration of 4,326 ha mangroves as wilderness areas, 74,767 ha as forest reserves(1981)MNR A.O. 42 (1986) Expansion of mangrove belt in storm surge, typhoon areas: 100 m along shorelines, 50 m along riverbanksDENR A.O. 76 Establishment of buffer zone: 50 m fronting seas/oceans and 20 m along riverbanks;(1987) lessees of FLA ponds required to plant 20-50 m-mangrove stripDENR A.O. 77 Integrated Social Forestry Program (provision of legal tenure incentives for co-(1988) management of forest resources)DENR A.O. 123 Award of 25-yr Community Forestry Management Agreement for small scale(1990) mangrove use, Rhizophora and Nypa plantations, aquasilvicultureDENR A.O. 15 Policies on communal forests, plantations, tenure through Mangrove Stewardship(1990) Contracts; revert abandoned ponds to forest; ban cutting of trees in FLA areas; prohibit conversion of thickly vegetated areasDENR A.O. 3 (1991) Policies and guidelines for Mangrove Stewardship AgreementDENR A.O. 23 Combined 3-yr Mangrove Reforestation Contract and 25-yr Forest Land Management(1993) Agreement into 25-yr FLMA for families (1-10 ha) and communities (10-1,000 ha)
  • 8. Greenbelt: Kung Krabaen, Thailand Photo Vic ManceboPhoto Siri Tookwinas No greenbelt: Philippines
  • 9. MANILA BAY J.H. Primavera
  • 10. June 2011: Roxas Blvd-Manila Bay
  • 11. Roxas Blvd. – September 2011 (J.H. Primavera)
  • 12. HARD STRUCTURES (ENGG) vs SOFT STRUCTURES (GREENBELT)
  • 13. GREENBELT/BUFFER ZONEP.D. 705 (1975) Revised Forestry Code: retention (exclusion from pond development) of 20 m wide mangrove strip along shorelines facing oceans, lakes etc.P.D. 953 (1976) Fishpond/mangrove leaseholders to retain/replant 20 m mangrove strip along rivers, creeksMNR A.O. 42 (1986) Expansion of mangrove belt in storm surge, typhoon areas: 50-100 m along shorelines, 20-50 m along riverbanksDENR A.O. 76 (1987) Establishment of buffer zone: 50 m fronting seas, oceans and 20 m along riverbanksDENR A.O. 76 (1987) Pond leases required to plant 50 m mangrove stripDENR A.O. 16 (1993) Guidelines for buffer zones in protected areas J.H. Primavera
  • 14. What changes climate?Changes in: – Sun’s output – Earth’s orbit – Drifting continents – Volcanic eruptions – Greenhouse gases
  • 15. Sea-level rise over coming centuriesSea-Level Rise, over the coming millennium following 70 years of excess greenhouse gas emissions 1.5 Total sea level rise Sea-level rise (m) 1.0 Ocean Expansion Ice-melt 0.5 Greenhouse gas emissions - Global warming 0.0 200 400 600 800 Peaking in 2050 Time from start (years) IPCC, 2001 IPCC 2001
  • 16. Sea-level trends Vulnerability to flooding (Nicholls & Canezave, 2010)
  • 17. Most Vulnerable Mangroves• low relief islands• lack of rivers• carbonate settings• subsiding areas• microtidal <2 meters,sediment-starved• blocked by coastaldevelopment/ steeptopography J.H. Primavera
  • 18. Semeniuk, 1994 move landward Mangroves can keep up with sea level rise if:- sedimentation rate keeps up with the rate of sea level rise- substrates for retreat available in landward margins mangroves lost (Gilman et al, 2006)
  • 19. MANGROVES TO PONDS (J.H. Primavera)
  • 20. (Duke 1992 ) MANGROVE AREASpalding et al, 2010 - 152,360 sq km (=15.2 million ha) - 123 countries, territoriesGiri et al, 2010 - 137,760 sq km (=13.8 million ha) - 118 countries, territories, <7% protected
