Principles of Management – Chpt 15 : Leadership


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Leadership is the ability to influence people with your thoughts and ideas. It helps attain the goals of an organization.

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Principles of Management – Chpt 15 : Leadership

  2. 2. Introduction Success of a business concern is dependent upon the ability of its leadership. Whenever and in whatever situation if someone tries to influence the behavior of another individual, there is a leadership. It helps to attain the business goals of an organization.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 2
  3. 3. 15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 3
  4. 4. Definition Leadership is the ability to awaken in others the desire to follow a common objective.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 4
  5. 5. Importance of Leadership Developing Perfect good human organization relation structurePromoting Reconciliationthe spirit of of goalscoordination Source ofDirecting group motivationactivities Technological, Fulfilling social economic Better Avoiding responsibilities and social utilization of imbalances changes manpower 15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 5
  6. 6. Approaches or Theories of Leadership According to this theory, leadership behaviour is influenced by certain qualities of a person. A successful leader has the following qualities. Good Personality Tirelessness Ability to take quick decision Courage to face competitors Persuasion Lesson out of experience Intelligence Different thinking Reliability Physical fitness.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 6
  7. 7. Behavioral approach or theory This theory had popularity during 1950s. It assumes that people are lazy and irresponsible by nature. So there is need of an instrument to give motivation to workers. Autocratic, democratic or supervisory styles are some of the leadership styles. Behavioral approach developed these leadership styles which produce different and conflicting results.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 7
  8. 8. Situationalist approach or theory During 1970s this theory was developed where some traits and behaviours are effective in a particular situation and ineffective in another situation. Situation helps persons to develop their leadership qualities and emerge as leaders15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 8
  9. 9. Follower’s theory or acceptance theory Here, only followers decide whether a person is a leader or not. Followers take decision on the quality of the leader who fulfills their needs. Traits and behaviour are not considered as essential element of leadership. This is mainly applied in politics.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 9
  10. 10. System theory or a path goal theory This is focused on a person’s act rather than his traits or behaviour. A leader coordinates the efforts of his followers. This considers all variables like leader, followers, situation, leadership traits, environment goals and group’s nature, characteristics and needs, role behaviour of leader. It is also termed as modern theory of leadership.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 10
  11. 11. Functions of LeaderRepresentation Taking Planner initiativeCommunication Production Leader Encouraging Arbitrator others and mediator Rewards and Guide Integration punishments 15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 11
  12. 12. Qualities of Leadership Physical appearance and strength mental vigour emotional stability sense of judgment goodwill motivation communication skill guiding ability sociability technical knowledge15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 12
  13. 13. Types of Leadership Autocratic leader Intellectual leader Liberal leader Democratic leader Institutional leader Inducing leader Paternal leader Creative leader15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 13
  14. 14. Techniques of Leadership Securing cooperation the use of power coordination discipline morale15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 14
  15. 15. Characteristics of Leadership There must be followers working relationship between leader and followers personal quality reciprocal relationship community of interests guidance related to a particular situation shard function power relationship15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 15
  16. 16. Leadership Styles Positive style Negative style Autocratic or authoritarian style Democratic style Free-rein style15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 16
  17. 17. Positive style A leader motivates followers to work hard by offering them rewards like bonus and incentives15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 17
  18. 18. Negative style Leader foresees his followers to work hard and penalize them if the work is not upto the standard. This has high human cost. Here everyone tries to shift responsibility over to others.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 18
  19. 19. Autocratic or authoritarian styleAdvantages: Leadership style provides strong motivation to followers. Quick decision is possible. less talented followers can perform job effectively Followers do not take any decision Decision making planning need no initiative15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 19
  20. 20. Autocratic or authoritarian styleDisadvantages Most dislike this style as it takes negative motivation approach. frustration, low morale and conflict develop easily New ideas and creative ideas have no scope for application followers have no opportunity for developmentSuitability: It is suitable to where followers are uneducated and unskilled.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 20
  21. 21. Democratic styleAdvantages Consultation give satisfaction to the followers due reorganization is given to the followers followers are aware of the activities leader can improve decision making ability followers get opportunity to show their ability15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 21
  22. 22. Democratic styleDisadvantages Taking decision and implementation require more time. Followers can dominate the leader leader can easily shift the responsibility to his followers for failure it requires communicating skill on part of leaders otherwise it may ruin the organization15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 22
  23. 23. Free-rein styleAdvantages Morale and job satisfied of the followers are increased to some extent. The talent of the followers is properly utilized. The followers get full opportunity to develop their talents.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 23
  24. 24. Free-rein styleDisadvantage The leader does not care to motivate his followers. The contribution of a leader is nothing. The leader does not support the follower and no guidance is available to the fanner.15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 24
  25. 25. THANK YOU15 May 2007 LEADERSHIP 25