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Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
Personality: Meaning & Determinants
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Personality: Meaning & Determinants

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In this presentation, we will understand the meaning, determinants and types of human personality and its effect and impact on behavior. We will also discuss about Levinson’s Theory of Adult Stage, …

In this presentation, we will understand the meaning, determinants and types of human personality and its effect and impact on behavior. We will also discuss about Levinson’s Theory of Adult Stage, Hall’s Career Stage Model, Argyris Immaturity to Maturity Theory and the socialization process.
To know more about Welingkar School’s Distance Learning Program and courses offered, visit:
http://www.welingkaronline.org/distance-learning/online-mba.html

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  • 1. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and DeterminantsIn This Module We Shall Understand theMeaning of Personality and Its Effects onHuman Behavior.We Shall Examine the Following:•Definitions of Personality•Determinants of Personality•Awareness and Johari Windows•Type A Personality•Personality Formation & Socialization
  • 2. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinants Definition of Personality Salvador Maddi defined Personality as:“ A stable set of characteristics and tendencies, that determine those commonalities and differences in psychological behavior (thoughts, feelings & actions) of people that have continuity in time and they may not be understood as the sole result and biological pressures of the moment”
  • 3. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and DeterminantsThe definition highlights the following:1. Characteristics are fairly stable.2. These characteristics give rise to a consistent pattern of behavior.
  • 4. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinants The other facet of the definition is presence of some commonalities and differences among individuals. Every human being is, in some respects:a) Unique – is unlike othersb) Like some peoplec) Like all other people
  • 5. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinants Psychologists have tried to define or understand Personality with reference to:a) Traits – personal characteristics or virtues.b) Types – based on behavior.
  • 6. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinantsa) Traits Psychometric Theories: The most famous theory is that of Cattell, who isolated 171 traits, which he narrowed down to 16 primary traits. (refer Course Material for the 16 Traits)
  • 7. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinants In 1990, Digman extracted five basic traits, which is known as the Big Five Model of Personality Traits. The Big Five comprise of:1. Extraversion2. Agreeableness3. Conscientiousness4. Emotional Stability5. Openness to Experience (refer to Course Material for details)
  • 8. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinants Determinants of Personalitya) Heredity- Genetic sourceb) Environment – Surroundings, Culturec) Situation – Day-to-Day events repeatedd) Locus of Control – the perception of the individual whether he feels in charge of a situation (Internal) or not (External)
  • 9. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinantsb) Types of Personality Two types of Personality: Type A & Type B are defined. i) Type A refers to behavior that is restless, impatient, achievement oriented, perfectionist. ii) Type B refers to behavior that is relaxed, sociable with a balanced view towards life
  • 10. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and DeterminantsSelf AwarenessTo be aware of one’s traits, behaviors, etc. is essential for corrections and changes with meaningfulness. It increases one’s personal effectiveness.One of the models used for self awareness is Johari Windows (refer to figure in Course Material) It addresses two dimensions of information exchange:a) Information about oneself known/unknown to oneselfb) Information about oneself known/unknown to others Four scenarios emerge: i) Arena – One’s behavior known to self and also to others ii) Blind – One’s behavior unknown to oneself but known to others. iii) Closed – One’s behavior known to oneself but unknown to others. iv) Dark – One’s behavior unknown to self and to others (unmanifested behavior)
  • 11. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and DeterminantsJohari Windows for self awarenessa) Self disclosure thereby reducing Closed window and increasing the Arenab) Accepting feedback from others and opening up Closed Window Thus, self disclosure and feedback serve as behaviors that increase Arena of oneself.
  • 12. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinants Stages in Personality formation Personality is said to be formed in stages. With changes in age, marital & social status, career moves, etc. one is subjected to transitions in behaviors to adapt to the newer roles one needs to play. We are discussing three Models of Personality formation:a) Levinson’s Theory of Adult Life Stageb) Hall’s Career Stage Modelc) Argyris’ Immaturity to Maturity Theory
  • 13. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinantsa) Levinson’s Theory of Adult Life Stage Daniel Levinson believed that personality progresses with age in four stages:1) Twenty-two to twenty-eight (during which adult stage gets formed)2) Thirty-three to forty (during which settling down occurs)3) Forty-five to fifty ( during which middle adulthood occurs)4) Fifty-five to sixty (during which old age occurs)
  • 14. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinantsb) Hall’s Career Stage Model In this model goes through four stages during his career:1) Exploration- identity seeking, unstable, trail-and-error…2) Establishment- settling down, stability, productivity increase…3) Maintenance- peak productivity, contributing to others, mentoring…4) Decline- productivity decline, self evaluation.
  • 15. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinantsc) Argyris’ Immaturity to Maturity Theory Chris Argyris proposed seven dimensions to the development of Personality (refer to table in the course material) He proposed that instead of in stages, personality develops along a continuum like the development from infant to adult from immaturity to maturity. He also pointed out that not everyone exhibits all the seven characteristics on reaching “maturity”
  • 16. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and DeterminantsThe Socialization ProcessHuman beings get affected by their surroundings, whichimpacts their personality formation and development.Termed as Socialization, it is a continuous processoccurring throughout one’s lifetime.Edgar Schein focused on the Socialization process in theorganization and pointed out that organizationalsocialization has a major impact on the employee behavior.Through Socialization, employees get adapted to theorganization and create comfort zones and harmony, thusreducing conflicts and increasing effectiveness.
  • 17. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinants The Socialization Process…. The following steps assist in employee socialization:• Induction & Orientation• Training & Development• Objective and Goal setting and feedback• Team working
  • 18. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and DeterminantsMatching Personalities with JobsJohn Holland proposed the Personality-Job fit Theory which establishes a relationship between personality, job requirements, and performance.It states that the job satisfaction is determined by the extent to which Personality matches with work environment and job needs.It was observed that when an individual personality and the job matches there is bound to be job satisfaction.
  • 19. Chapter3 Personality It’s Meaning and Determinants Summary• We studied Trait theory and Type theory of Personality• Awareness of oneself and one’s behavior is vital to development• Personality gets formed in stages and changes occur in a continuum.• Socialization process impacts the Personality and organizations need to create work conditions that encourage socialization.• People experience job satisfaction when they perform tasks that are matching their personality.
  • 20. “Like” us on Facebook:  p // /http://www.facebook.com/welearnindia “Follow” us on Twitter:http://twitter.com/WeLearnIndiahttp://twitter com/WeLearnIndiaWatch informative videos on Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/WelingkarDLP

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