CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION THROUGH    MANGROVE CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION                      J.H. Pri...
MARINE HABITATS                                                          corals   mangroves(13+-15 million ha)            ...
MANGROVE SPECIES OF THE PHILIPPINES                          (Primavera et al, 2004)     Family                         Sp...
USES OFMANGROVES    Coastal   protection   Habitat for    wildlife    Fisheries    products    Forestry    productsArtwork...
(Latief & Hadi,2006)
NATURAL BUFFERSCoastal Planning for Disaster Management Seminar – June 30, 2006
PHILIPPINE MANGROVE GREENBELT/OTHER LAWS                                       (J.H. Primavera)P.D. 705 (1975)      Revise...
Greenbelt: Kung                            Krabaen, Thailand                                  Photo Vic ManceboPhoto Siri ...
MANILA BAY             J.H. Primavera
June 2011: Roxas Blvd-Manila Bay
Roxas Blvd. – September 2011       (J.H. Primavera)
HARD STRUCTURES (ENGG) vs    SOFT STRUCTURES       (GREENBELT)
GREENBELT/BUFFER ZONEP.D. 705 (1975) Revised Forestry Code: retention (exclusion from pond       development) of 20 m wide...
What changes       climate?Changes in:  – Sun’s output  – Earth’s orbit  – Drifting continents  – Volcanic eruptions  – Gr...
Sea-level rise over coming centuriesSea-Level Rise, over the coming millennium   following 70 years of excess greenhouse g...
Sea-level trends                    Vulnerability to flooding                   (Nicholls & Canezave, 2010)
Most Vulnerable     Mangroves• low relief islands• lack of rivers• carbonate settings• subsiding areas• microtidal <2 mete...
Semeniuk,            1994                                                            move                                 ...
MANGROVES TO PONDS   (J.H. Primavera)
(Duke 1992 )                      MANGROVE AREASpalding et al, 2010 - 152,360 sq km (=15.2 million ha)                    ...
MANGROVE THREATS (J.H. Primavera)Natural: sealevel change, erosionAnthropogenic: Oil spills, War - Small-scale harvest: fu...
MANGROVES            PONDS1918: 450,000 ha      1940: 61,000 ha2003: 240,000 ha      1994: 232,000 haPRESENT MANGROVE: PON...
MANGROVE-AQUACULTURE INTEGRATIONMudcrab Culture in Mangrove Pens                            J.H. Primavera
Darwin                                            Harbor,                                           Australia             ...
Misguided planting of bakhaw Rhizophora –WRONG SPECIES/ECOSYSTEM (J.H. Primavera)
Correct Species: Avicennia  marina (J.H. Primavera)                    After 3 weeks                   After 3 mo
50 meters                                   50 metersJ.H. Primavera                                WRONG SITE!!           ...
50 meters                                   50 metersJ.H. Primavera                                WRONG SITE!!           ...
MANGROVE REHABILITATION – SEAFRONT                 PLANTING VS POND REVERSION                        (J.H. Primavera)     ...
Fisheries Code (Rep. Act 8550): Reversion of abandoned, unutilized                              Tigbauan,            and u...
abandoned                                big size: direct                                                                 ...
2009-2012: pond-to-mangrove reversion in collaboraton w/local govt. officials  (Leganes, Iloilo)
bungalon                     tabao       lipata     dungon                Photos J.H. Primavera
Green Carbon                                                    Blue Carbon       C SINKS                                 ...
Mangrove Valuation                         Total Goods and ServicesCostanza et al. (1997)             PhP495,000/ha/yr ($9...
