Determining Information Needs.
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CSF analysis is a method developed to guide businesses in creating and measuring success. It is widely used for technology and architectural planning in enterprise IT. Critical success factors are ...

CSF analysis is a method developed to guide businesses in creating and measuring success. It is widely used for technology and architectural planning in enterprise IT. Critical success factors are those factors which the management of organizations must focus and manage effectively.

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Determining Information Needs. Determining Information Needs. Presentation Transcript

  • I.T. for Management Section2 Chapter 6Determining Information Need
  • Determining Information NeedCritical Success Factor (Overview)CSF analysis is: A method developed at MIT’s Sloan school by John Rockart to guide businesses in creating and measuring success Widely used for technology and architectural planning in enterprise I/T A top-down methodology that is especially suitable for designing systems as opposed to applications A reductionist method for going from an abstract vision to concrete requirements Cont….
  • Determining Information NeedWhat is Critical Success Factor A key area where satisfactory performance isrequired for the organization to achieve its goals A means of identifying the tasks and requirementsneeded for success At the lowest level, CSFs become concreterequirements A means to prioritize requirements Cont….
  • Determining Information NeedWhat is Critical Success Factor Start with a vision: mission statement Develop 5-6 high level goals Develop hierarchy of goals and their successfactors Leads to concrete requirements at the lowest level of decomposition (a single, implementable idea) Along the way, identify the problems being solved and the assumptions being made Cross-reference usage scenarios and problemswith requirements Cont….
  • Determining Information NeedStart with a vision: mission statement Develop 5-6 high level goals Develop hierarchy of goals and their successfactors Leads to concrete requirements at the lowest level of decomposition (a single, implementable idea) Along the way, identify the problems being solved and the assumptions being made Cross-reference usage scenarios and problemswith requirements Cont….
  • Determining Information NeedWhat is analysis?Analysis is process of successively decomposing asystem into its constituent subsystemResults of the Analysis Mission statement Hierarchy of goals and CSFs Lists of requirements, problems, and assumptions Analysis matrices Problems vs. Requirements matrix Usage scenarios vs. Requirements matrix Solid usage scenarios Cont….
  • Determining Information NeedThree prominent methods of analysis ofinformation system are: •Data flow method •Decision Analysis •Object AnalysisSystem study:The system study is a formal process ofgathering every thing relevant from standpointof gathering clarity about the purpose &functioning of a system
  • Determining Information NeedThe System study can be conducted bygathering following:The user requirement document which outlinesthe basic scope,purpose.Any audit reports which can throw light on shortcomings on present systemTracing the workflow involves walking throughthe system to understand how the physical workor service is being delivered & how theassociated information flow is happeningOne to one interview could be part of sameexperience for tracking workflow ……Cont
  • Determining Information NeedInterviews have to be however to be plannedwell getting time from busy executives•Structured Questionnaires Usually in the context of ERP systems andother products organization builds standardchecklist•Inspecting Transaction document and otherreports browsing through an entire years transactiondocument such as invoices ,purchase orders &relevant documents provide a good insight intowhat could happen at an operational level Cont…..
  • Determining Information Need•Many a times mangers & department headstend to describe a system from there pastexperience & as such they may not be aware ofthe details of operational aspects of the system•It could also happen that even operational staffmay be new & there description may beinaccurate•It could so happen that the person concernedmay tend to describe situations which are farfrom near past & therefore tend to forget somesignificant situations which may have happenedin past ,but may occur any time in the future. Cont…..
  • Determining Information NeedIt is therefore always better to insist on a formalreview of old transactions documents andreports.This would give insight on following• The purpose of document• Transaction volume & frequency• Content of document• Codification• Redundant data elements•Matching of output to input•Redundancy•Study of decision processes•Modeling/prototyping•Business events and business use cases Cont…..
  • Determining Information NeedDocumenting the facts gathering thru the systemstudyMany a times an analyst may have done a great jobin collecting large amount of data about system• Some tools used for documenting data are Flow Charts Grid charts Analysis of Questionnaires Decision Trees/Table Data flow diagram(DFD)
  • Determining Information Need Data Flow Diagram(DFD)Data flow diagrams illustrate how data is processedby a system in terms of inputs and outputs.•Each process has a input(i.e dataflow)& aoutput(dataflow)•The process transforms from input to output•The input may come from another process a storeof data or from external entity•The output could go to another process,to anexternal entity or get stored in a data store Cont…..
  • Determining Information Need Data Flow Diagram(DFD)Symbols used are very simple & illustrated below
  • Determining Information NeedThe System Requirement Specification (SRS)A more formal document covering all theabove,along with a description of the overallpurpose of the system and functionality expected,theTechnology considerations ,the acceptance criteria isusually preparedSuch document is called System RequirementSpecification(SRS)There is IEEE standard for preparing SRS documentIt provides template outlining the various aspect of asystem.The SRS is reviewed jointly with the user
  • Determining Information Need End of Chapter 6