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Berger chapter 1






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  • Instruction: Click to start video This presentation introduces the grand theories of human development (psychoanalytic, behaviorist,and cognitive theories), as well as those that are emergent (sociocultural and epigenetic theories).
  • Instruction: Click to reveal each question, then the answer. Please note, this page is available to use with a clicker system.
  • Instruction: Like every other science, developmental studies depend on theories, data, analysis, critical thinking, and sound methodology.
  • Instruction: Eating the same diet will affect individuals in different ways since each person has his or her own genetic vulnerability. That vulnerability, coupled with behaviors related to eating, affects an individual ’s weight and health. Genetic vulnerability does not only apply to nutrition and eating. In a famous developmental study from New Zealand, a variant of the MAOA gene in boys, along with the kind of parental treatment they received, affected the likelihood of some subjects committing a violent crime (Caspi et al., 2002).
  • Instructions Click to start the video about Albert Bandura ’s classical experiment. The video you ’re about to see shows original footage from an experiment conducted by Albert Bandura in the early 1960s. How much of these children ’s behavior is influenced by nature or nurture?
  • Instructions Click to reveal teratogens, their timing, and effects. There may be more than one factor (including genetic vulnerability) involved in teratogenic effects—and more than one kind of teratogenic damage. We know that tobacco increases the risk of malformation of limbs, the urinary tract, and may affect a baby ’s lungs; untreated, a baby born with syphilis may experience brain and bone damage and eventual death. But, it is often difficult to tell which factor has caused a teratogenic effect. Tragically, between 1957 and 1961, thousands of newly pregnant women in 30 nations took thalidomide, an antinausea drug. Thalidomide disrupts a critical period of development between days 28 and 54. So women who took that medication during that time had newborns with malformed or absent limbs.
  • Instruction: Automatic animation. Up until about 50 years ago, developmental researchers mostly studied children up to about age 18. It is now apparent that adults of all ages, as well as children, are continually affected by one another and by life circumstances.
  • Instructions: Click to play video. As you ’ll see in this video, at any age and life stage, gains can lead to losses and losses can lead to gains. Every change produces unexpected advances or retreats.
  • Instruction: Click to start video.
  • Instructions: Click each concentric circle to reveal details of the ecological model. In the 1970s, Urie Bronfenbrenner identified different levels and systems that interact over the life of an individual. He named this the ecological-systems approach , and then renamed it the bioecological theory toward the end of his life.
  • Instructions: Click to reveal a definition and an illustrative photograph. Unlike genetic differences, social constructions , which are the ideas created for a society , can change (Rothenberg, 2007). But being a member of an ethnic minority group does not mean you have a common cultural experience with all the other members of that group (McLoyd, 2006).
  • Instruction: Animation is automatic here. Researchers in various disciplines see important implications in the discovery of mirror neurons. For instance, social psychologists think mirror neurons help people empathize with one another. Cognitive psychologists suggest that mirror neurons explain newborns ’ ability to imitate what they see (Decety & Meyer, 2008; Iacoboni, 2009).
  • Instruction: Here ’s an example of what the flow chart shows: When one woman’s brain area for balance was destroyed (due to a prescription drug overdose), neuroscientists successfully reprogrammed her brain, which allowed her to move with balance again. But plasticity doesn’t mean that anything is possible, just that change may occur—for better or worse. Keep in mind that every trait within an individual can be altered at any point in the life span. Also remember that change is ongoing, although neither random nor easy.
  • Instruction: Click to reveal an explanation of each step. The scientific community accepts conclusions with replication , which is the repetition of a study, using different participants . So you can think of replication as a sixth step in the scientific method. Although reliance on evidence is intended to eliminate bias, scientists realize that any single study may include unknown distortions: therefore replication, elaboration, and analysis by other scientists are needed.
  • Instructions: Observations may take place in a natural setting, in a laboratory, or in searches of archival data. The purpose for being “unobtrusive” is to avoid influencing the behavior of the people you are watching.
