SCM (Supply Chain Management): An Overview

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In this presentation, we will share an overview on supply chain management, various aspects of SCM like suppliers, strategies, process tools and supply chain dynamics. We will talk about value chain, outsourcing, vertical integrations, make or buy decisions and virtual corporations.
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SCM (Supply Chain Management): An Overview

  1. 1. Global Supply Chain Management & Outsourced Manufacturing Chapter 1 Supply Chain Management An overview chapter1 1
  2. 2. Supply Chain Management An overviewLearning objectives• Relevance to supply chain management to TQM• Overview of supply chain management .• Suppliers•Supply chain strategies•Managing supply chain• Benchmarking supply chain management•Process tools for supply chain management•supply chain Dynamics chapter1 2
  3. 3. Supply Chain Management An overview Supply Chain Management is one of the key areas withinthe Business Consulting workgroup that helps develop andimplement new supply chain ... The management of a supply chain of goods as a processfrom supplier of raw materials or components to themanufacturer, to the distributor to the wholesale buyer tothe end consumer. ... The management and control of all materials andinformation in the logistics process from acquisition of rawmaterials to delivery to end user. chapter1 3
  4. 4. Supply Chain Management An overview Supply Chain Management is the management of theentire value-added chain, from the supplier to manufacturerright through to the retailer and the final customer Supply Chain Management (SCM) is that set of skills anddisciplines, including those of IT, which shepherd a productfrom its original design to its ultimate delivery to the buyer. is a strategy where buyers and sellers collaborate to bringgreater value to the customer. The Collaboration includesSupply Chain Planning and Supply Chain Executionactivities. chapter1 4
  5. 5. Supply Chain Management An overview The control of the supply of Parts from vendorthrough to customer. There is no fundamentaldifference in principle between Supply ChainManagement and Manufacturing ResourcePlanning. SCM is also used to refer to short cyclemanufacturing, which is the manufacturingelements of Just in Time. Supply chain management looks at the entiresupply chain of a company to optimize the flow ofinformation and materials between internal andexternal suppliers, production, distributors and chapter1 5customers.
  6. 6. Supply Chain Management An overview A supply chain is sequence of suppliersWarehouses operations and retail outlets. In a broadest sense ,a supply chain refers to thewaythe material flows through different operations. A company can identify its supply chain by firstselecting a particular product group or productfamily.then it should trace the flow of material &information from final customers,backwardsthrough distribution system to the manufacture &the to the suppliers chapter1 6
  7. 7. A Supply Chain chapter1 Figure711.1
  8. 8. Supply Chain For Manufacturing OrganizationSupplier ASupplier B Storage MFG Storage Distributor RetailerSupplier C Customer chapter1 8
  9. 9. Supply Chain For Service OrganizationSupplier ASupplier B Storage Distributor CustomerSupplier C chapter1 9
  10. 10. Relevance to supply chain management to TQM All the TQM ,JIT systems ,reengineering andteamwork & delighting the customers depends onthe relationship with suppliers & distributors whoare part of the supply chain.. The idea to build a chain of suppliers that focuson both waste and maximizing value of theultimate customer The firm strive to increase their competitivenessvia product customization, high quality ,costreduction,they place added emphasis on the supplychain chapter1 10
  11. 11. Relevance to supply chain management to TQM The key to effective supply chain managementis to make the suppliers Partnersin the firm ‘sstrategy to satisfy an ever changing market place. Hard pressed to knock out competitors onquality or price ,companies are trying to gain anedge through there ability to deliver the right stuffin the right amount ,at the right time chapter1 11
  12. 12. Overview of supply chain management How inventory is created Inventory is a list for goods and materials, orthose goods and materials themselves, heldavailable in stock by a business. Inventory are held in order to manage and hidefrom the customer the fact that manufacture/supplydelay is longer than delivery delay, and also to easethe effect of imperfections in the manufacturingprocess that lower production efficiencies ifproduction capacity stands idle for lack ofmaterials. chapter1 12
  13. 13. Overview of supply chain management Basic purpose of supply chain management is tocontrol inventory by managing the flow ofmaterials. The reasons for keeping stock All these stock reasons can apply to any owneror product stage. Buffer stock is held in individual workstationsagainst the possibility that the upstreamworkstation may be a little delayed in providing thenext item for processing. chapter1 13
