I.T for Management: What is a computer and how does it work


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In this slide presentation you will get to know how computers work, the processes, basic mechanism and also the various components of the machine as a system.
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I.T for Management: What is a computer and how does it work

  1. 1. I.T. for Management Chapter 1What is Computer& how it works
  2. 2. What is a Computer & How it works What is a computer A computer is a device which can process information
  3. 3. What does a computer consist of:• A computer consists of Hardware and Software• Hardware is the nuts and bolts of the machine that is the bare electronic circuit• Software are the instructions given to the machine which makes it perform the necessary tasks
  4. 4. Components of a Computer
  5. 5. Components of a Computer•The CPU Central processing unit•Random access Memory (RAM)•Read Only Memory (ROM)•Secondary Storage devices•Hard disk•Floppy Drive•CD/DVD Drive•Pen Drive
  6. 6. Components of a Computer The Input Devices • Key Board • Mouse • Touch Screen • Scanner • Track ball
  7. 7. Components of a Computer The Output Devices Printer Plotter Screen/VDU
  8. 8. Components of a Computer •Bus •Power Supply • Ports •Other peripherals Such as Modems etc
  9. 9. Basic functions & Characteristics of hardware components CPU•Brain of Computer•In present day context CPU is Microprocessor•It can perform Arithmetic,logic & moment ofdata within & with other devices
  10. 10. Basic functions & Characteristics of hardware components CPU is Characteriterized by: •Word length 8,16,32 bit processor •Instruction set •Clock speed expressed in Mega hertz •Architecture i.e no of storage areas called registers
  11. 11. Basic functions & Characteristics of hardware componentsWhat to look for in selecting CPU:•Larger Word length means greater memoryaccess,greater speed in instructions per sec.•Larger Instruction set makes CPU moreversatile•Higher Clock speed results in higher speeds
  12. 12. Basic functions & Characteristics of hardware components RAM•Is memory where all transient data ,programs& status information is kept while computeris on& executing some task.•RAM is volatile & its information is lostonce machine is switched off.•This increases the overall performance of thecomputer
  13. 13. Basic functions & Characteristics of hardware components• Higher the RAM available,larger the space available to the CPU for storing programmes & data.
  14. 14. Basic functions & Characteristics of hardware components ROM•The read only memory is a memory whereall data programs are hard coded into•ROM is non-volatile & its information is notlost once machine is switched off•As soon computer is switched on microcode stored (burnt) into the chip getsactivated & is loaded into ROM
  15. 15. Basic functions & Characteristics of hardware components ROM • Typically,ROM contains software functions required for the operation such as reading/writing to a disk or sending information to printer etc.
  16. 16. Basic functions & Characteristics of hardware components • Secondary Storage Devices• Since RAM is volatile,there is need for semi permanent means of storage.• The secondary storage devices provides the means of storing,retrieving ,& modifying information• Devices such as Hard disk,tapes,floppy drive are considered as secondary storage devices
  17. 17. Secondary Storage Devices• What to look for secondary devices• Speed• Capacity• Latency• Portability• External Vs internal fittings
  18. 18. Input/Output Devices• Input /output devices enable human beings to interact with the computer• Ihe common characteristics are: – Character set devices are recognized to certain character set – Larger the character more versatile would be device – Ports-Parallel ports tend to be faster than serial ports – Resolution-this refers to the accuracy & fidelity of the device in recognizing or representing a specified letter or symbol – Closer the representation better the resolution for instance a picture on low resolution would not
  19. 19. Input/Output Devices• Ihe common characteristics are:……………(continue)• Portability: – Input /output devices tend to get moved around to suit the users convenience,hence they need to be more portable & plug& play• Ergonomically: – Since computer input/output devices are most visible components they should be good design look & feel
  20. 20. BUS• Bus is an electrical connector which connects all the hardware components of a computer• Their would be atleast a data bus, a instruction bus & control bus each carrying data,instruction& control signals respectively.• Bus is like common highway shared by all all data traffic moving between various components of the computer. ……..Cont
  21. 21. BUS• Since CPU has to access memory frequently,separate bus is provided which is known as Direct Memory Access(DMA)• The capacity of bus is indicated by number of parallel lines of data traffic moving between the various components• Thus it could be 16,32or 64bitbus• Higher the number of bits faster will be data transfer& greater bandwidth
  22. 22. Ports• Ports are external interfaces of the bus to enable people to connect external devices• The keyboard,mouse,pen drive are all connected to external ports• Greater the no of ports offer along with the comp ,greater the no of devices that can be connected at the same time ……….Cont.
  23. 23. Ports• There are various standards for Ports• Serial ports are used by mouse• Parallel ports are for printers• Pen Devices fit on USB ports• The wider the variety of ports available better it is, since we wish to connect many devices to computer such as for audio/video
  24. 24. Ports• Ports are the places on the outside of the computer case where you plug in hardware. On the inside of the case, they are connected to expansion cards.• There are also extra ports to plug in extra hardware like joysticks, game pads, scanners, digital cameras and the like.• The ports are controlled by their expansion cards which are plugged into the motherboard and are connected to other components by cables - long, flat bands that contain electrical wiring.
  25. 25. Power Supply• The power supply coverts the A.C. power from mains to D.C. voltage& current levels so that it can serve different devices• It is critical that the power supply provide exactly the right kind of power or the motherboard will be fried! Be careful when you are replacing the power supply or motherboard that they match
  26. 26. Power Supply• Depending on how many devices connected to computer you need a power supply with sufficient capacity.• Capacity of power supply measured in terms of Kilo Watts or KVA
  27. 27. Modem• A modem is communication device• It converts digital signals from computer into waveforms signals suitable for a telephone & like back to digital signals• Modems are characteristics by there speed expressed in terms of bits per second
  28. 28. ModemModems of 56kbs are common now a daysHowever broadband may require differenttypes of modems
  29. 29. A typical computer configuration• Microprocessor such as Pentium,Celeron,AMD• OS such as Windows 98,2000,Xp,Linux etc.• Ram with size 64 ,128 ,265,512 MB• Disk Drives Hard Soft,ZIP,CD,DVD• Display Color,Mono chrome• Battery lithium,Nickel-Cadmium• Ports Serial Parallel,USB• Sound Cards,Speakers etc.
  30. 30. Software components of computer • System software• Utilities• Language compilers• Database Management systems• Networking & communication Software• Security related software• Infrastructure management system• Wide variety of software components
  31. 31. Software components of computer • Application software• Canned software• Packed Function software• Enterprise solutions• Custom based solutions using language
  32. 32. • I.T. for Management End of Chapter 1