  • Instruction: Click each block and reveal an important aspect of the survey. Elections would be easy to predict if people voted as they told survey takers they would! If we want our survey to accurately describe a population, the sample we survey should be selected randomly from the whole population, not just selected conveniently based on the people we come across.
  • Instruction: Click each colored shape (from left to right) to reveal design elements in an experiment. Participants are divided into two groups matched on important characteristics, especially the behavior that is the study focus.  To make sure the groups do not differ in any way besides the variable being tested, participants are randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group.   The dependent variable , which is the variable that depends on the independent variable.   Special treatment or intervention is given (the independent variable ) to one group (the experimental group).
  • Instruction: Click to begin animation. Cross-sectional studies confound age and cohort effects, so these results look more pessimistic than necessary. Longitudinal studies confound age and historical time, so you can ’t tease out a number of differences related to subjects’ age between testing times. The cross-sectional study makes older folks look less intelligent; but those people were educated in a different era.
  • Instruction: Cross-sequential study will analyze data three ways: First, it will compare groups of the same ages studied at different times; any differences over time between groups who are the same age are probably cohort effects. The second analysis compares people within a group, as they get older; any differences are the result of time (not only age). The third analysis compares differences between the same people as they grow older, but after the cohort effects are taken into account (from the first analysis). Any remaining differences are almost certainly the result of age. You can find the cohort effects by following the diagonals. This is the most time-consuming and complex of research designs, but it yields the best information.
  • Instruction: Click to reveal the answers in the quiz. A correlation indicates that only two variables are related, not that one variable causes the other to occur. For instance, there is a correlation between immigrants in the United States (when compared with native-born in the same ethnic group) and having fewer low-birthweight babies. But the status of “immigrant” alone does not cause a woman to not have a low-birthweight baby. Always remember that correlation is not causation.
  • Instruction: Most institutions of higher education emphasize quantitative data. Sometimes scientists translate qualitative research into quantifiable data; sometimes they use qualitative studies to suggest hypotheses for quantifiable research.
  • Instruction: Most institutions of higher education emphasize quantitative data. Sometimes scientists translate qualitative research into quantifiable data; sometimes they use qualitative studies to suggest hypotheses for quantifiable research.

Berger chapter 1 Berger chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Defining Development 4. Four Characteristics of Development 5. Developmental Study as a Science 6. Cautions from Science 7. Closing Thoughts
  • Introduction [Video: Introduction to Human Development]
  • Developmental Fact or Fiction? Fiction Fact 1. The science of human development is the study of how and why people change as they grow older, as well as how and why they remain the same. 2. An experiment is always the best way to investigate a developmental issue. 3. Developmental psychologists almost never base their research on the study of one group of people over a long period of time. 4. When two variables are correlated, it means that one caused the other.
  • What causes people to change or remain the same over time? science of human development: Seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time. Science
  • Is the question of nature or nurture more about how much rather than which factor? Influences nature : Traits, capacities, limitations each individual inherits genetically from parents (at conception). nurture : All environmental influences that affect development (after conception).
  • Influences [Video: Albert Bandura ’s classical experiment]
  • Radiation Tobacco Alcohol Cocaine What happens when a potentially harmful agent — a teratogen — is introduced at a critical period of prenatal development? Connections Between Change and Time Teratogen Effects Timing Radiation Disrupted development of central nervous system. 8 to 15 weeks most critical Growth and developmental retardation 3 to 8 weeks most critical Microcephaly 3 to 38 weeks Tobacco use by mother Limb malformation 4 to 6 weeks Urinary tract damage Tobacco use by father (second-hand smoke) Low birthweight Late pregnancy Reduction in weight by an average of 2 oz. Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) 3 to 8 weeks most critical Fetal Alcohol Effect 3 to 38 weeks Growth and developmental retardation Craniofacial dysmorphism Cocaine Growth retardation 3 to 8 weeks Small head size Premature birth After 17 weeks Problems with placenta Low birth weight Attention difficulties After birth for several years Emotional regulation critical period : When a particular type of development growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen. sensitive period : When a certain type of development is most likely, although it may still happen later.