  14. 14. Overview of supply chain management Whilst some processes carry very large bufferstocks, Toyota moved to one (or a few items) andhas now moved to eliminate this stock type. Safety stock is held against process or machinefailure in the hope/belief that the failure can berepaired before the stock runs out. This type ofstock can be eliminated by programmes like TotalProductive Maintenance Overproduction is held because the forecast andthe actual sales did not match. Making to order andJIT eliminates this stock type. chapter1 14
  15. 15. Overview of supply chain management Lot delay stock is held because a part of theprocess is designed to work on a batch basis whilstonly processing items individually. Therefore eachitem of the lot must wait for the whole lot to beprocessed before moving to the next workstation.This can be eliminated by single piece working or alot size of one. Demand fluctuation stock is held whereproduction capacity is unable to flex with demand.Therefore a stock is built in times of lowerutilization to be supplied to customers whendemand exceeds production capacity. chapter1 15
  16. 16. Overview of supply chain management This can be eliminated by increasing theflexibility and capacity of a production line orreduced by moving to item level load balancing. Line balance stock is held because differentsub-processes in a line work at different rates.Therefore stock will accumulate after a fast sub-process or before a large lot size sub-process. Linebalancing will eliminate this stock type. Changeover stock is held after a sub-processthat has a long setup or change-over time. Thisstock is then used while that change-over is chapter1 16
  17. 17. Overview of supply chain management Supply Chain Management encompasses the planningand management of all activities involved in sourcing,procurement, conversion, and logistics managementactivities. Importantly, it also includes coordination andcollaboration with channel partners, which can besuppliers, intermediaries, third-party service providers,and customers. In essence, Supply Chain Managementintegrates supply and demand management within andacross companies. Ttypical Supply chain may involve following stages Customers Retailers Wholesalers Manufactures Components Raw material suppliers chapter1 17
  18. 18. Objectives of supply chain To maximize the overall value generated:The value aSupply chain generates is the difference between whatthe final product is worth to customer and the effort thesupply chain expends in filling the customers request To achieve maximum supply chain profitability:Supply chain profitability is the total profit to be shareda crossed all supply chain stages To reduce the supply chain costs to the maximumpossible level : Supply chain management involves themanagement of flows between and among stages in asupply chain to maximize total profitability. Reduce cycle times. chapter1 18
  19. 19. Activities involved in supply chain Management Four Important activities involved in supplychain management are Purchasing Logistics Warehousing Expediting Manufacturers can deploy vast amounts ofinformation to a wide range of end users at a low costper user. A manufacturer can share information throughout thesupply chain, enabling users around the world to drilldown into mission-critical data and create ad hoc on-line reports quickly and easily. chapter1 19
  20. 20. Activities involved in supply chain Management Standard Components of Supply Chain Management Order Entry, customer orders are processed with thehighest degree of efficiency, with the added flexibility ofcustomer credit checking, make-to-order kits, EDIinterfaces and other advanced features. Billing, automates sophisticated billing functionsthrough integration with Order Entry, Activity-BasedManagement and manually-entered invoices. In addition,recurring invoices are generated according to user-defined billing frequencies. Accounts Receivable, enables you to managecustomers, cash applications and credit functions.Automated capabilities streamline the processes of creditand collections. chapter1 20
  21. 21. Activities involved in supply chain Management Inventory Control, innovative technologies, such ashand-held inventory computers, provide a highlyeffective means for tracking and replenishing supplies. Warehouse, the processes of shipping goods andgenerating requisitions are combined into a singleefficient component, simplifying the picking, packingand shipping of customer orders. With two-wayinterfaces, picking data can be shared with remotewarehouses or hand-held devices. Purchase Order, interfaces with order entry,requisitions and warehousing to automate the generationof purchase orders. High-speed electronic purchasingprocesses eliminate steps and reduce costs. chapter1 21
  22. 22. Activities involved in supply chain Management Invoice Matching, automatically matches invoiceswith purchase orders and receipts using the latestelectronic commerce technology. Purchase ordersgenerated directly from customer orders automaticallytrigger customer invoices upon entry of vendor invoices. Accounts Payable, the system streamlines all payablefunctions, as well as the management and measurementof vendor activity. Sales Analysis, booking information, as well as actualinvoices from Order Entry and Billing Entry, are storedin the system. Multi-dimensional views of sales resultsenable you to identify and respond to changing businesstrends. chapter1 22
