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Housing and Homelessness

Housing and Homelessness



This presentation provides insight on housing and homelessness. ...

This presentation provides insight on housing and homelessness.

Michael Shapcott, Director of Housing and Innovation
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    Housing and Homelessness Housing and Homelessness Presentation Transcript

    • Housing and homelessness Ryerson UniversityJanuary 23 + 24, 2012 Michael ShapcottThe Wellesley Institute
    • TO affordable housing wait list &""""# %$"""# %""""# 0 08 c e2 sin !$"""# 2 3% Up !""""# ""(# ""$# ""!# ""%# ""&# "")# "*"# December 2011: 82,138 households on wait list; 280 housed - 24 year wait
    • “Yes, there are poor people in the world, okay, butpoor people will be with us forever, like it’s been Agree?from the moment of time. I think sometimes youhave to have tough love, not because you hatepeople but because they need the support. Peopleshould get lessons in budgeting, lessons innutrition..., lessons in parenting. Kids have children,okay, who don’t know how to parent... I didn’t tellyou to wear a condom or not wear acondom or how many children, youmade that decision.” Cllr. Mike Del Grande Toronto Budget Chief
    • Toronto - 1970 Below middle Middle income Upper incomeThe Three Cities - David Hulchanski, U of T
    • Toronto - 2005 Below middle Middle income Upper incomeThe Three Cities - David Hulchanski, U of T
    • Inequality / precarious housing is driving poor health Toronto Health Profiles
    • For renters, average market rents areoutpacing renter household incomes
    • Bad housing makes you sick! Homelessness: Increased morbidity Increased premature morality Contextual: Individual / neighbourhood deprivation networks / friends / crime Biological / physical: Chemicals, gases, pollutants Socio-economic: Design (accidents) / crowding Affordability / energyTransportation / income / jobs Mental health: Alarming rates... especially Clinical depression and anxiety Control / meaning Collective efficacy
    • Good housing good for health! Physical and mental health: Better health outcomes / decreased health care utilization Environment / physical infrastructure: New housing, repairs, heating, noise, indoor + outdoor environmental issues, allergens, water + sanitation Community safety: Reduced recidivism among people leaving incarceration Affordability interventions: Income-based housing subsidies
    • TO Council considers plan to kill Feds restrict TO affordable access to TCHC plans housing office mortgagesto sell-off 700+ TO rental affordable vacancy rate homes drops to 2.2% Preventing / TO avg ending market rentshomelessness / jump to housing first $1,041 5,532 Toronto’s vacant rental thousand units in all of high-rise Toronto towers 81% of TO Toronto’s housing stock private rental Rapidly 25 years or ‘universe’ shrinks rising energy / older by 1,353 units utility costs
    • Toronto in 2011: a divided city - in tenure, income 532,585 owners 54% of total 446,850 renters Median income 46% of total 2008: $75,400 Median income Income req’d 2008: $37,800 condo: $69,767 Income req’d AMR: $43,800
    • d pr ivate uali ty anIneq mar kets hou sing each out or r rea singinc Typical two-bedroom apt: $44,920 household income CMHCEntry level condominium:$70,600 household income RBC Economics, August 2011 20% of households have annual income <$18,000 50% of households have annual income <$41,000 MMAH
    • Mosthousing needsinvisible
    • qualityIne
    • “After 20 years of continuous decline, both inequality and poverty rates have increased rapidly in the past 10 years, now reaching levels above the OECD average.” “In the last 10 years, the rich have been getting richer leaving both middle andpoorer income classes behind. The rich inCanada are particularly rich compared to their counterparts in other countries.” OECD (2008), Growing Unequal? : Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries
    • Toronto 1910
    • Starting off moving in one direction...
    • Toronto 1911: Founding ofWellesley Hospital
    • “The health ofToronto mustnecessarilythe healthof itscitizens.”Dr. H.A. Bruce,Lieutenant-Governorof Ontario, 1934
    • “Our survey of Toronto housing reveals... thousands offamilies living in houses which are insanitary,verminous, and grossly overcrowded... Bad houses arenot only a menace: they are active agents of destruction...they destroy happiness, health and life...”“Housing conditions are bad because many families cannotearn enough to pay for decent and healthful dwellings...”“Not only were bad housing conditions discovered, but thepresence of a serious housing shortage was also detected...The community is responsible for provision of satisfactorydwellings for those who are too poor to afford them.” The Bruce Commission, 1934