14 years: from 1996 `discovery` by scientists to Jan. 2010 KII launching
AJUY, ILOILO
THE AGUSAN MARSH  Thank You
Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Through Mangrove Conservation and Rehabilitation
Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Through Mangrove Conservation and Rehabilitation
Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Through Mangrove Conservation and Rehabilitation
Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Through Mangrove Conservation and Rehabilitation
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Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Through Mangrove Conservation and Rehabilitation

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By Dr Jurgenne Primavera, the Philippines

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Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Through Mangrove Conservation and Rehabilitation

  1. 1. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION THROUGH MANGROVE CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION J.H. Primavera ZSL Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation Project Iloilo City, Philippines
  2. 2. MARINE HABITATS corals mangroves(13+-15 million ha) seagrasses W. Licuanan
  3. 3. MANGROVE SPECIES OF THE PHILIPPINES (Primavera et al, 2004) Family Species FamilyCommon name SpeciesAcanthaceae 1. Acanthus ebracteatus Plumbaginaceae -- 20. Aegialitis annulata 2. A. ilicifolius -- Rhizophoraceae 21. Bruguiera cylindricaAvicenniaceae 3. Avicennia alba Api-api 22. B. exaristata 4. A. officinalis Api-api 23. B. hainesii 5. A. marina Bungalon 24. B. gymnorrhiza 6. A. rumphiana Api-api 25. B. parvifloraBombacaceae 7. Camptostemon philippinensis Gapas gapas 26. B. sexangula 8. C. schultzii -- 27. Ceriops decandra 28. C. tagalCombretaceae 9. Lumnitzera littorea Faban 29. Kandelia candel 10. L. racemosa -- 30. Rhizophora apiculata 11. L. roseac -- 31. R. lamarckiicEuphorbiaceae 12. Excoecaria agallocha Alipata 32. R. mucronataLythraceae 13. Pemphis acidula Bantigi 33. R. stylosa Indo-Malay Rubiaceae Tabigi Philippine 34. Scyphiphora hydrophyllaceaMeliaceae 14. Xylocarpus granatum Archipelago 15. X. moluccensis Sonneratiaceae Tabigi 35. Sonneratia albaMyrsinaceae 16. Aegiceras corniculatum Saging-saging S. caseolaris 36. c 17. A. floridum Tinduktindukan S. gulngai c 37. 38. S. lanceolataMyrtaceae 18. Osbornia octodonta -- 39. S. ovataPalmae 19. Nypa fruticans Nipa Sources: Brown & Fischer, 1920; Arroyo, 1979; Fernando & Pancho, 1980; Tomlinson, 1986; Anon, 1996; Spalding et al., 1997; Yao, 1999; Norman Duke, AIMS, pers. comm. Mangrove Species Diversity (Polidoro et al 2010)
  4. 4. USES OFMANGROVES Coastal protection Habitat for wildlife Fisheries products Forestry productsArtwork by Ta Luu
  5. 5. (Latief & Hadi,2006)
  6. 6. NATURAL BUFFERSCoastal Planning for Disaster Management Seminar – June 30, 2006
