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Recruitment Management-Ch 8 The Selection Interview.

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Although interview is one of the most popular tool for selection, however, this tool has its own inherent drawbacks. The selection interview has its share of flaws because the instrument used for …

Although interview is one of the most popular tool for selection, however, this tool has its own inherent drawbacks. The selection interview has its share of flaws because the instrument used for measurement is human, no two interviewers will assess and interpret a given information in the same way the same interviewer will reveal fluctuations of data and assessment over a period of time.To get more such innovative knowledge on management studies, join WeSchool PGDM-DLP Program: http://bit.ly/Y1BAo6

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  • 1. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 11Chapter EightChapter EightLearning ObjectivesLearning ObjectivesDefine Selection InterviewDefine Selection InterviewDiscuss different Methods of InterviewsDiscuss different Methods of InterviewsUnderstand the factors governingUnderstand the factors governingdifferent interview methodsdifferent interview methodsOutline guidelines to make the interviewOutline guidelines to make the interviewprocess more effective.process more effective.Describe and discuss various phases ofDescribe and discuss various phases ofinterview.interview.
  • 2. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 22Chapter EightChapter EightStructureStructure1.1. What is an Interview?What is an Interview?2.2. How do we make the Interview process moreHow do we make the Interview process moreeffective.effective.3.3. Patterns and Types of InterviewsPatterns and Types of Interviews4.4. Structured or Unstructured?Structured or Unstructured?5.5. Effective use of the Interview.Effective use of the Interview.
  • 3. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 33Chapter EightChapter EightStructureStructure6.6. Phases of InterviewingPhases of Interviewing7.7. PrePre-- Interview Preparatory PhaseInterview Preparatory Phase8.8. The InterviewThe Interview9.9. Post Interview Assessment and thePost Interview Assessment and theDecisionDecision1010 SummarySummary
  • 4. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 44Chapter EightChapter Eight8.1 What is an Interview?8.1 What is an Interview?The interview is the central part of theThe interview is the central part of theselection process. It is a forum whereselection process. It is a forum wherethe candidatethe candidate’’s relative suitability fors relative suitability forthe job is assessed by the organizationthe job is assessed by the organization’’ssrepresentatives.representatives.Though the candidateThough the candidate’’s selection iss selection isoverwhelmingly dependent on theoverwhelmingly dependent on theinterview, it has inherent barriers tointerview, it has inherent barriers tothe success as a selection method both onthe success as a selection method both onvalidity & reliability parameters.validity & reliability parameters.
  • 5. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 55Chapter EightChapter Eight8.1 What is an Interview?8.1 What is an Interview?The selection interview is not reliableThe selection interview is not reliablebecausebecause --1.1. The instrument of measure is human.The instrument of measure is human.2.2. No two interviewers will interpret andNo two interviewers will interpret andassess information in the same way.assess information in the same way.3.3. The same interviewer will revealThe same interviewer will revealfluctuations of data and assessments overfluctuations of data and assessments overa period of time.a period of time.
  • 6. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 66Chapter EightChapter Eight8.1 What is an Interview?8.1 What is an Interview?The selection interview is not consideredThe selection interview is not consideredto be valid becauseto be valid because --1.1. It is contrived, interrogativeIt is contrived, interrogativeconversation, involving a meeting,conversation, involving a meeting,usually, between strangers for durationusually, between strangers for durationof maximum 60 minutes.of maximum 60 minutes.2.2. It cannot assess all the important areasIt cannot assess all the important areasthat add up to the suitability forthat add up to the suitability foremployment.employment.3.3. It is highly subjective. AIt is highly subjective. A ““quick on hisquick on hisfeetfeet”” candidate may emerge as the bestcandidate may emerge as the bestfit candidate though he may not sustainfit candidate though he may not sustainhis behavior on the job.his behavior on the job.
  • 7. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 77Chapter EightChapter Eight8.1 What is an Interview?8.1 What is an Interview?Still selection interview is undisputedStill selection interview is undisputedpreferred technique aspreferred technique as1.1. It has a high face validity. BothIt has a high face validity. Bothemployer & candidate are accustomed toemployer & candidate are accustomed toand have greater faith in its efficacy.and have greater faith in its efficacy.2.2. Sooner or later there has to be a meetingSooner or later there has to be a meetingbetween the employer & the candidate. Inbetween the employer & the candidate. Ininterview they have an opportunity tointerview they have an opportunity toamplify and clarify informationamplify and clarify informationavailable.available.3.3. There is no other method for accuratelyThere is no other method for accuratelyforecasting the behavior of the candidateforecasting the behavior of the candidateon the job.on the job.
