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    Ch08 Ch08 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 8 Switching 8.1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Figure 8.1 Switched network A network is a set of connected devices ,Point to point connection, Mesh topology, as the no. of devices and the distance increased, beyond the capacities of the media and equipment, switching is a better solution. 8.2
    • Figure 8.2 Taxonomy of switched networks Each switch stores the whole message and forwards it to the next switch 8.3
    • 8-1 CIRCUIT-SWITCHED NETWORKS A circuit-switched network consists of a set of switches connected by physical links. A connection between two stations is a dedicated path made of one or more links. However, each connection uses only one dedicated channel on each link. Each link is normally divided into n channels by using FDM or TDM. Topics discussed in this section: Three Phases Efficiency Delay Circuit-Switched Technology in Telephone Networks 8.4
    • Figure 8.3 A trivial circuit-switched network 8.5
    • Note A circuit-switched network is made of a set of switches connected by physical links, in which each link is divided into n channels. In circuit switching, the resources need to be reserved during the setup phase; the resources remain dedicated for the entire duration of data transfer until the teardown phase. 8.6
    • Note A circuit-switched takes place at the physical layer. Before starting communication, station make a reservation for resources - channels, switch buffers, SW processing time  Data transferred between the two stations are not packetized(data are a continuous flow. There is no addressing involved during data transfer. Switches route the data based on their FDM(band) & TDM(time slot). 8.7
    • Example 8.1 As a trivial example, let us use a circuit-switched network to connect eight telephones in a small area. Communication is through 4-kHz voice channels. We assume that each link uses FDM to connect a maximum of two voice channels. The bandwidth of each link is then 8 kHz. Figure 8.4 shows the situation. Telephone 1 is connected to telephone 7; 2 to 5; 3 to 8; and 4 to 6. Of course the situation may change when new connections are made. The switch controls the connections. 8.8
    • Figure 8.4 Circuit-switched network used in Example 8.1 8.9
    • Example 8.2 As another example, consider a circuit-switched network that connects computers in two remote offices of a private company. The offices are connected using a T-1 line leased from a communication service provider. There are two 4 × 8 (4 inputs and 8 outputs) switches in this network. For each switch, four output ports are folded into the input ports to allow communication between computers in the same office. Four other output ports allow communication between the two offices. Figure 8.5 shows the situation. 8.10
    • Figure 8.5 Circuit-switched network used in Example 8.2 8.11
    • Three phases ( Circuit switched ) communication in a circuit switching requires 3 phases: 1- connection setup 2- data transfer 3- connection teardown Setup: creating dedicated channels to the switches device A to device M after connection , a channel is exists between I, IV, III acknowledgement signal is moved from M to A in opposite direction Data Transfer : After establishment of the dedicated circuit, data is transferred. Teardown : When one of the parties needs to disconnect, a signal is sent to each switch to release the resources. 8.12
    • Figure 8.6 Delay in a circuit-switched network 8.13
    • Note Switching at the physical layer in the traditional telephone network uses the circuit-switching approach. 8.14
    • 8-2 DATAGRAM NETWORKS In data communications, we need to send messages from one end system to another. If the message is going to pass through a packet-switched network, it needs to be divided into packets of fixed or variable size. The size of the packet is determined by the network and the governing protocol. Datagram are treated at the network layer Topics discussed in this section: Routing Table Efficiency Delay Datagram Networks in the Internet 8.15
    • Note In a packet-switched network, there is no resource reservation; resources are allocated on demand. (First come, first served) Each packet is treated as a separate packet even if it is a part of a group of packets 8.16
    • Figure 8.7 A datagram network with four switches (routers) Router 8.17
    • Figure 8.8 Routing table in a datagram network Since there is no setup or teardown phases, how the packet reaches thir destination Each switch has a routing table, R.T. are dynamic and are updated periodically, each packet has a destination address which is examined by the switch, the routing table is consulted to find the corresponding port through which the packet should be forward. 8.18
    • Note A switch in a datagram network uses a routing table that is based on the destination address. The destination address in the header of a packet in a datagram network remains the same during the entire journey of the packet. 8.19
    • Note Efficiency :it is better than circuit switched network, because resources can be allocated to other packets from other resources if there is a delay before another packet can be sent. Delay is greater than a virtual circuit network, each packet may experience a wait at a switch before it is forward. The delay of the packets is not uniform, because it doesn’t travel through the same switches 8.20
    • Figure 8.9 Delay in a datagram network Total delay= 3 Transmission (3T) + 3 propagation (3t)+w1 + w2 t 8.21
    • Note Switching in the Internet is done by using the datagram approach to packet switching at the network layer. 8.22
    • 8-3 VIRTUAL-CIRCUIT NETWORKS A virtual-circuit network is a cross between a circuitswitched network and a datagram network. It has some characteristics of both.  3 steps : setup, data transfer, and tear down  Resources can be allocated during the setup phase, or on demand as in datagram network. data are packetized , each packet has an address, address has a local jurisdiction( defines what should be the next switch and the channel on which the packet is being carried.  all packet follow the same path established during setup  V.C.N is implemented in the data link layer.  circuit switched implemented in the physical layer. Datagram are implemented at the network layer. 8.23
    • Figure 8.10 Virtual-circuit network The source or destination can be computer , packet switch, bridge, ect. 8.24