  7. 7. PHILIPPINE MANGROVE GREENBELT/OTHER LAWS (J.H. Primavera)P.D. 705 (1975) Revised Forestry Code: mangrove strips in islands providing protection from high winds, typhoons shall not be alienatedP.D. 953 (1976) Fishpond/mangrove lease holders required to retain or replant 20-m mangrove strip along rivers, creeksBFD A.O. 2 (1979) Min. 25% of total mangrove forest in given area completely protected as Mangrove Wilderness AreasP.P. 2151 & 2152 Declaration of 4,326 ha mangroves as wilderness areas, 74,767 ha as forest reserves(1981)MNR A.O. 42 (1986) Expansion of mangrove belt in storm surge, typhoon areas: 100 m along shorelines, 50 m along riverbanksDENR A.O. 76 Establishment of buffer zone: 50 m fronting seas/oceans and 20 m along riverbanks;(1987) lessees of FLA ponds required to plant 20-50 m-mangrove stripDENR A.O. 77 Integrated Social Forestry Program (provision of legal tenure incentives for co-(1988) management of forest resources)DENR A.O. 123 Award of 25-yr Community Forestry Management Agreement for small scale(1990) mangrove use, Rhizophora and Nypa plantations, aquasilvicultureDENR A.O. 15 Policies on communal forests, plantations, tenure through Mangrove Stewardship(1990) Contracts; revert abandoned ponds to forest; ban cutting of trees in FLA areas; prohibit conversion of thickly vegetated areasDENR A.O. 3 (1991) Policies and guidelines for Mangrove Stewardship AgreementDENR A.O. 23 Combined 3-yr Mangrove Reforestation Contract and 25-yr Forest Land Management(1993) Agreement into 25-yr FLMA for families (1-10 ha) and communities (10-1,000 ha)
  8. 8. Greenbelt: Kung Krabaen, Thailand Photo Vic ManceboPhoto Siri Tookwinas No greenbelt: Philippines
  9. 9. MANILA BAY J.H. Primavera
  10. 10. June 2011: Roxas Blvd-Manila Bay
  11. 11. Roxas Blvd. – September 2011 (J.H. Primavera)
  12. 12. HARD STRUCTURES (ENGG) vs SOFT STRUCTURES (GREENBELT)
  13. 13. GREENBELT/BUFFER ZONEP.D. 705 (1975) Revised Forestry Code: retention (exclusion from pond development) of 20 m wide mangrove strip along shorelines facing oceans, lakes etc.P.D. 953 (1976) Fishpond/mangrove leaseholders to retain/replant 20 m mangrove strip along rivers, creeksMNR A.O. 42 (1986) Expansion of mangrove belt in storm surge, typhoon areas: 50-100 m along shorelines, 20-50 m along riverbanksDENR A.O. 76 (1987) Establishment of buffer zone: 50 m fronting seas, oceans and 20 m along riverbanksDENR A.O. 76 (1987) Pond leases required to plant 50 m mangrove stripDENR A.O. 16 (1993) Guidelines for buffer zones in protected areas J.H. Primavera
  14. 14. What changes climate?Changes in: – Sun’s output – Earth’s orbit – Drifting continents – Volcanic eruptions – Greenhouse gases
  15. 15. Sea-level rise over coming centuriesSea-Level Rise, over the coming millennium following 70 years of excess greenhouse gas emissions 1.5 Total sea level rise Sea-level rise (m) 1.0 Ocean Expansion Ice-melt 0.5 Greenhouse gas emissions - Global warming 0.0 200 400 600 800 Peaking in 2050 Time from start (years) IPCC, 2001 IPCC 2001
  16. 16. Sea-level trends Vulnerability to flooding (Nicholls & Canezave, 2010)
  17. 17. Most Vulnerable Mangroves• low relief islands• lack of rivers• carbonate settings• subsiding areas• microtidal <2 meters,sediment-starved• blocked by coastaldevelopment/ steeptopography J.H. Primavera
  18. 18. Semeniuk, 1994 move landward Mangroves can keep up with sea level rise if:- sedimentation rate keeps up with the rate of sea level rise- substrates for retreat available in landward margins mangroves lost (Gilman et al, 2006)
  19. 19. MANGROVES TO PONDS (J.H. Primavera)
  20. 20. (Duke 1992 ) MANGROVE AREASpalding et al, 2010 - 152,360 sq km (=15.2 million ha) - 123 countries, territoriesGiri et al, 2010 - 137,760 sq km (=13.8 million ha) - 118 countries, territories, <7% protected