  23. 23. Activities involved in supply chain Management Workflow, internal and external resources areinterconnected, empowering all levels of theorganization to accomplish tasks with maximumeffectiveness and efficiency. Cash Ledger, this central repository of all bankingtransactions can be tailored to your companys fiscalpractices. Requisitions, on-line paperless requisitions, whichutilize time-saving templates, take full advantage of webcapabilities to establish efficient vendor relationships. Tax, provides the solution to tax compliance, whateveryour organizations level of complexity. User defined taxtables, coupled with fully supported third-party products,assure you of accurate tax calculations and reporting ofcustomer and vendor transactions. chapter1 23
  24. 24. Activities involved in supply chain Management Work Order, by taking advantage of the systemsbuild-to-order/stock capabilities, companies can fulfillcustomer orders on a timely basis while controllinginventory costs and maximizing production capacity Steps in the Purchasing Cycle 1. Recognize, describe, define the needA. Classification Of Needs1. Type Of Need2. Strategic Or Operational?3. Repetitive Or Non-Repetitive4. Size (quantity; dollars)5. Speed/Timing chapter1 24
  25. 25. Activities involved in supply chain ManagementB. Specification Of Need2. Transmit the need (requisitions)A. standard requisitionsB. traveling requisitionsC. BOM requisition3. Determine sources, investigate, and select supplier/analyze bids4. Prepare and issue the PO5. Follow-up the order (including expediting and de-expediting) Receive and inspect the material (use of receiving report: purchasing, accounting, user, receiving)7. Clearance of the invoice and payment to supplier chapter1 25
  26. 26. Key challenges facing purchase managers today Reducing overheads and cost associated withpurchasing. Reducing cycle time for purchasing Purchasing procurements to desktops andenabling self services Improving procurement practices bysignificantly reducing inefficient buying,redundant processes assisting suppliers to become more responsivein order to meet customers demand Collaborating more effectively with suppliers chapter1 26
  27. 27. Value ChainThe series of value-adding activitiesconnecting a company’s supply side (rawmaterials, inbound logistics and productionprocesses) with its demand side (outboundlogistics, marketing and sales).The process can be mapped via a flow diagramand then re-engineered to increase value orreduce costsIdea developed by Michael Porter to analyzesources of competitive advantageFundamental core concept of business strategy chapter1 27
  28. 28. Value Chain ConceptThe chain consists of a series of activitiesthat create and build value.They culminate in the total value deliveredby an organization.By analyzing stages of a value chain, canredesign internal and external processes toimprove efficiency and effectiveness Improve the value of what you do And/or do it cheaper chapter1 28
  29. 29. Checklist of questions for Value AnalysisIs the item necessary,does it add value?Can it be eliminated?Are there any alternative sources for the item? What are the advantages/disadvantages forpresent arrangements? Can specification be made less stringent?Can two or more parts can be combined?Do employees have suggestions forimprovements? chapter1 29
  30. 30. Outsourcing Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such asproduct design or manufacturing, to a third-partycompany] Outsourcing became part of the business lexiconduring the 1980s. The decision to outsource is often made in theinterest of lowering firm costs, redirecting orconserving energy directed at the competencies of aparticular business, or to make more efficient use oflabor, capital, technology and resources. chapter1 30
  31. 31. Outsourcing Outsourcing involves the transfer of the managementand/or day-to-day execution of an entire businessfunction to an external service provider. The clientorganization and the supplier enter into a contractualagreement that defines the transferred services. Under the agreement the supplier acquires the meansof production in the form of a transfer of people, assetsand other resources from the client. The client agrees to procure the services from thesupplier for the term of the contract. Business segmentstypically outsourced include information technology,human resources, facilities and real estate management,and accounting. chapter1 31
  32. 32. Reasons for Outsourcing Cost savings. The lowering of the overall cost of theservice to the business. This will involve reducing thescope, defining quality levels, re-pricing, re-negotiation, cost re-structuring. Access to lower costeconomies through off shoring called "labor arbitrage"generated by the wage gap between industrialized anddeveloping nations.] Cost restructuring. Operating leverage is a measurethat compares fixed costs to variable costs. Outsourcingchanges the balance of this ratio by offering a movefrom fixed to variable cost and also by making variablecosts more predictable. chapter1 32