  • dynamic-systems theory : A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society. Dynamic Systems Theory How do people interact with other people, and do so continuously over time, each interaction affecting the other?
  • life-span perspective : Study of human development that takes into account all phases of life. How do human characteristics change in every direction to reflect development as multidirectional ? Multidirectional
  • Multidirectional [Video: Making the Most of Life During Adulthood]
  • ecological-systems approach : The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life. How does the ecological-systems approach work? Multicontextual
  • Multicontextual The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. culture People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion. ethnic group A group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance. (Social scientists think race is a misleading concept.) race
  • When monkey sees, why does monkey do? mirror neurons : Cells in an observer ’s brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed that action. Multidisciplinary
  • Brain damage/ injury The brain is plastic, able to reassign neurons Change may occur, some functions may be restored. plasticity : Human traits can be molded (as plastic can be), yet people maintain a certain durability of identity (as plastic does). How plastic (moldable) are the brain and personality ? Plasticity
  • What is the five-step procedure used to answer questions with empirical research and data-based conclusions? scientific method : A way to answer questions using empirical research and data-based conclusions. Raise a question A prediction that can be tested Design and conduct research; gather empirical evidence Support or refute hypothesis Share data, conclusions, alternate explanations Steps of the Scientific Method Develop hypothesis 2 Test hypothesis 3 Curiosity 1 Draw conclusions 4 Report results 5
  • scientific observation : A method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants ’ behavior in a systematic and objective manner. Where do scientific observations take place? Scientific Observation as a Way to Test Hypotheses
  • Information is collected from a large number of people Acquiring valid survey data is not easy Some people lie and some change their minds What happens when a survey is taken? survey : A research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questions, or some other means. Survey answers are influenced by wording and sequence of questions The Survey as a Way to Test Hypotheses Randomly selected Survey
  • How Do You Design an Experiment? Many participants, measured on many characteristics, including the dependent variable (the behavior being studied) Experimental group Special treatment (independent variable) No special treatment Significant change in the dependent variable No change in the variable (predicted outcome) Comparison (or control) group (two equal groups) The Experiment as a Way to Test Hypotheses dependent variable : In an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds. independent variable : In an experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable. (Also called experimental variable.)
  • Does one of these patterns accurately represent intelligence as people age? Cross-Sectional Longitudinal Age T = Score Source: Schale, 1988 cross-sectional research : A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics. longitudinal research : A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed. cohort : A group defined by the shared ages of its members. Studying Change Over Time 65 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 25 32 39 46 55 60 67 74 81 88
  • cross-sequential research : A hybrid research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years (a longitudinal approach). (Also called cohort-sequential research or time-sequential research.) How are cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs combined? Cross-sequential Total time: 16 years, plus double and triple analysis [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] Time 1 Time 1 + 4 years Time 1 + 8 years Time 1 + 12 years Time 1 + 16 years For cohort effects compare groups on the diagonals (same age, different years). Studying Change Over Time 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds 14-year-olds 18-year-olds 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds 14-year-olds 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds
  • correlation : A number between +1.0 and -1.0 that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables, expressed in terms of their likelihood that one variable will (or will not) occur when the other variable does (or does not). How do variables correlate? Quiz on Correlation Two Variables Positive, Negative, or Zero Correlation? Why? (Third Variable) 1. Ice cream sales and murder rate 2. Learning to read and number of baby teeth 3. Sex of adult and their average number of offspring Positive Negative Zero third variable: heat third variable: age no third variable: each child must have a parent of each sex Correlation and Causation
  • How is quantitative and qualitative research used? Quantity and Quality quantitative research : Research data expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales. qualitative research : Research that considers qualities instead of quantities.
  • How do we ensure that research is done ethically? Ethics code of ethics : A set of moral and specific guidelines principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow. Institutional Review Board (IRB) : A group that exists within most educational and medical institutions whose purpose is to ensure that research follows established guidelines and remains ethical.
  • How does science make the study of human development possible? Closing Thoughts