  • 8. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 88Chapter EightChapter Eight8.2 How do we make the Interview process more effective ?8.2 How do we make the Interview process more effective ?Research shows that anybody who isResearch shows that anybody who isresponsible for the process of selectionresponsible for the process of selectionmust be provided with proper training. Itmust be provided with proper training. Itmust be noted that even trainedmust be noted that even trainedinterviewers cannot raise efficiency ofinterviewers cannot raise efficiency ofinterview beyond moderate levels. Andinterview beyond moderate levels. Andtrainees be made aware of thistrainees be made aware of thislimitation.limitation.Many senior managers have been interviewingMany senior managers have been interviewingcandidates for many years without anycandidates for many years without anyprofessional training. Having developedprofessional training. Having developedconfidence in their styles, they may notconfidence in their styles, they may notbe receptive to any such training forbe receptive to any such training forselectors.selectors.
  • 9. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 99Chapter EightChapter Eight8.2 How do we make the Interview process more8.2 How do we make the Interview process moreeffective ?effective ?The training course should be through mockThe training course should be through mockinterviews. It should coverinterviews. It should cover☺☺ the general nature & problems ofthe general nature & problems ofpersonnel selection.personnel selection.☺☺ the particular limitations of thethe particular limitations of theinterview as a selection method.interview as a selection method.☺☺ the application of systematicthe application of systematicinterviewing through practice interviewsinterviewing through practice interviewsas a means of making best use of theas a means of making best use of theinterview.interview.
  • 10. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1010Chapter EightChapter Eight8.3 Patterns and Types of Interviews8.3 Patterns and Types of InterviewsPatterns/ types of interviews :Patterns/ types of interviews :--☺☺ Single one on one interview.Single one on one interview.☺☺ Multiple one on one interviews, at theMultiple one on one interviews, at theend of which, conclusions from variousend of which, conclusions from variousinterviewers are collated.interviewers are collated.☺☺ Board or Panel Interviews.Board or Panel Interviews.☺☺ A combination of above.A combination of above.Other variations :Other variations :--Biographical; behavioural ; Situational andBiographical; behavioural ; Situational andCombination .Combination .
  • 11. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1111Chapter EightChapter Eight8.3 Patterns and Types of Interviews8.3 Patterns and Types of InterviewsBiographical interview is an exploration ofBiographical interview is an exploration ofthe intervieweethe interviewee’’s past experiences and iss past experiences and isbased on the premise, that past behaviourbased on the premise, that past behaviourenables us to predict future behaviour. Aenables us to predict future behaviour. Akey limitation of this approach iskey limitation of this approach isdifficulty of linking the interviewdifficulty of linking the interviewinformation to job relevant criteria.information to job relevant criteria.This gap may allow interviewerThis gap may allow interviewer’’sssubjectivity to affect decisionsubjectivity to affect decisiondetrimentally.detrimentally.This limitation has much to do withThis limitation has much to do withemergence of behavioural and situationalemergence of behavioural and situationaltype interviews.type interviews.
  • 12. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1212Chapter EightChapter Eight8.3 Patterns and Types of Interviews8.3 Patterns and Types of InterviewsThe Behavioural interview entails a seriesThe Behavioural interview entails a seriesof stretched questions designed to elicitof stretched questions designed to elicitinformation on specificinformation on specific ‘‘behavioursbehaviours’’ oror‘‘competenciescompetencies’’ which are relevant towhich are relevant toeffective performance of the job. Thiseffective performance of the job. Thistype of interview is known astype of interview is known as‘‘competencycompetency’’ ,, ‘‘patternedpatterned’’. Or. Or ‘‘targetedtargeted’’interview.interview.Data obtained from this interview has directData obtained from this interview has directrelevance to jobrelevance to job’’s demands. Here also its demands. Here also itis assumed that past performance is theis assumed that past performance is thebest indicator of the expectedbest indicator of the expectedperformance.performance.
  • 13. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1313Chapter EightChapter Eight8.3 Patterns and Types of Interviews8.3 Patterns and Types of InterviewsThe Situational interview entails posingThe Situational interview entails posinghypothetical job related questions andhypothetical job related questions andevaluating the responses against a set ofevaluating the responses against a set ofexample answers [e.g. what would you doexample answers [e.g. what would you doifif--------].].The interview , therefore, is highlyThe interview , therefore, is highlystructured both in terms of the questionsstructured both in terms of the questionsposed and evaluation of the answers. Theposed and evaluation of the answers. Thecontrol here lies with the interviewer.control here lies with the interviewer.Breadth of data would have been coded inBreadth of data would have been coded inadvance for better evaluation.advance for better evaluation.
