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TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol
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In this presentation, we will discuss in details about the TCP/ IP framework, the backbone of every ebusiness. …

In this presentation, we will discuss in details about the TCP/ IP framework, the backbone of every ebusiness.
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  • 1. Transmission Control Protocol(TCP) / Internet Protocol (IP)
  • 2. Overview of TCP/IP• Oldest networking standard developed for US department’s ARPANET• Most popular network protocol• Allows reasonably efficient and error – free transmission• A file transfer protocol , sends large files uncorrupted across unreliable networks• Compatible with a variety of data link protocols hence popular
  • 3. An Internet F A e 5 1 d fB a 4 2 3 c E b C DA, B, C, D, E, F –host (computers)1, 2, 3, 4, 5 – physical networksa, b, c, d, e, f – routers/gatewaysFor TCP/IP, the same internet appears differently. TCP/IP considers allinterconnected physical networks as one huge network (1+2+3+4+5)
  • 4. TCP/IP and OSI model Data units known as Application ApplicationsApplication NFS TFTP SMTP TELNET SNMP DNS FTP Presentation Message RPL creates Session Transport layer (2protocols) TCP UDP H Segment or user diagram ICMP IP (Supports 4 protocols) Creates Network H layer ARP RARP Datagram Encapsulated Data link layer H Protocols defined by the Frame underlying networks Physical layer Bits
  • 5. NETWORK LAYER• ICMP (Internet control message protocol) - handles error & controls messages• IGMP• ARP (Address resolution protocol) – obtaining the physical address of a mode when the internet address is known• RARP (Reverse address resolution protocol) – allows a host to discover its internet address when it knows only its physical address
  • 6. Internet Protocol (IP) -1• Transmission mechanism used for TCP/IP• Unreliable & connectionless datagram protocol• Assumes the unreliability of the underlying layers & gives best to get a transmission through to its destination• For good quality IP must be paired with a reliable protocol like TCP
  • 7. Internet Protocol (IP) – 2• IP transports data in packets known as datagrams• IP functionality in a limited way is not a weakness• IP provides bare-bone transmission functions ; frees the user to add only those facilities necessary for a given application; allows for maximum efficiency
  • 8. IP Datagram 20-65536 bytes 20-60 bytes (a) Datagram Header Data VER HLEN Service type Total length of theVER – IP Datagram 16 bits 4 bits 4 bits 8 bits (2 byte field)Version Flags Fragmentation Identification 16 bitsHLEN – 3 bits Offset 13 bitsHeader length Time to live Protocol Header checksum 8 bits 8 bits 16 bits Source IP address Destination IP address Option (b) Header
  • 9. IP datagram- 1• Service type : defines how the datagram should be handled; includes bits that define the priority of the datagram; also contains bits that specify type of service the sender desires such as the level of throughput, reliability and delay• Total length : can define up to 65,536 bytes;two byte field.
  • 10. IP datagram- 2• Flags : Bits in the flags deal with fragmentation. (Datagram can/cannot be fragmented; can be the first, middle or last fragment etc.)• Fragmentation offset : A pointer shows the offset of the data in the original datagram• Time to live : This field defines the number of hops a datagram can travel before it is discarded; source host, when it creates the datagram sets this field to an initial value; when the datagram travels through the internet router by router each router decrements this value by 1. If this value becomes 0 before the datagram reaches its final destination, the datagram is discarded. This prevents a datagram from going back & forth between routers
  • 11. Internet address - 1• Protocol : field defines which upper layer protocol data are encapsulated• Source address, destination address : Each field is a four byte(32 bit) Internet address. It identifies the original source & final destination of the datagram respectively.• Options : The field gives more functionality to the IP datagram. It carries field that control routing, timing, management and alignment.
  • 12. Internet address - 2• Addressing : Physical addresses are on NICs. It identifies individual devices. The internet requires an additional addressing constituent : An address that identifies the connection of a host to its network Each internet consists of four bytes (32 bits) defining three fields :I. Class typeII. NetidIII. Hostid
  • 13. Internet address - each internet consists of four bytes (32 bits) defining three fields : 1) Class type 2) Netid varying lengths & depends on the 3) Hostid Class of the addressClass type Netid Hostid
  • 14. Internet classes byte 1 byte 2 byte 3 byte 4 AddressClass A 0 Netid Hostid Hostid Hostid LowestClass B 1 0 Netid HostidClass C 1 1 0 Netid HostidClass D 1 1 1 0 Multicast addressClass E 1 1 1 1 0 Reserved for future use
  • 15. Class range of internet addresses From To Netid Hostid Netid HostidClass A 0 .0.0.0 127 .255 . 255. 255 Netid Hostid Netid HostidClass B 128.0 0.0 127 .255 . 255. 255 Netid Netid HostidClass C 192 . 0.0 . 0 127 .255 . 255. 255 Hostid HostidClass D 224 . 0 . 0 . 0 127 .255 . 255. 255Class E 240 . 0 . 0 . 0 127 .255 . 255. 255
  • 16. Network & hosts addresses in an internet Network 1 C1 C2 C3 G G Gateway R C10 Gateway C6 Router 178 .5.0.0 C3 C4 Network 3 C7 Network 2 C9 C8
  • 17. ARP request/response ARP packetRouteror host ARP packet One of the nodes questions about the HostHos 1 Host 2 Host 3 Host responds physical address of identifying itself a node. IP address it as the right node gives & gives the physical address