  33. 33. Reasons for Outsourcing Improve quality. Achieve a step change in qualitythrough contracting out the service with a new ServiceLevel Agreement. Knowledge. Access to intellectual property and widerexperience and knowledge.] Contract. Services will be provided to a legallybinding contract with financial penalties and legalredress. This is not the case with internal services.[14] Operational expertise. Access to operational bestpractice that would be too difficult or time consuming todevelop in-house. Staffing issues. Access to a larger talent pool and asustainable source of skills. chapter1 33
  34. 34. Reasons for Outsourcing Capacity management. An improved method ofcapacity management of services and technology wherethe risk in providing the excess capacity is borne by thesupplier. Catalyst for change. An organization can use anoutsourcing agreement as a catalyst for major stepchange that can not be achieved alone. The outsourcerbecomes a Change agent in the process. Reduce time to market. The acceleration of thedevelopment or production of a product through theadditional capability brought by the supplier. chapter1 34
  35. 35. Reasons for Outsourcing Co modification. The trend of standardizingbusiness processes, IT Services and application servicesenabling businesses to intelligently buy at the rightprice. Allows a wide range of businesses access toservices previously only available to large corporations. Risk management. An approach to risk managementfor some types of risks is to partner with an outsourcerwho is better able to provide the mitigation.[15] Time zone. A sequential task can be done duringnormal day shift in different time zones - to make itseamlessly available 24x7. Same/similar can be doneon a longer term between earths hemispheres ofsummer/winter chapter1 35
  36. 36. Choosing a Suppliers Strategic ThinkingIdentify what you want to achieve by buying, rather thansimply paying for what suppliers want to sell you.Develop a good understanding of the difference betweena strategic supplier who provides goods, or services thatare essential to your business and non-strategic supplierswho provide low-value supplies e.g. stationery. You willneed to spend much more time researching and selectingstrategic suppliers rather than non-strategic ones. Inorder to select strategic suppliers you should create achecklist which outlines factors which are important toyour business and can include the following information: chapter1 36
  37. 37. Choosing a Suppliers ReliabilityIf you promise your customers they will have their‘goods delivered on time’ but your supplier delivers themlate, letting both you and your customer down this willreflect badly on your company as the customer is likelyto blame your company for being unreliable not thesupplier. QualityThe quality of your supplies needs to be consistent selectsuppliers that operate within the same quality control asyou to ensure that standards are the same. chapter1 37
  38. 38. Choosing a Suppliers Value for moneyChoosing the supplier that is the cheapest is not the bestway to get value for money, as you may have tocompromise on other factors such as reliability andquality. Therefore you will have to strike a balancebetween cost and reliability, quality and service and set abudget on how much you are willing to pay to ensure thatyour suppliers meet your expectations. Service and CommunicationIn order to meet your customer’s needs it is veryimportant that you are able to deliver on time; thereforeyou need your supplier to arrange for your items to arrivewhen you need them, or to be honest and tell you inadvance if they can’t. chapter1 38
  39. 39. Choosing a Suppliers A good supplier will communicate with you regularlyto find out what your needs are and outline how they canserve you better. Financially SecureIt is very important to know that your supplier is in afinancially secure position to deliver what you need andare not going to disappear over night. Carry out creditchecks before you start your business relationship to re-assure you that they will not go bust when you need themmost. Identifying Potential SuppliersOnce you have a clear list of guidelines for choosing yoursupplier, you should then draw up a shortlist of potentialproviders. chapter1 39
  40. 40. Choosing a Suppliers Build up a broad base by asking friends or businessacquaintances that have done business with the supplier,as they will be able to give you an honest assessment oftheir strengths and weaknesses. Choosing your pool of suppliersDepending on your business operations it is worthexamining how many suppliers you may need. In termsof strategic suppliers it can be very dangerous to give allof your business to one company, if that supplier cannotfulfill what is expected of them, this can result in thecompany losing time and money, so it is vital that a poolof suppliers are selected so you have sufficient backup. chapter1 40
  41. 41. Evaluating Sources of supply The vendor analysis is the process of evaluatingthe sources of supply in terms of 1) Price 2) Location 3) Experience 4) Culture 5) Reputation 6) Decision making style chapter1 41