  • 14. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1414Chapter EightChapter Eight8.4 Structured or Unstructured ?8.4 Structured or Unstructured ?Research in the area proves that structuredResearch in the area proves that structuredinterviews have a higher predictiveinterviews have a higher predictivevalidity than their unstructured butvalidity than their unstructured butpopular, equivalents. However, it haspopular, equivalents. However, it hasbeen observed that panel and successivebeen observed that panel and successiveinterviews help minimize many of theinterviews help minimize many of thelimitations, thus increasing the methodlimitations, thus increasing the method’’ssreliability and validity.reliability and validity.Structured interviews too have theirStructured interviews too have theirlimitations , cost being the main factorlimitations , cost being the main factor[time and expense of devising,[time and expense of devising,explaining, running and scoringexplaining, running and scoringinterviews]. It also ignores rightinterviews]. It also ignores rightcandidates who too can perform but with acandidates who too can perform but with adifferent approach.different approach.
  • 15. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1515Chapter EightChapter Eight8.4 Structured or Unstructured ?8.4 Structured or Unstructured ?As always, there are arguments for andAs always, there are arguments for andagainst each variation. The main criteriaagainst each variation. The main criteriato be considered in assessing the meritsto be considered in assessing the meritsand demerits of a particular interviewand demerits of a particular interviewpattern are :pattern are :--1. Acquiring the best possible evidence1. Acquiring the best possible evidenceon which to base judgement and decisions.on which to base judgement and decisions.2. Giving candidates the fairest2. Giving candidates the fairestpossible opportunities to provide thepossible opportunities to provide themost accurate account of themselves inmost accurate account of themselves inthe difficult circumstances of thethe difficult circumstances of theinterview.interview.
  • 16. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1616Chapter EightChapter Eight8.4 Structured or Unstructured ?8.4 Structured or Unstructured ?When these two criteria are applied , we canWhen these two criteria are applied , we canconclude that :conclude that :--1. A single one on one interview is1. A single one on one interview islikely to be least stressful but haslikely to be least stressful but hasdisadvantage that the acquiring ofdisadvantage that the acquiring ofevidence, judgements and decisions relyevidence, judgements and decisions relyon one person only.on one person only.2. A series of one on one interviews2. A series of one on one interviewsovercome this lacuna but require a lot ofovercome this lacuna but require a lot ofcandidatecandidate’’s time.s time.
  • 17. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1717Chapter EightChapter Eight8.4 Structured or Unstructured ?8.4 Structured or Unstructured ?When these criteria are applied , we canWhen these criteria are applied , we canconclude that :conclude that :-- contd.contd.3. Board or Panel interviews are3. Board or Panel interviews arepotentially more stressful as thepotentially more stressful as thecandidate is faced with manycandidate is faced with manyinterviewers. Research shows they areinterviewers. Research shows they aremore successful and stress on themore successful and stress on thecandidate can be reduced by restrictingcandidate can be reduced by restrictingthe panel size to maximum four.the panel size to maximum four.
  • 18. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1818Chapter EightChapter Eight8.5 Effective Use of the Interview8.5 Effective Use of the InterviewThe Interview has to be handled with dueThe Interview has to be handled with duecare and sensitivity to ensure thatcare and sensitivity to ensure thatcorrect image about the organization iscorrect image about the organization iscreated with the candidate by providingcreated with the candidate by providingnecessary courtesies [punctuality,necessary courtesies [punctuality,minimum waiting] & facilities [lunch,minimum waiting] & facilities [lunch,transport].transport].Interviewers have a major role in sellingInterviewers have a major role in sellingorganization and job profile to theorganization and job profile to thecandidates .candidates .
  • 19. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 1919Chapter EightChapter Eight8.5 Effective Use of the Interview8.5 Effective Use of the InterviewThe Interview has to be arranged in aThe Interview has to be arranged in aprofessional manner to create positiveprofessional manner to create positiveimpression on the candidates as the firstimpression on the candidates as the firstimpression is the lasting impression.impression is the lasting impression.Generally a demeanour that is sympatheticGenerally a demeanour that is sympatheticand avoids extremes of bonhomie andand avoids extremes of bonhomie andcoldness is most appropriate.coldness is most appropriate.The surroundings of interview room reflectThe surroundings of interview room reflectthe personality of the Organization. Thethe personality of the Organization. Theseating arrangement should be comfortableseating arrangement should be comfortableand nonand non--confrontational.confrontational.
