Training Needs Assessment & Analysis


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Management Training requires Assessment and Analysis which is explained in Effective HR. This presentation explains the significance of ‘needs analyses’ in training. Understand various types of training needs and the processes involved in Training Analysis, know the components of a training Needs Assessment and the methods for collecting data.

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Training Needs Assessment & Analysis

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Effective HR CHAPTER-3 Training needs Assessment & Analysis We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Objectives • After completing this chapter, you should be able to: – Understand the meaning and significance of needs analysis in training – Understand the various types of training needs. – Know the components of a Training Needs Assessment. – Understand the process involved in Training Needs Analysis. – Know the various methods for collecting data for a Training Needs Analysis.
  3. 3. Nature and importance of training needs analysis • Training needs analysis is the breakdown of an identified need to determine its bases and causes as well as the relationship among identified needs. • Needs assessment means the identification and prioritization of training requirements. • Identification of training needs starts with the determination of knowledge, and skills essential for maximum effectiveness in an organization.
  4. 4. Nature and importance of training needs analysis • In the training needs analysis, the causes of failure or non-performance are examined so as to see whether inadequate or inappropriate training was one of the reasons. • Needs analysis is essential because lack of competency is not the only reason for failure. • Training needs analysis is a diagnosis by the organization to know what the learning needs of its employees are.
  5. 5. Nature and importance of training needs analysis • The key elements of an effective training needs analysis include professional trainers doing the analysis, – – – – – – using credible data, following a structured methodology, linking training needs with business objectives, justifying cost to the likely benefits, gaining the commitment of the top management, involving employees and their supervisors and communicating effectively with all those involved.
  6. 6. Classification of training needs • There are different types of training needs. Focusing only on performance deficiency in needs analysis is to restrictive. Democratic needs Diagnostic needs Training needs can be classified into: Analytical needs Compliance needs
  7. 7. Classification of training needs • Democratic needs – are options for training that are preferred, selected or voted for by employees or managers or both. – programs that address these needs are likely to be accepted and desired by organization members. – Therefore democratic needs can be used to build support for training programs.
  8. 8. Classification of training needs • Diagnostic needs – focus on the factors that lead to effective performance and prevent performance problems, rather than emphasizing on existing problems. – Diagnostic needs are identified by studying the different factors that may affect performance. – The goal is to determine how effective performance can be obtained.
  9. 9. Classification of training needs • Analytical needs – identify new and better ways to perform a task. – These needs are generally discovered by intuition, insight or expert consideration. • Compliance needs – are those mandated by law. – This category of needs most often deal with mandated training programs such as safety training, prevention of sexual harassment, training for implementation of reservation policy, etc.
  10. 10. Classification of training needs • Training needs can also be classified as: – Normative needs • a need compared to a standard. – Felt need • why individuals think they want to learn. – Expressed/demanded need • based on the demand & supply gaps of knowledge and skill. – Comparative need • compared to others there is a need. – Anticipated future need • based on projected future demand.
  11. 11. Components of training needs assessment Strategic/organizational analysis Training needs assessment generally involves three components: Task/job needs analysis Person analysis
  12. 12. Components of training needs assessment • Organizational needs analysis – In conducting organizational analysis, the company may consider issues like: • • • • • • • • Increased competition for old and new business. Greater emphasis on efficiency and cost reduction. Increased needs on cooperation among companies. Business strategies of the rival companies. Research and innovation. Merger, acquisition, diversification and expansion. Automation and modernization. Manpower plan on hiring, retrenching and deployment of stall
  13. 13. Components of training needs assessment • Organizational needs analysis – It also includes • a human resource analysis: should translate the organization’s objectives into an accurate estimate of the demand for human resources. • analysis of efficiency indexes: including cost of labor, quantity of output, quality of output, waste and, equipment use and repairs can provide useful information. • an assessment of the organizational climate: Organizational analysis also can address the organization’s performance in the “softer” domains that constitute the corporate culture.
  14. 14. Components of training needs assessment • Task analysis / job needs analysis – The process of collecting information regarding the job, for use in developing training programs, is often referred to as task analysis or job needs analysis. – Task analysis explains what must be done to perform a job or complete a process successfully. – Task analysis means detailed examination of a job role to find out what are the • knowledge, skill, attitude, motives, values and self concept needed in people for superior or effective performance.