  42. 42. Logistics Logistics is defined as a business planning frameworkfor the management of material, service, information andcapital flows. It includes the increasingly complexinformation, communication and control systemsrequired in todays business environment The process of planning, implementing, andcontrolling the efficient, effective flow and storage ofgoods, services, and related information from point oforigin to point of consumption for the purpose ofconforming to customer requirements. The science of planning, organizing and managingactivities that provide goods or services chapter1 42
  43. 43. Warehousing Warehousing is the management of materials while theyare in storage It includes storing,dispersing,ordering & accounting forall materials and finished goods from beginning to end ofthe production process. Warehousing deals with materials that direct supportoperations. Contemporary development in warehousing Bar coding Electronic data interchange Distribution Requirement planning JIT deliveries chapter1 43
  44. 44. Supply-Chain StrategiesNegotiating with many suppliersLong-term partnering with fewsuppliersVertical integrationKeiretsuVirtual companies that use supplierson an as needed basis chapter1 44
  45. 45. Many SuppliersCommonly used for commodityproductsPurchasing is typically based on priceSuppliers are pitted against one anotherSupplier is responsible for technology,expertise, forecasting, cost, quality, anddelivery chapter1 45
  46. 46. Few SuppliersBuyer forms longer term relationshipswith fewer suppliersCreate value through economies of scaleand learning curve improvementsSuppliers more willing to participate in JITprograms and contribute design andtechnological expertiseCost of changing suppliers is huge chapter1 46
  47. 47. Vertical IntegrationVertical Integration Examples of Vertical IntegrationRaw material Iron ore Silicon Farming(suppliers)Backward integration SteelCurrent transformation Automobiles Integrated circuits Flour milling DistributionForward integration Circuit boards systemsFinished goods Computers Watches(customers) Dealers Baked goods Calculators chapter1 Figure 11.2 47
  48. 48. Vertical IntegrationDeveloping the ability to produce goods or servicepreviously purchasedIntegration may be forward, towards the customer,or backward, towards suppliersCan improve cost, quality, and inventory butrequires capital, managerial skills, and demandRisky in industries with rapid technological change chapter1 48
  49. 49. Keiretsu NetworksA middle ground between few suppliers andvertical integrationSupplier becomes part of the company coalitionOften provide financial support for suppliersthrough ownership or loansMembers expect long-term relationships andprovide technical expertise and stable deliveriesMay extend through several levels of the supplychain chapter1 49
  50. 50. Virtual CompaniesRely on a variety of supplier relationships toprovide services on demandFluid organizational boundaries that allow thecreation of unique enterprises to meet changingmarket demandsExceptionally lean performance, low capitalinvestment, flexibility, and speed chapter1 50
  51. 51. Managing the Supply ChainThere are significant management issues incontrolling a supply chain involving manyindependent organizations Mutual agreement on goals Trust Compatible organizational cultures chapter1 51
  52. 52. Issues in an Integrated Supply Chain Local optimization - focusing on local profit or cost minimization based on limited knowledge Incentives (sales incentives, quantity discounts, quotas, and promotions) - push merchandise prior to sale Large lots - low unit cost but do not reflect sales Bullwhip effect - stable demand becomes lumpy orders through the supply chain chapter1 52
  53. 53. Opportunities in an Integrated Supply Chain Lot size reduction Single stage control of replenishment Vendor managed inventory Postponement chapter1 53
  54. 54. Opportunities in an Integrated Supply Chain Channel assembly Drop shipping and special packaging Blanket orders Standardization Electronic ordering and funds transfer chapter1 54
  55. 55. Benchmarking Supply-Chain Management Benchmark Typical Firms FirmsAdministrative costs as a percent of 3.3% .8%purchasesLead time (weeks) 15 8Time spent placing an order 42 minutes 15 minutesPercentage of late deliveries 33% 2%Percentage of rejected material 1.5% .0001%Number of shortages per year 400 4 chapter1 Table 11.655
  56. 56. Make-or-Buy Decisions Reasons for Making1. Maintain core competence2. Lower production cost3. Unsuitable suppliers4. Assure adequate supply (quantity or delivery)5. Utilize surplus labor or facilities6. Obtain desired quality7. Remove supplier collusion8. Obtain unique item that would entail a prohibitive commitment for a supplier9. Protect personnel from a layoff10. Protect proprietary design or quality11. Increase or maintain size of company chapter1 56 Table 11.4
  57. 57. Make-or-Buy Decisions Reasons for Buying1. Frees management to deal with its primary business2. Lower acquisition cost3. Preserve supplier commitment4. Obtain technical or management ability5. Inadequate capacity6. Reduce inventory costs7. Ensure alternative sources8. Inadequate managerial or technical resources9. Reciprocity10. Item is protected by a patent or trade secret chapter1 57 Table 11.4
