Comparative History Robert Wesley Bridger Jr History 141, 71154
Conquering And Settling The West Indian Societies Under Siege From the time Europeans landed in the Americas there had been hostilities between them and the indigenous people. These hostilities only became more evident when the United States began to expand westward of the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean. In 1867 the Federal Government adopted the reservation policy. This policy moved the Indians from their ancestral homeland and onto small areas of land that the government found second rate. The last confrontation with the Native population was at Wounded Knee in December, 1890 when the United States Government massacred 150 and wounded 50 Lakota, most of whom were women and children. Both the United States and Canada pushed aside the Indians during their westward expansion, thou the United States did so with more violence. Its national polices, in addition with the violent predispositions of military leaders, many of whom were Civil War veterans, made them quick to react with force, while Canada's low populations and vast open lands made it easy to avoid conflict.
Conquering And Settling The West Canada Reacts To The United States In 1867, the same year that the Canadian Federation came to existence, the United States purchased Alaska from Russia giving Canada a reason to be nervous of its westward expansion. Canada's primary concern for westward expansion came as a defense, to keep the United States from expanding north into their lands. Instead of doing war with the Indians and forcing them from their land, Canada sent out their mounted police to act as government enforcers, and to show control of the land. This worked out relatively well for Canada and proved not to be too difficult of a task with such a small white population. In 1869 Rupert’s Land and the land belonging to the Hudson Bay Company became part of the Dominion of the Canada pushing west a large portion of its holdings. With this expansion, many tribes began to fear the encroaching Canadians , and in 1869 some native Métis people proclaimed themselves a provisional government.
Conquering And Settling The West Educating For Enfranchisement During the 1880s, after military defeats in both the United States and Canada, Indians began to wait for further enforcement by their new government. Both nations began to send government employees, teachers, and even religious persons to the tribes. Here they would tell them how to live varying from where they would live, what they would do for work, and even their religion. In Canada schools were set up with a Quebec attitude to slowly sway the Indians toward accepting and becoming part of their society. The church would run these schools but backing would come from the government. The most difficult task in this would become finding teachers due to poor wages and distant or remote areas. Of the 15,385 school age Indian children living in one specific district, only half were even on a roster and only have of those on the roster attended the school on a normal basis. In the United States boarding schools became popular. It was there that they would mold the Indian youth, stripping away their culture if possible and send them home in hopes to slowly pull the Indian communities into their society.
Conquering And Settling The West Missionaries And Reformers In the United States there were many reform groups that would look after the Indian wellbeing, such as in the early 1870s the removal of the Nebraska Poncas had raised a cry and set fourth public protest against the government's handling of its Native inhabitants. Many of these reformers had a desire to see the Indians fully adopted into the country as full U.S. citizens, thus destroying their tribal independence. One idea, called allotment, was to bring these Indian families closer to the American political system was to divide up the tribal reservation and give each family a piece of land. This would make them focus more on the individual skills and less on the tribe. This plus education and religion were the focus of adopting them into their culture. Canada, unlike the United States, had little to no reform groups and officials would just debate what they would think to be the best course of action to achieve a goal, all of this with very little influence from their citizens. The tribes of Canada found more luck in pursuing their own desires and influencing the governments decisions on their future than did the Indians of the United States.
Conquering And Settling The West Revitalization And Religious Movements The push to remove the Native Americans way of life and bring them into a new way of life ended up turning many in the opposite direction. They would try to keep cultural pride by continuing their dances, long hair, and even find some new hybrid religious beliefs. This hybrid religion, called the Indian Shaker religion, gave rise in the Puget Sound region and began in 1881 with a prophet named Squsachtun. This was very successful due to it combined both tribal religion with Christian practices. Its focus was to teach the Indians how to live within the new reservations and to survive the changes coming their way. This religion still exist today. The Indians of the plains or mountains were too far away to have heard of the Shaker religion but they did find common faith in the Ghost Dance religion. The religion promoted regular bathing, avoiding alcohol, and not to mourn their dead brothers and sisters because they would return once all the whites had been destroyed. The religion involved days of dance and would cause a hypnosis like state.
Rights Revolutions Both Racial and Sexual These “Rights Revolutions” took place in the 1960’s after the climax of the Cuban missile crisis in 1962. There were two major movements, the civil rights and the women’s rights crusades. These both began as equal rights movements but became something more developed. Both movements had another countries model to go by. For African Americans it was the movements in South Africa, and the nonviolent movement led by Mahatma Gandhi in India. Those who were against racial and sexual segregation had been making it clear that in segregating it’s people, the United States was spoiling its position as a role model for the “Free World”.
Rights Revolutions Resistance to White Supremacy The nonviolent and interracial boycotts, sit ins, and marches led by Baptist minister Martin Luther King Jr. in the 1950s and early 1960s led to huge wins in Congress with civil rights legislation’s in 1964 and 1965. In South Africa the civil rights movements went quiet differently. The Defiance Campaign of 1952-1960, led by the African National Congress, was pushed in the same nonviolent ways yet the government met them with force and violence. Some had been slaughtered, while others imprisoned for as long as 25 years. Even though the desires were the same, and they both tried with the same methods, it was clear that protest in America would prove successful while ones in South Africa would not. Since the end of World War II the United States had been moving closer and closer to equal rights, while South Africa had remained the same.
Rights Revolutions Martin Luther King Jr (1929 –1968) King was a Baptist minister who began his civil rights career early on. In 1955 he began by leading the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Known for being a nonviolent protester who made great leaps in civil rights in America. His famous speech, “I Have a Dream”, was given on his March to Washington in 1963. In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. While planning a "Poor People's Campaign” for jobs and peace in Vietnam, he was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968.
Rights Revolutions Women’s Rights in America. Women’s rights became organized and powerful with the publishing of Betty Friedan’s book The Feminine Mystique in 1963. She brought alight that women were being told from childhood that their only chance for happiness was to be a good housewife and bear children. The source that was primarily used in this struggle was the working middle class women who found constant sexual discrimination at their job. These rights continued to grow at a quick rate until the late 1970s when groups, such as the Pro-Life (anti-abortion), became popular. In the 1990s some backlash happened as the media and American people began to lean towards family values once again. Nevertheless, the Women’s rights had made amazing headway toward equal treatment both in work and in their personal life.
Rights Revolutions Susan Brownell Anthony (1820-1906) Susan B. Anthony was one of the original civil rights and women’s rights activist in the United States. By age 16 she first joined the civil rights movement, and by age 29 she had the position of secretary for the Daughters of Temperance, which pushed her to the public eye. By 1861 she began her first big women’s rights push by creating the first Women’s State Temperance Society. She did this in result from being denied admittance to a previous Temperance Society because of her sex. In 1869, her longtime friend Fredrick Douglass and her found themselves on opposite sides of a debate. Douglass was backing the 15 th Amendment which would grant suffrage to black men but not to women. After the debate Anthony ceased most of her civil rights movements and focused on women’s rights.