Dancing through Complexity
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The series of slides on Dancing through Complexity discusses three different individuals using the integrative thinking successfully in their respective careers. The stories of Martha Graham, Tim ...

The series of slides on Dancing through Complexity discusses three different individuals using the integrative thinking successfully in their respective careers. The stories of Martha Graham, Tim Brown and Moses Znaimer are presented in this slideshare by Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division.

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Dancing through Complexity Dancing through Complexity Presentation Transcript

  • Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The Integrative Media CHAPTER-4 Dancing through Complexity We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  • Introduction • Here we look at the integrative thinking approach taken by Martha Graham to bring back the artistic form of expression through Dance. • Martha Graham joined The Denishawn School Dance Company of Los Angeles in 1916. It was a time of great artistic turmoil.
  • Introduction • Dance, like painting and literature, was casting off the rigid conventions of the nineteenth century, and a handful of mavericks were pioneering the style that would come to be known as modernism. • Graham dedicated her-self to the cause and began gaining recognition in the next few years.
  • Introduction • Martha changed the dance scenario from traditional to contemporary right from the choreography to the way the dance sets were designed. • She brought more emotion and flavuor in the dances. • Working closely with Lewis Horst, a composer she met at Denishawn, Graham made music integral to the dance it accompanied. • She continued that practice throughout her career.
  • Introduction • Martha combined various elements of dancing rather than using independent specialists for each aspect. • In doing so she revolutionized an art form. • Graham's dancers were able to interact with their stage environment, often holding or touching props. • This was unprecedented in performance dance.
  • Introduction • For Graham, composition, choreography, costume s, and sets were all part of an interdependent, integrated whole. • In a sharp conventional dance practice, she explicitly considered while working on every element of the production.
  • Simple Comforts • As a part of normal human behavior not just in business, people prefer straight-forward thinking and decisions. • Conventional thinkers fall prey to the rule of 80-20.
  • Simple Comforts • The rule states that for 20 percent of the maximum effort, we can get 80 percent of the ideal result. • Applied to the cognitive domain, the rule says that 20 percent of the maximum mental effort will yield 80 percent of the perfect answer.
  • Simple Comforts • Further, the rule suggests that only an obsessive or pathological perfectionist would invest 80 percent more effort in the hope of reaching an answer would at best be only 20 percent better, 20 rule implicitly acknowledges that simplification is not the perfect solution to the problems of ambiguity and causal inconsistency but rather a coping mechanism.
  • Simple Comforts • Simplification can kill integrative thinking because it makes us favour linear, unidirectional causal relationships, even if reality is more complex and multidirectional. • The simplifying mind would have not grasped Handling's causal connection between film festival prizes and the audience's feeling of inclusion, because it is not a straight forward linear relationship
  • Specialization and Its Discontents • Specialization is a variant of simplification. • If the simplifying mind attempts to understand the whole picture by making it more shallow and superficial than it really is, the specialist attempts to preserve depth and thoroughness by masking out all but a few square inches of a vast canvas. • Like simplification, specialization allows us to cope with what might be overwhelming complexity.
  • Specialization and Its Discontents • Specialization in business enables practitioners to accumulate deep knowledge but this brings in equally unsatisfactory results like simplification. • Finance, marketing, production, sales, human resources are some of the specialized departments. • Each functional area has its own accepted range of salience, its own accepted causal relationships, its own training, its insiders‘ language, and its own culture.
  • Specialization and Its Discontents • The solution to a particular problem is provided in a parallel or sequential manner in Functional specialization. • The decision-making process is restricted to the specific area of specialization. • The usual alternative to the sequential process is a parallel process in which the general manager of a project asks each functional unit to produce a solution to a common problem.
  • Specialization and Its Discontents • Piecing out an optimal is best solution through various slices of information provided by different departments if like creating a Frankenstein monster. • The result is often something like Pontiac's illfated Aztec SUV. • The car was supposed to be the product of the best ideas of Pontiac's engineers, marketers, and customers.
  • Specialization and Its Discontents • But because there was no integrating intelligence • drawing all those good ideas into a unified whole, the Aztec looked like what it was: – a hodgepodge of good ideas that had never been integrated into single good design.
  • Specialization and Its Discontents • Complexity doesn‘t have to be overwhelming, if we can master our initial panic reaction and look for patterns, connection, and causal relationships. • Our capacity to handle complexity, Kohli suggests, is greater than we give ourselves credit for.
  • Specialization and Its Discontents • That's more complexity than most minds care to handle, and simplification and specialization can quickly come to look like the only refuge from chaos. • But experienced integrative thinkers learn to draw a distinction between chaos and complexity.