  • 18. UDP Datagram Format variable 8 bytes Header Data Source port Destination port address 16 bits Address 16 bits Total length Clocksum 16 bits 16 bits
  • 19. UDP Delivers a datagram IP Host-to-host protocolSource host Destination host
  • 20. Port-to-port addresses 1 3 4 2 p 1 pp 2 pp 3 pp 4 pp pp app p a a apap a a a TCP or UDP TCP or UDP IP IP Data Link Data Link Physical Physical
  • 21. TCP segment Header Data (a) Datagram Source port address Destination port address 16 bits 16 bits Sequence number 32 bits Acknowledge numberHLEN – 32 bits u s p r sHeader length HLEN Reserved r c s s y f l Window size 4 bits 16 bits g k n t n n 16 bits Control checksum Urgent pointer 16 bits 16 bits Options and padding
  • 22. Client/server Paradigm Server Client Server TCP/IP programprogram Result
  • 23. Using TELNET to login User working online New Delhi Calcutta Terminal HostMumbai Hyderabad Banglore Chennai
  • 24. Steps involved in TELNET (remote login) - 1 RemoteTerminal Local host host(Real) TELNET TELNET Client server TCP/IP Standard Standard code code
  • 25. Steps involved in TELNET (remote login) - 21. TELNET client transforms the output from the actual terminal to standard code2. TELNET server in the remote host receives the information in the standard code3. TELNET server will transform the information into character accepted by remote host4. The remote host is pooled into thinking that a terminal is locally connected to it. (in other words a virtual terminal is connected to the local host)
  • 26. FTP User Protocol interface Control connection interpreter Protocol TCP/IP Data interpreter Data Transfer Data connection unit transfer unit Local host Remote hostLocal Remote disk disk
  • 27. Local procedure call C program calling the User application open program Function is used here C program to access a Local disk procedure Local Local Disk host
  • 28. Remote procedure call - 1 C program Calling the Open Function Is used here NFS NFS client Server C program C program to access a disk RPC RPC Client ClientLocal Local RemoteDisk host TCP/IP host Local Disk
  • 29. Remote procedure call - 21. A program issues a call to the NFS client process. NFS client formats the call for the RPC client and passes it.2. RPC client transforms the data to a format called XDR.(external data presentation) & provides the interface with TCP/IP transport mechanisms.
  • 30. Remote procedure call - 33. At the remote host, RPC server retrieves the call translates it out of XDR and passes it to the NFS server.4. NFS server relays the call to the remote disk.5. The remote disk finally responds as if to a call & opens the file to the NFS server. Similar process is followed in the reverse order to work in the opposite way.
  • 31. Electronic Mail User A User B (Sending & Receiving) Interface Interface User User agent agent Spool Mail boxes Mail boxes Spool Alias DatabaseDatabase Alias expansion or diskOr disk expansion Mail transfer Mail transfer Mail transfer Mail transfer agents Agents agents Agents (MTA) (MTA) (MTA) (MTA) Internet
  • 32. SNMP Network 3 Router R3 Manager Router R2 Router R4 Managed (Agent) Router R1 Manager Router R5 Router RNetwork 1 Routers R1 to R4 are Managed Managed (Agent) (Agent)
  • 33. World Wide Web Web server B (Denmark)Web server A (Mumbai)Web server C (Japan) Web server D (Chennai)
  • 34. World wide webRequires A functional architecture A structural architecture A navigational architecture
  • 35. A Functional Architecture<html> WWW.Server Proxy server<head> http://www.datamation.com<title> DATAMATION From &Plugin </title> to the</head><body> internet<hp> newswire</hl><hl> DATAMATIONMagazine </hl><hl> Media kit </hl> LAN HTML documents interpreted by browsers Fire wall
  • 36. A structural architectureD: WWW.Server http://www.datamation.com Newswire Live wire DATAMATION MANAGEMENT Table of contents Feature index Cover story Management Desktops Networks Software Servers
  • 37. Browser architecture• Many commercial browsers exist• These interpret and display a web document. Each of these use the same architecture• Browser has three parts :1. Controller2. Client programs3. Interpreters
  • 39. Static documents• Fixed content documents are created and stored in a server• Client accesses the document, a copy of the document is received• User can use a browsing program to display the document• User cannot change the contents;but the contents can be changed in the server
  • 40. Static documents URL Request for a document Document ResponseClient Server Web document
  • 41. Dynamic documents -1• These do not exist in predefined format• Documents are created by a web server when a browser requests the document• When the request arrives, the web server runs an application program to create the dynamic document• Server then returns the output in response to the browsers request for document
  • 42. Dynamic documents - 2• Contents of document varies as these are created for each request. Time and date are types of dynamic information.• Client can request that the server run a program in UNIX and send the result back
  • 43. Dynamic documents URL Request for a document Document ResponseClient Server
  • 44. Dynamic documents Steps• Client requests for running a program.• Running the program creates document.• Respond
  • 45. Active documentsProduce thedocument D D P Request for a URL document P1 Copy of the program Client Response P1 sent ServerRunning theprogram P1
  • 46. Active documents Steps• Client requests for a copy of the program• Copy of the program is sent by server.• Running the program and creating the document at the client’s end.
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