  21. 21. MANGROVE THREATS (J.H. Primavera)Natural: sealevel change, erosionAnthropogenic: Oil spills, War - Small-scale harvest: fuelwood, fishing poles, - Large-scale conversion: salt beds, rice paddies, aquaculture aquaculture ponds salt beds agriculture • RECOMMENDATIONS • Restore/rehabilitate degraded areas (planned retreat: • CC adaptation) • Protect remaining forests (C sinks: CC mitigation) Oil spills harbors Vietnam War
  22. 22. MANGROVES PONDS1918: 450,000 ha 1940: 61,000 ha2003: 240,000 ha 1994: 232,000 haPRESENT MANGROVE: POND RATIO - 1: 1 IDEAL RATIO (Saenger et al 1983) - 4: 1
  23. 23. MANGROVE-AQUACULTURE INTEGRATIONMudcrab Culture in Mangrove Pens J.H. Primavera
  24. 24. Darwin Harbor, Australia Iriomote, Japan (ISME, 1998)Duke in Tomlinson,1986
  25. 25. Misguided planting of bakhaw Rhizophora –WRONG SPECIES/ECOSYSTEM (J.H. Primavera)
  26. 26. Correct Species: Avicennia marina (J.H. Primavera) After 3 weeks After 3 mo
  27. 27. 50 meters 50 metersJ.H. Primavera WRONG SITE!! Seafront planting – below MSL Machiwa & Hallberg, 1995)
  28. 28. 50 meters 50 metersJ.H. Primavera WRONG SITE!! Seafront planting – below MSL Machiwa & Hallberg, 1995)
  29. 29. MANGROVE REHABILITATION – SEAFRONT PLANTING VS POND REVERSION (J.H. Primavera) Seafront Planting (<50,000 ha planted) Middle/Lower Intertidal/ Pond Reversion Subtidal (~10% survival) (50,000-80,000 ha abandoned ponds)Supra/ Upper Intertidal (>80% survival) J.H. Primavera
  30. 30. Fisheries Code (Rep. Act 8550): Reversion of abandoned, unutilized Tigbauan, and underdeveloped ponds back to mangroves Iloilo, central Philippines1989 1993 2004 2006 J.H. Primavera
  31. 31. abandoned big size: direct Wildings pond planting from Abandoned Pond Nabitasan Natl H.S., Leganes, Iloilonatural stand NURSERY small: bagging relay relay relay J.H. Primavera
  32. 32. 2009-2012: pond-to-mangrove reversion in collaboraton w/local govt. officials (Leganes, Iloilo)
  33. 33. bungalon tabao lipata dungon Photos J.H. Primavera
  34. 34. Green Carbon Blue Carbon C SINKS MANGROVES Brown Carbon •0% of global deforestation emissions(Donato et al, 2010) • sequester up to 5x carbon in tropical forest • 0.7% area of tropical forests, but destroyed 3-4x faster •so key to mitigation of CC-GWBlack Carbon • also key to CC-SLR adaptation
  35. 35. Mangrove Valuation Total Goods and ServicesCostanza et al. (1997) PhP495,000/ha/yr ($9,900/ha/yr)Spurgeon & Roxburgh (2005) PhP520,000/ha/yr ($10,400/ha/yr) American Samoa (=$104,000/sq km/yr)Sathirathai & Barbier (2001) PhP1.8-17.5 million/ha/yr ($27,000-35,000/ha/yr) Thailand ($2.7-3.5 million/sq km/yr)Wells et al (2006) PhP20-45 million/ha/yr ($200,000-900,000/ha/yr) Individual Goods and ServicesFisheries: Ronnback 1999, 2000 PhP45,000-620,000 ($900-12,400/ha/yr)Wood products (Malaysia) ($11,561/ha/yr)Erosion control: Ruitenbeek 1992 PhP3,000/household/yr ($600/household/yr)Waste disposal: Lal 1990 (Fiji) PhP264,000/ha/yr ($5,280/ha/yr) Cabrera etal, 1998 (Mexico) PhP59,500/ha/yr ($1,190/ha/yr)Coastal protection & waste PhP420,750/ha/yr ($8,414/ha/yr) disposal (Costanza et al 1997)
  36. 36. 14 years: from 1996 `discovery` by scientists to Jan. 2010 KII launching
  37. 37. AJUY, ILOILO
  38. 38. THE AGUSAN MARSH Thank You
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