  15. 15. Components of training needs assessment • There are four steps involved in task analysis: – Develop a list of task statements – Develop list of task clusters – Develop a list of KSAs (Knowledge, skills and attitude) – Assess the importance of tasks
  16. 16. Components of training needs assessment • Person needs analysis – A person needs analysis identifies gaps between a person’s current capabilities and those identified as necessary or desirable. – Person needs analysis can be either broad or narrow in scope. • The broader approach compares actual performance with the minimum acceptable standards of performance. • The narrower approach compares an evaluation of employee proficiency on each required skill dimension with the proficiency level required for each skill.
  17. 17. Components of training needs assessment • Person needs analysis – Whether the focus is on performance of the job as a whole or on particular aspects of the job, several approaches can be used to identify the training needs of individuals: Output Measures Attitude Survey Self-Assessed Training Needs
  18. 18. Six components analysis of needs • The six component approach is given below: – Context analysis – Participants’ analysis – Work analysis – Content analysis – Suitability analysis – Cost-benefit analysis
  19. 19. Six components analysis of needs • Context analysis – This involves an analysis of the business context or reasons for which the training is desired. The important questions being answered by this analysis are: • Why a training program is seen as the recommended solution to a business problem? • What has been the history of the organization with regard to employee learning interventions? • What are the contextual factors at learning and at practice which hinder or enable practice of the learned competency?
  20. 20. Six components analysis of needs • Participant training – Participant training needs analysis is a critical step in training needs analysis. It is the analysis dealing with potential learners and instructors involved in the process. The important questions being answered by this analysis are: • Who will receive the training and their level of existing knowledge in the subject? • What is their learning style? • Who will conduct the training and their expertise to do so?
  21. 21. Six components analysis of needs • Work analysis – It is an analysis of the tasks being performed. It involves examining activities, tasks, and roles of the job and the competency requirements for effective performance. Work analysis helps in ensuring that a given training method and context are aligned with the relevant job role. Work analysis seeks answers for the below questions: • • • • What is the job under review and what are the main duties? What are the high-level skills required? To what standards are people expected to do the job? Are they currently meeting these standards?
  22. 22. Six components analysis of needs • Content analysis – This involves analysis of documents, manuals, laws or procedures used on the job. It answers the questions about what knowledge or information is used for the successful performance of the job. A content training needs analysis seeks answers for the below questions: • Are there essential building blocks one needs to learn in order to do this job? • Are these building blocks of knowledge laid out in manuals or other documentation? • In what order and how are these building blocks normally taught?
  23. 23. Six components analysis of needs • Suitability analysis – This is the analysis of whether training is the desired solution. Training is one of the several solutions to performance problems. However, it may not always be the best solution. It is important therefore to determine if training is the right solution for a particular organizational problem. Suitability analysis considers the following essential question: • Is non-performance due to a lack of knowledge and skills or are there other reasons?
  24. 24. Six components analysis of needs • Cost-benefit analysis – It is the analysis of the return on investment (ROI) of training. Effective training should result in a return of value to the organization that is greater than the initial investment to produce or administer the training. Cost-benefit training needs analysis tries to find answers to the below questions: • Is it worth the effort to undertake the proposed training? • What will be the return on investment of the proposed training? • Are there any cost-benefit benchmarks for the proposed training?
  25. 25. Process of training needs analysis • A training needs analysis (TNA) is the process of identifying the areas where both individuals and groups in an organization would benefit from training in order to become more effective at achieving their own objectives and the objectives of the organization.
  26. 26. Process of training needs analysis 1. Identifying the objectives of the organization. A TNA involves five basic 2. Appointing a training coordinator. steps: 3. Gathering information about the skills and abilities of the individuals. 4. Analyzing that information. 5. Identifying the gaps & drawing a training plan.
  27. 27. Data collection methods for training needs analysis (TNA) • A Training Needs Analysis (TNA) involves collecting information relevant to training from the concerned organization or department. • The aim is to have clear evidence on which to base the findings and conclusions.
  28. 28. Data collection methods for training needs analysis (TNA) • Typical methods include – reviewing existing documents – individual interview, – work diaries, – observation and listening, – self-assessment, – critical incident analysis, – questionnaires and – analyzing job descriptions.