    • Toronto’s Moss Park neighbourhood
    • Dominion Housing Act - 1935 (1) improvement of housing conditions, and (2) absorb unemployment bystimulation of construction and building industries Home improvement loans Home mortgage assistance Support for rental housing
    • Dominion Housing Act is a ‘comedy of errors’ and‘an act to facilitate the financing of homes for themiddle class who were not in the market.’Dominion Housing Authority is required to providefinancing for rental housing aimed at low-incomehouseholds. ‘I am sure it is not beyond the art ofman to bring this about, even inCanada, even after five years ofdesperate depression.’ Percy Nobbs, Dean of Architecture, McGill University, January, 1936
    • ‘These householders are paying far more rent than they can afford, hence they are underfed, underclothed, unhappy and are, more or less, on the road to destruction as human beings...’ Dean Nobbs, 1936
    • 1939 - Canada goes to war...
    • Vets returning home demanded homes...
    • Post-war housing innovations...* long-term mortgages;ownership assistance* private rental housing formoderate incomes* public housing projectsfor very poor
    • New ‘garden city’ neighbourhood
    • National Housing Act, 1973Good housing at a reasonable cost is asocial right of every citizen of thiscountry... The legislation which I amproposing to the House today is anexpression of the government’s policy,part of a broad plan, to try to make thisright and this objective a reality. Hon. Ron Basford, March 15, 1973 600,000+ affordable homes funded across Canada
    • Ongoing erosion of federal housing investments(Federal housing investments as a percentage of GDP) 1.20% 1.10% 1.00% 0.90% 0.80% 0.70% 0.60% 0.50% 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
    • Affordable housing starts - Canada
    • New housingstarts - Canada
    • “We are used to thinking of affordablehousing as a social and a health issue...”“However, working to find solutions toproblem of affordable housing is also smarteconomic policy. An inadequate supply ofhousing can be a major impediment tobusiness investment and growth...” Ba df bad or for peo eco ple nom - y
    • UN Special Rapporteur, 2009 “Canada has a long and proud history of housing successes, and has been known around the world for its innovative housing solutions. The Special Rapporteur visited and received information about programmes, laws and policies that represent good practices... Canada can also rely on a tremendous range of academic and civil society resources.” !“There has been a significant erosion of housing rights over the past two decades. Canada’s successful social housing programme, which created more than half amillion homes starting in 1973, has been discontinued.
    • Homelessness is bad for business and the federalgovernment does not have a national plan to endhomelessness in Canada.While solutions to homelessness exist and efforts arebeing made by communities to implement solutions...the government has been unable to reduce the totalnumber of homeless...A national plan to end homelessness will clearly setgoals, objectives, metrics and outcomes and providethe proper mechanisms... September 2010
    • Latest federal spending estimates Last year This year Change Assisted $1.722b $1.628b 5% cut housing On-reserve $215m $156m 27% cut Repair $674m $37m 94% cut AHI $452m $16m 97% cut Overall $3.131b $1.907b 39% cut ‘Scheduled termination’
    • Very programs federal government ‘terminating’are same programs that feds said deliver powerful jobs and other economic impact Canada’s Economic Action Plan, Seventh Report to Canadians – January 2011
    • Looking ahead -more federal cuts
    • Four observations:1. Housing insecurity deep / persistent2. Costly to people, communities, economy, government3. Federal housing / homelessness investments eroding4. No comprehensive national plan
    • A proudCanadiantradition John Peters Humphreys
    • Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 25(1) Everyone has the right to a standardof living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family,including food, clothing, housing andmedical care and necessary socialservices, and the right to security in theevent of unemployment, sickness,disability, widowhood, old age or otherlack of livelihood in circumstancesbeyond his control.
    • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Article 111. The States Parties to the present Covenantrecognize the right of everyone to an adequatestandard of living for himself and his family,including adequate food, clothing and housing, andto the continuous improvement of living conditions.The States Parties will take appropriate steps toensure the realization of this right, recognizing tothis effect the essential importance of internationalco-operation based on free consent.
    • www.wellesleyinstitute.comThank you!