  58. 58. Supply Chain DynamicsThree key points about supply chain dynamics are:The supply chain is highly interactivesystem.Decision in each part affect others There is accelerated effect of demand changes.Upstream elements must be careful not tooverreact to inflated orders The best way to improve the supply chain is toreduce the total replenishment time & to feedbackactual demand information at all levels chapter1 58
  59. 59. Virtual supply chain Internet PurchasingFour Common Variations Internet used to communicate order releases against blanket purchase orders Internet replaces other forms of electronic order releases chapter1 59
  60. 60. Virtual supply chain Internet PurchasingFour Common Variations Internet used to buy non- standard items from catalogs Long-term master agreements in place Reduces order lead-time and purchasing costs chapter1 60
  61. 61. Virtual supply chain Internet PurchasingFour Common Variations Traditional purchasing system, but Internet-based Significantly speeds up requisitioning, bidding, supplier selection, and order placement chapter1 61
  62. 62. Virtual supply chain Internet PurchasingFour Common Variations Internet auctions May be used for commodity items for which long-term contracts do not exist chapter1 62
  63. 63. Virtual supply chainIndividual initiates Purchasing requisition department/buyer SupplierPrepares requisition Buyer reviews Receives requisition electronic purchase order Inputs request into Enters data into computer system Internet system Ships good; and transmits to receives purchasing electronic department Assigns suppliers payment to bid; gives closing dates and conditions Collects/reviews bids submitted electronically Selects a supplier based on quality, cost, delivery performance; issues purchase order chapter1 63
  64. 64. Virtual CorporationAs information and communications technologies overcome the constraints of time and distance, it becomes possible to create virtual organizations. Virtual is usually taken to be something that does not exist in reality. So a typical definition of a virtual corporation (taking the dimension of time) is:"a temporary network of independent companies linked by IT to share skills, costs, and access to one anothers markets" (Business Week) However, another definition relates to an organization not having a clear physical locus. Here a typical definition is: chapter1 64
  65. 65. Virtual Corporation"an organization distributed geographically and whose work is coordinated through electronic communications."Both definitions show how information and communications technologies can be used to exploit the dimensions of time and space.A virtual corporation is a specific example of a networked organization. Many smaller companies are now realizing the benefits of being part of a virtual corporation, which can give them the benefits of the resources of a large organization while retaining the agility and independence of a small one. chapter1 65
  66. 66. Virtual CorporationBenefits Gives access to a wide range of specialized resources Can present a unified face to large corporate buyers Individual members retain their independence and continue to develop their niche skills They can reshape and change members according to the project or task in hand There is no need to worry ponderously about "divorce settlements" as in formal joint ventures. chapter1 66
  67. 67. Virtual CorporationThe complexity of Supply Chain management has resulted in increased risk to many corporations. There is a growing body of evidence with numerous examples of instances where Supply Chain related issues had a significant negative impact on corporate profits.Virtual Corporation Supply Chain Risk Management Team has the expertise to provide offerings including risk assessments, mitigation strategies, and the incorporation of supply chain risk impact / probability factors into an overall business continuity plan. Virtual Corporations effective supply chain risk management provides clients with affordable, effective, solutions to avert or mitigate losses that can impact their revenue stream. chapter1 67
  68. 68. Virtual CorporationVictuals Supply Chain and Risk Assessment practice provides a wide range of consulting expertise to any size enterprise. Services available include: Physical asset risk assessments Snapshot risk mapping of supply chain flows from upstream suppliers to client Detailed supply chain flow charts identifying gaps in protection strategy Probabilistic computer modeling of supply chain exposures chapter1 68
  69. 69. Virtual CorporationQuantitative computer supply chain modelingDocumenting supply chain exposures for Sarbanes-OxleyComplianceCooperation with regulatory agencies with regard toidentifying risksAnalysis of mitigation solutions for reducing supply chaininterruptionsSustainable business continuity plans incorporating riskmanagement, security, other key risk issues chapter1 69
  70. 70. Supply Chain Management An overview End Of Chapter 1 chapter1 70
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