  • Specialization and Its Discontents • Teams can offer valuable support in maintaining the complexity that integrative thinking thrives upon. • Martha Graham worked with complexity by collaborating with gifted people in her trade. • Like Graham, the integrative thinkers interviewed knew they would need plenty of help to reach creative resolutions. • They chose their collaborators expressly for what they could contribute to an integrated whole.
  • Designing a Ride, Not a Railcar • Here we shall look at the holistic thought process that helped IDEO become a successful design firm. • What gives IDEO its edge is that CEO Tim Brown and his colleagues recognize that the people who use products and services don‘t judge them simply by their functional performance. • They also judge them by the degree of emotional satisfaction they provide.
  • Designing a Ride, Not a Railcar • IDEO's design capabilities were put to test when they received an order to design the interior of the Amtrak's Acela rail coaches. • Brown looked at the Amtrak aspect with holistic view and not just a simple change in the coach interiors. • He wanted to improve the entire Amtrak experience.
  • Designing a Ride, Not a Railcar • Brown describes his work for Amtrak and IDEO's other clients as ―a synthetic process that takes into account ―the whole thing, whatever that thing is. • In Amtrak's case, the whole thing involved an end-to-end rethink of the entire Acela customer experience the very definition of holistic architecture.
  • Designing a Ride, Not a Railcar Not only were Acela railcars redesigned, so were train stations, interactive information kiosks, employee workstations, and indeed the Acela brand, which was positioned as an experience that was superior in every respect to air travel.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • Moses Znaimer is a Toronto resident who has loved the Television. • In 1972, Znaimer cofounded Citytv, an independent Toronto television station. • His channel was local and managed to stay in the competition and survive by catering to local tastes. • But mere survival wasn’t enough for Znaimer.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • The broadcasting scene was changing rapidly and by 1980 new networks were emerging. • The apparent choice that Znaimer faced was to stay local or go global. • If Citytv stayed local, it risked being swamped as the TV business globalized. • It was already happening in other industries. • From retailing to consumer packaged goods to movies, Znaimer could see that players with global scale were beating the locals.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • He saw that viewers still loved their local television stations, which connected with communities in a way that the global players, cable channels, and superstations could not. • Advertisers were eager to reach those local viewers, and their continued spending gave the local stations a solid economic underpinning, even as the global behemoths grew larger and more powerful.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • Znaimer's easiest choice would have been to stay comfortably local, in the belief that going global was beyond his reach. • The big players would swallow him up eventually, but he’d make a good living while waiting for the end. • That's what a conventional thinker would likely have done.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • When facing any dilemma with nasty tradeoff, on both sides, the conventional thinker declares there is really no choice at all. • But being an integrative thinker, Znaimer refused to accept the slow encroachment of international media players into his market, just as he refused to miss out on the globalization of media.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • The use of tag lines around the city by Znaimer reinforced the viewers‘ choice of Citytv. • Znaimer used innovative methods to keep the viewer attracted. • His use of ethnic presenters between programs was unique to Citytv. • This showcased local presented and prevented dead air common to other stations.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • These rather simple devices create a bond between Citytv and its audience chat national and global outlets can‘t hope to replicate. • So does the feature known as “Speaker's Corner”. • Speaker’s Corner is tiny studio booth in Citytv’s headquarters building, accessible from the street. • Anyone passing by can step in to the booth and film a fifteen-second message. • Citytv's real estate also reinforces its connection with its viewers.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • Citytv is now a truly global enterprise with affiliated stations in twenty-two countries around the world. • In more than 100 countries, local stations unaffiliated to Citytv license its content and style of presentation. • That licensing revenue provides Citytv With are source base that's not available to purely local players, allowing it to compete with the global players without losing its local advantage.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • ‘Globalization’, as Znaimer calls it, is his creative resolution of the tension inherent in the television business. • In the classic manner of integrative thinkers, Znaimer fashioned a creative resolution out of apparently irreconcilable alternatives by separating existing models from reality, setting unyielding standards, and taking responsibility instead of claiming to be a victim of circumstance.
  • Moses Znaimer: Local Hero, Global Conquest • His view of what was salient was broader than that of the conventional thinkers around him, and he explored more sophisticated causal relationships among the salient elements. • He kept the whole firmly in mind while he worked on the parts, and he drove relentlessly for a creative resolution. • In doing so, he demonstrates both how integrative thinkers think and why integrative thinking is worth the trouble.