  • 20. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2020Chapter EightChapter Eight8.5 Effective Use of the Interview8.5 Effective Use of the InterviewWhile the candidate is supposed to do hisWhile the candidate is supposed to do hisown research about the organization, itown research about the organization, itis still essential that this informationis still essential that this informationby the interviewer is provided to theby the interviewer is provided to thecandidate prior to the interview.candidate prior to the interview.Normally anNormally an ““ Information PackInformation Pack”” isisdelivered to the candidate well indelivered to the candidate well inadvance.advance.Communication is a key skill for a goodCommunication is a key skill for a goodinterviewer. Understanding noninterviewer. Understanding non--verbalverbalcommunication is essential. Similarlycommunication is essential. Similarlyinterviewerinterviewer’’s body language has to bes body language has to bepositive.positive.
  • 21. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2121Chapter EightChapter Eight8.5 Effective Use of the Interview8.5 Effective Use of the InterviewAn interview is a two way streetAn interview is a two way street –– with bothwith bothparties trying to make up their minds asparties trying to make up their minds asto the counterpartto the counterpart’’s suitabilitys suitability –– it isit isessential that the candidate is alsoessential that the candidate is alsogiven an opportunity to ask questions.given an opportunity to ask questions.These questions themselves provide insightThese questions themselves provide insightinto the candidateinto the candidate’’s psyche.s psyche.It is essential that the interview processIt is essential that the interview processis fair and transparent and allis fair and transparent and allcandidates are treated equally and withcandidates are treated equally and withdecorum.decorum.
  • 22. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2222Chapter EightChapter Eight8.6 Phases of Interviewing8.6 Phases of InterviewingA systematicA systematic interview is based on threeinterview is based on threephases.phases.1.1. PrePre--interviewinterview-- –– preparatory.preparatory.2.2. During the interviewDuring the interview3.3. Post interviewPost interview –– assessment and decisionassessment and decisionmaking.making.Each of these elements contributes vitallyEach of these elements contributes vitallyto the success of the interview andto the success of the interview andweakness in any one element willweakness in any one element willadversely affect the other parts.adversely affect the other parts.
  • 23. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2323Chapter EightChapter Eight8.7 Pre8.7 Pre--Interview Preparatory PhaseInterview Preparatory Phase►► Study all available information. TheStudy all available information. Theapplication, CV, the job description andapplication, CV, the job description andperson specification.person specification.►► Determine acceptable entry levels for newDetermine acceptable entry levels for newstaff visstaff vis--àà--vis the job requirements forvis the job requirements forfully effective performance.fully effective performance.Ensure that all written tests / assessmentEnsure that all written tests / assessmentcentre results are available and analyzedcentre results are available and analyzedbefore the interview and provided tobefore the interview and provided tointerviewers.interviewers.►►
  • 24. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2424Chapter EightChapter Eight8.7 Pre8.7 Pre--Interview Preparatory PhaseInterview Preparatory Phase►► If using a panel, preIf using a panel, pre--decide the interviewdecide the interview‘‘leadlead’’ who coordinates the process andwho coordinates the process andensures that each member knows the agreedensures that each member knows the agreedground rules and their specific role inground rules and their specific role inthe process.the process.►► Pay attention to time, place and settingPay attention to time, place and settingto make candidates comfortable. Avoidto make candidates comfortable. Avoidinterruptions and distractions.interruptions and distractions.►► Prepare a coverage plan to elicit thePrepare a coverage plan to elicit themaximum possible significant information.maximum possible significant information.A comprehensive structure ensuresA comprehensive structure ensuresimportant issues get addressed.important issues get addressed.
  • 25. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2525Chapter EightChapter Eight8.8 the Interview8.8 the Interview►► Ensure that the atmosphere is conducive toEnsure that the atmosphere is conducive toencourage the candidate to speak freely.encourage the candidate to speak freely.►► Introduce yourself and other interviewersIntroduce yourself and other interviewersby name and designation. Explain theby name and designation. Explain thescope of interview.scope of interview.►► Break the ice initially by indulging inBreak the ice initially by indulging insome appropriate small talk.some appropriate small talk.►► Stick to the agreed coverage plan andStick to the agreed coverage plan andinterview in turn. Ensure there is nointerview in turn. Ensure there is nocross questioning. Interviewers must waitcross questioning. Interviewers must waitfor their turn.for their turn.