    • Addressing A virtual-circuit network has two types of addressing: Global Addressing Source or destination has An address which is unique in the scope of network, it is used to create the virtual-circuit identifier Local Addressing (Virtual – Circuit identifier) It is a small no. that has only switch scope, its used by the frame between two switches. When a frame arrives at a switch, it has a VCI, when it leaves it has a different VCI 8.25
    • Figure 8.11 Virtual-circuit identifier 8.26
    • 3 phases Setup , data transfer, tear down Setup : the source and destination uses their global address to help switches make table entries for the connection, it has two phases: 1- setup request 2- setup acknowledgment Data transfer : to transfer a frame from A to B, all switches have a table entry for this virtual circuit Tear down : the source and destination inform the switches to delete the corresponding entry. 8.27
    • Figure 8.12 Switch and tables in a virtual-circuit network 8.28
    • Figure 8.13 Source-to-destination data transfer in a virtual-circuit network 8.29
    • Figure 8.14 Setup request in a virtual-circuit network Outgoing VCI will be determined during acknowledgment step * Source A sends a setup frame to switch 1 8.30
    • Figure 8.15 Setup acknowledgment in a virtual-circuit network The Ack frame completes the entries in the switching tables The Ack carries the global addresses (S&D) so the switch know which entry in the table is to be completed 8.31
    • Teardown phase: After sending all frames, source A sends a teardown request. Destination B respond with a teardown confirmation frame. All switches delete the corresponding entry from their tables. In virtual-circuit switching, all packets belonging to the same source and destination travel the same path; but the packets may arrive at the destination with different delays if resource allocation is on demand. 8.32
    • Teardown phase: After sending all frames, source A sends a teardown request. Destination B respond with a teardown confirmation frame. All switches delete the corresponding entry from their tables. 8.33
    • Figure 8.16 Delay in a virtual-circuit network 8.34
    • Note Switching at the data link layer in a switched WAN is normally implemented by using virtual-circuit techniques. 8.35
    • 8-4 STRUCTURE OF A SWITCH We use switches in circuit-switched and packetswitched networks. In this section, we discuss the structures of the switches used in each type of network. Topics discussed in this section: Structure of Circuit Switches : it uses 2 technologies 1- space division switch 2- Time division switch. 8.36
    • Note Space division Switch: paths in the circuit are separated from one another spatially. Crossbar switch: it connects n inputs to m outputs in a grid using electronic micro switches ( transistors) at each crosspoint ( ex 1000 I/p to 1000 o/p requires 1000000 switch Which is impractical. Multistage switch : combines crossbar switches in several stages ( multiple paths inside the switch to dectrese the no. of crosspoints. 8.37
    • Figure 8.17 Crossbar switch with three inputs and four outputs 8.38
    • Figure 8.18 Multistage switch 8.39
    • Note N/n(nxk)+k(N/nXN/n)+N/n(kxn) In a three-stage switch, the total number of crosspoints is 2kN + k(N/n)2 which is much smaller than the number of crosspoints in a single-stage switch (N2). 8.40
    • Example 8.3 Design a three-stage, 200 × 200 switch (N = 200) with k = 4 and n = 20. Solution In the first stage we have N/n or 10 crossbars, each of size 20 × 4. In the second stage, we have 4 crossbars, each of size 10 × 10. In the third stage, we have 10 crossbars, each of size 4 × 20. The total number of crosspoints is 2kN + k(N/n)2, or 2000 crosspoints. This is 5 percent of the number of crosspoints in a single-stage switch (200 × 200 = 40,000). 8.41
    • Multistage Drawback Blocking during periods of heavy traffic. Blocking refers to times when one input cannot be connected to an output because there is no path available between them –all possible intermediate switches are occupied Note According to the Clos criterion: condition for nonblocking n = (N/2)1/2 k > 2n – 1 Crosspoints (clos) ≥ 4N [(2N)1/2 – 1] Crosspoints 8.42 = 2kN + k(N/n)2
    • Example 8.4 Redesign the previous three-stage, 200 × 200 switch, using the Clos criteria with a minimum number of crosspoints. Solution We let n = (200/2)1/2, or n = 10. We calculate k = 2n − 1 = 19. In the first stage, we have 200/10, or 20, crossbars, each with 10 × 19 crosspoints. In the second stage, we have 19 crossbars, each with 10 × 10 crosspoints. In the third stage, we have 20 crossbars each with 19 × 10 crosspoints. The total number of crosspoints is 20(10 × 19) + 19(10 × 10) + 20(19 ×10) = 9500. 8.43
    • Time Division Switch Uses time division multiplexing (TDM) inside a switch. It uses the technology of TSI(time-slot interchange) 8.44
    • Figure 8.19 Time-slot interchange Time Division Switch Uses time division multiplexing (TDM) inside a switch. It uses the technology of TSI(time-slot interchange) 8.45
    • Figure 8.20 Time-space-time switch Combination takes the advantages of both( instantaneous & nocrossbar 8.46
    • Figure 8.21 Packet switch components It has 4 components 1-input ports 2- output ports 3- routing processor 4switching fabric 8.47
    • Figure 8.22 Input port Bits are constructed from the received signal , packet is decapsulated from the frame , errors are detected and corrected 8.48
    • Figure 8.23 Output port Outgoing packets are queued, then the packet is encapsulated in a frame , the physical layer functions are applied to the frame to create the signal to be sent on the line Routing processor performs the function of the network layer, the destination address is used to find the address of the next hop and, at the same time, the output port number from which the packet is sent out. 8.49
    • Switching fabrics Outgoing packets are queued, then the packet is encapsulated in a frame , the physical layer functions are applied to the frame to create the signal to be sent on the line Routing processor performs the function of the network layer, the destination address is used to find the address of the next hop and, at the same time, the output port number from which the packet is sent out. 8.50
    • Figure 8.24 A banyan switch 8.51
    • Figure 8.25 Examples of routing in a banyan switch 8.52
    • Figure 8.26 Batcher-banyan switch 8.53