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Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
CHAPTER-06
DECISION-MAKING
We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Introduction
 Decision-making is also one of the functions of the
management. The ...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Definition
 “Decision making is a process involving
information, choice of alterna...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Characteristics of Decision-Making
 Decision-making is selection process. The best...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Characteristics of Decision-Making
 Decision gives happiness to an endeavor who ta...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Characteristics of Decision-Making
 Decision-making involves the evaluation of ava...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Elements of decision-making
 A problem is fully analyzed and the available
alterna...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Elements of decision-making
 Centralization and decentralization of authority
affe...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Elements of decision-making
Political and social environment of business affect the...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Decision-Making Process
Identification of a Implementation
Problem
Conversion of
Di...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Principles of decision-making
 Marginal theory of decision-making:
• It is based o...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Principles of Decision-Making
 Mathematical theory:
• Venture analysis, game theor...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Principles of Decision-Making
 Psychological theory
• Decision taken on basis of a...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Principles of decision-making
 Principle of limiting factors
• Fundamental of a pr...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Principles of decision-making
 Principle of participation:
• Principle is based on...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Principles of decision-making
 Principle of alternatives:
• All alternatives are e...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Characteristics of good decision
or effective decision
 Decision is taken after pa...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Administrative problems in
decision-making
 Accuracy:
 Environment for decision:
...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Types of decision
 Programmed decision :
 Non-programmed decision:
 Major decisi...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Types of decision
 Personal decision
 Individual decision
 Group decision
 Depa...
Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division
Personal phase of decision-making
There are some differences in decision-making .Th...
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Decision Making - Management Principles

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Decision making is a critical function of management. However, care needs to be taken to ensure that decisions are not taken on an emotional basis.

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Transcript of "Decision Making - Management Principles"

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division CHAPTER-06 DECISION-MAKING We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Introduction  Decision-making is also one of the functions of the management. The success of management depends upon the quality of decision. If the manager fails to take correct decision, he may not extract any work from his sub-ordinates and may not find a way to finish his work also. Some of the decisions are taken emotionally. This should be taken with great care. Emotional decision leads to a lot of confusion. So, the decision-making is a work of the superiors. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  3. 3. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  4. 4. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Definition  “Decision making is a process involving information, choice of alternative actions, implementations and evaluation that is directed to the achievement of certain stated goals.” We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  5. 5. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Characteristics of Decision-Making  Decision-making is selection process. The best alternative is selected out of available alternatives. If there is only one alternatives, there is no decision-making.  Decision-making is the end process. Decision-making is presented by detailed discussion and selection of alternatives.  Decision-making is the application of intellectual abilities to a great extend. An intelligent man alone can take a good decision. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  6. 6. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Characteristics of Decision-Making  Decision gives happiness to an endeavor who takes various steps to collect the information which is likely to affect a decision.  Decision-making is situational. An individual takes decision according to the situations prevailing.   It is a dynamic process. It is taken to achieve the objectives of an organisation. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  7. 7. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Characteristics of Decision-Making  Decision-making involves the evaluation of available alternatives through—critical appraisal methods.  A decision may be both negative and positive. A decision may direct others to do or not to do.  Decision––maker has the evaluation of decision which involves the using of resources in specified ways. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  8. 8. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Elements of decision-making  A problem is fully analyzed and the available alternatives are considered before taking a decision.  The best decision-making requires intelligence, experience and insight into a problem.  A decision is taken according to the environment of business. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  9. 9. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Elements of decision-making  Centralization and decentralization of authority affect the decision indirectly.  The psychology of an individual is involved in decision-making.  Decisions are taken when they are needed.  Employees are also involved in decision-making process We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  10. 10. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Elements of decision-making Political and social environment of business affect the decision- making if the management takes a decision after consulting the employees, the following advantages may accrue:  Better relations with employees  Loyalty to the management.  There is no hindrance in the implementation of a decision.  Efficiency of the employees is increased. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  11. 11. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Decision-Making Process Identification of a Implementation Problem Conversion of Diagnosing the Verifying the into action Problem decision Selection of best Collect and analyze alternative the relevant information Discovery of alternative Analyzing the Screening of course of action alternatives alternatives We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  12. 12. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Principles of decision-making  Marginal theory of decision-making: • It is based on principle of diminishing returns • Applied for sales, advertisement, promotion, training We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  13. 13. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Principles of Decision-Making  Mathematical theory: • Venture analysis, game theory, probability theory and waiting theory are examples • It give scientific approach to manager We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  14. 14. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Principles of Decision-Making  Psychological theory • Decision taken on basis of aspirations, technological skill, personality, social status and organisation status. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  15. 15. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Principles of decision-making  Principle of limiting factors • Fundamental of a problem are studied. • An inference or a conclusion is drawn We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  16. 16. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Principles of decision-making  Principle of participation: • Principle is based on human behavior and human relationship. • Subordinate should be consulted. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  17. 17. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Principles of decision-making  Principle of alternatives: • All alternatives are evaluated and screened and best alternative is taken for decision making. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  18. 18. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Characteristics of good decision or effective decision  Decision is taken after passing various stages. The basic objective of passing through all the stages is to solve the problems. The solution of the problem depends on how effectively the decision has been made or implemented.  Action orientation:  Goal direction:  Efficiency in implementation: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  19. 19. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Administrative problems in decision-making  Accuracy:  Environment for decision:  Timely decision:  Communication of decision:  Participative decision-making:  implementation: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  20. 20. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Types of decision  Programmed decision :  Non-programmed decision:  Major decision  Minor decision  Operative decision  Organizational decision We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  21. 21. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Types of decision  Personal decision  Individual decision  Group decision  Departmental decision  Non-economic decision  Crises decision  Research decision We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  22. 22. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Personal phase of decision-making There are some differences in decision-making .These are due to personal characteristics due to  Intelligence  Education  Experience  Courage  Motivation  Forecasting ability  Self-confidence We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
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