  • 26. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2626Chapter EightChapter Eight8.8 the Interview8.8 the Interview►► Ensure questions are well framed.Ensure questions are well framed.a] the questions to elicit adequatea] the questions to elicit adequateresponse & evidence on the potentialresponse & evidence on the potentialability of the candidate to do theability of the candidate to do therequired job.required job.b] avoid hypothetical questions that haveb] avoid hypothetical questions that haveno relevance to the job.no relevance to the job.c] questions should be open, not implyc] questions should be open, not implyany answer, or make any assumptions orany answer, or make any assumptions orinfluence the candidate in any way.influence the candidate in any way.
  • 27. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2727Chapter EightChapter Eight8.8 the Interview8.8 the Interview►► During the course of the interviewDuring the course of the interviewa] Maintain eye contact & providea] Maintain eye contact & provideappropriate feedback.appropriate feedback.b] Take your time and useb] Take your time and use ‘‘silencesilence’’effectively.effectively.c] Clarify & reflect by repeatingc] Clarify & reflect by repeatingcandidatecandidate’’s comments back to her in as comments back to her in aquestioning manner as this indicates thatquestioning manner as this indicates thatyou would like the candidate to elaborateyou would like the candidate to elaborateon the issue.on the issue.d] Do not allow candidate to side trackd] Do not allow candidate to side trackthe question.the question.
  • 28. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2828Chapter EightChapter Eight8.8 the Interview8.8 the Interview►► Listen : This is central to the art ofListen : This is central to the art ofgood interviewing, as you elicit enoughgood interviewing, as you elicit enoughfactual data to enable you to make anfactual data to enable you to make aninformed decision. Be alert to noninformed decision. Be alert to non--verbalverbalcues.cues.►► Towards the end, ensure candidate has timeTowards the end, ensure candidate has timeto clear doubts regarding the job,to clear doubts regarding the job,organization, growth plans etc. Inviteorganization, growth plans etc. Invitethe candidate to ask questions.the candidate to ask questions.►► Conclude by thanking the candidate andConclude by thanking the candidate andadvising details about the next stage,advising details about the next stage,time frame etc.time frame etc.
  • 29. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 2929Chapter EightChapter Eight8.9 Post Assessment & Decision8.9 Post Assessment & Decision►► AssessAssess the candidate against personthe candidate against personspecification or scoring immediately.specification or scoring immediately.►► Concentrate on solid facts of pastConcentrate on solid facts of pastbehaviour as indicators of motivation,behaviour as indicators of motivation,attitudes, values, personal qualities andattitudes, values, personal qualities andabilities, in sum, of potential to theabilities, in sum, of potential to thejob.job.►► Incorporate data from other selectionIncorporate data from other selectionmethods used. Apart from tests used bymethods used. Apart from tests used byyou also seek testimonials, referencesyou also seek testimonials, referencesfrom other sources.from other sources.►► Advise candidate about the outcome onAdvise candidate about the outcome ontimely basis, including those who did nottimely basis, including those who did notmake it.make it.
  • 30. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 3030Chapter EightChapter Eight8.10 Summary8.10 SummaryThe selection decision is the most importantThe selection decision is the most importantof all decisions taken by an employer.of all decisions taken by an employer.The interview is an integral part of thisThe interview is an integral part of thisprocess. Given the stakes, its importanceprocess. Given the stakes, its importanceshould not be undershould not be under--estimated.estimated.The consequences are immense. Like theThe consequences are immense. Like theloaded gun, it is not an instrument toloaded gun, it is not an instrument toleave in the hands of the untrained.leave in the hands of the untrained.Combined with a professional approach to theCombined with a professional approach to therecruitment phase, it can make arecruitment phase, it can make asignificant contribution to the search tosignificant contribution to the search tofind the best person for the job. Itsfind the best person for the job. Itsinherent pitfalls explain the risinginherent pitfalls explain the risingpopularity of selection tests.popularity of selection tests.
  • 31. The Selection InterviewThe Selection Interview 3131Chapter EightChapter EightThis brings us to the end of ourThis brings us to the end of ourEighth session!Eighth session!Nest we move to session nine onNest we move to session nine on““Recruitment StrategiesRecruitment Strategies””Contained in the Chapter 09Contained in the Chapter 09Best Luck!Best Luck!