  • 21. MANGROVE THREATS (J.H. Primavera)Natural: sealevel change, erosionAnthropogenic: Oil spills, War - Small-scale harvest: fuelwood, fishing poles, - Large-scale conversion: salt beds, rice paddies, aquaculture aquaculture ponds salt beds agriculture • RECOMMENDATIONS • Restore/rehabilitate degraded areas (planned retreat: • CC adaptation) • Protect remaining forests (C sinks: CC mitigation) Oil spills harbors Vietnam War
  • 22. MANGROVES PONDS1918: 450,000 ha 1940: 61,000 ha2003: 240,000 ha 1994: 232,000 haPRESENT MANGROVE: POND RATIO - 1: 1 IDEAL RATIO (Saenger et al 1983) - 4: 1
  • 23. MANGROVE-AQUACULTURE INTEGRATIONMudcrab Culture in Mangrove Pens J.H. Primavera
  • 24. Darwin Harbor, Australia Iriomote, Japan (ISME, 1998)Duke in Tomlinson,1986
  • 25. Misguided planting of bakhaw Rhizophora –WRONG SPECIES/ECOSYSTEM (J.H. Primavera)
  • 26. Correct Species: Avicennia marina (J.H. Primavera) After 3 weeks After 3 mo
  • 27. 50 meters 50 metersJ.H. Primavera WRONG SITE!! Seafront planting – below MSL Machiwa & Hallberg, 1995)
  • 28. 50 meters 50 metersJ.H. Primavera WRONG SITE!! Seafront planting – below MSL Machiwa & Hallberg, 1995)
  • 29. MANGROVE REHABILITATION – SEAFRONT PLANTING VS POND REVERSION (J.H. Primavera) Seafront Planting (<50,000 ha planted) Middle/Lower Intertidal/ Pond Reversion Subtidal (~10% survival) (50,000-80,000 ha abandoned ponds)Supra/ Upper Intertidal (>80% survival) J.H. Primavera
  • 30. Fisheries Code (Rep. Act 8550): Reversion of abandoned, unutilized Tigbauan, and underdeveloped ponds back to mangroves Iloilo, central Philippines1989 1993 2004 2006 J.H. Primavera
  • 31. abandoned big size: direct Wildings pond planting from Abandoned Pond Nabitasan Natl H.S., Leganes, Iloilonatural stand NURSERY small: bagging relay relay relay J.H. Primavera
  • 32. 2009-2012: pond-to-mangrove reversion in collaboraton w/local govt. officials (Leganes, Iloilo)
  • 33. bungalon tabao lipata dungon Photos J.H. Primavera
  • 34. Green Carbon Blue Carbon C SINKS MANGROVES Brown Carbon •0% of global deforestation emissions(Donato et al, 2010) • sequester up to 5x carbon in tropical forest • 0.7% area of tropical forests, but destroyed 3-4x faster •so key to mitigation of CC-GWBlack Carbon • also key to CC-SLR adaptation
  • 35. Mangrove Valuation Total Goods and ServicesCostanza et al. (1997) PhP495,000/ha/yr ($9,900/ha/yr)Spurgeon & Roxburgh (2005) PhP520,000/ha/yr ($10,400/ha/yr) American Samoa (=$104,000/sq km/yr)Sathirathai & Barbier (2001) PhP1.8-17.5 million/ha/yr ($27,000-35,000/ha/yr) Thailand ($2.7-3.5 million/sq km/yr)Wells et al (2006) PhP20-45 million/ha/yr ($200,000-900,000/ha/yr) Individual Goods and ServicesFisheries: Ronnback 1999, 2000 PhP45,000-620,000 ($900-12,400/ha/yr)Wood products (Malaysia) ($11,561/ha/yr)Erosion control: Ruitenbeek 1992 PhP3,000/household/yr ($600/household/yr)Waste disposal: Lal 1990 (Fiji) PhP264,000/ha/yr ($5,280/ha/yr) Cabrera etal, 1998 (Mexico) PhP59,500/ha/yr ($1,190/ha/yr)Coastal protection & waste PhP420,750/ha/yr ($8,414/ha/yr) disposal (Costanza et al 1997)
  • 36. 14 years: from 1996 `discovery` by scientists to Jan. 2010 KII launching
  • 37. AJUY, ILOILO
  • 38. THE AGUSAN MARSH Thank You