Gender and climate change adaptation


Published on

Invited as an expert to enrich the panel discussions, Dr. Uju Okoye talks about how to mainstream gender concerns into climate change adaptation.

Published in: Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Funded by the Global Environment Facility’s (GEF) Strategic Priority on Adaptation, this programme is currently under implementation in a diverse range of natural and socio-economic contexts in ten countries around the world (Bangladesh, Bolivia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Samoa and Vietnam). Grants of up to US$50,000 are available to community-based and non-governmental organizations to build resilience to climate change impacts into natural resource-based livelihoods, within the framework of each country’s CBA Country Programme Strategy, the country’s nationally-defined strategies on adaptation priorities.
  • Gender and climate change adaptation

    1. 1. MAINSTREAMING GENDER CONCERNS IN TO CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION Dr.(Mrs).Obianuju Okoye, MGGCA. Deputy Director Extension Services Drought & Desertification Amelioration Department Federal Ministry of Environment Abuja
    2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Identify international legal framework on gender and climate change vis a vis national legal framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Global status of Gender and Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Why Gender Mainstreaming in CC policy intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Outline entry points for gender in CC policy intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming gender in climate change adaptation programmes and projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss challenges and opportunities for mainstreaming Gender in Climate Change adaptation programmes and projects </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Mainstreaming approach of the Federal Ministry of Environment </li></ul>
    3. 3. International Legal Frameworks On Gender & Climate Change Policies <ul><li>In 1992, more than 100 Heads of States met in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the first International Earth Summit convened to address urgent problems of environmental protection and sustainable development. </li></ul><ul><li>The leaders signed a number of frameworks which committed them to the above goals including: - the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); the Convention on Biodiversity; the Rio Declaration; the Forest Principles; Agenda 21 </li></ul>
    4. 4. International Legal Framework Supporting Gender Mainstreaming
    5. 5. International Legal Framework Supporting Gender Mainstreaming
    6. 6. National Legal Framework <ul><li>Section 14(2)(a) provides that ‘ sovereignty belongs to the people of Nigeria from whom government derives all of its powers’. </li></ul><ul><li>14(2)(b): ‘the security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government” </li></ul><ul><li>Subsection c: ‘the participation by the people in their government shall be ensured in accordance with the provisions of this constitution’ </li></ul>
    7. 7. National Legal Framework <ul><li>Section 17: ‘the state social order is founded on ideals of freedom, equality and justice’ </li></ul><ul><li>Section 17(1)(a) : ‘ every citizen shall have equality of rights, obligations and opportunities before the law’ </li></ul><ul><li>(b) : ‘ ...human dignity shall be maintained and enhanced’ </li></ul><ul><li>Section 13: ‘It shall be the authority of all organs of government and of all authorities and persons exercising executive, legislative or judicial powers to conform to, observe and apply the provisions of this chapter of the Constitution’ </li></ul>
    8. 8. Global Status of Gender & CC <ul><li>In November 2007, UNDP, IUCN, UNEP and WEDO participated in a meeting in Tepoztlan, Mexico to explore a joint collaboration on the topic of gender and climate change – This led to the birth of GGCA. </li></ul><ul><li>In December 2007, in Bali Indonesia the Global Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA) was formerly launched. The primary goal of the GGCA is to ensure that climate change policies, decision making, and initiatives at the global, regional and national levels are gender responsive. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Why Gender Consideration In Climate Change Policy Intervention <ul><li>The threat of climate change, manifested in the increase of extreme weather conditions such as, droughts, pollution, storms or floods, has been recognized as a global priority issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change is a sustainable development challenge, with broad impacts not only on the environment but also on economic and social development. </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women are different. Their challenges & needs differ. So does the impact of climate change on their lives. The impact of climate change is further exacerbated by poverty. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Why Gender In CC Cont’d <ul><li>Women form a disproportionately large share of the poor in countries all over the world. (70% of the poorest of the poor in Nigeria: NPC, 2006). If women are therefore more in number at the level of the poorest of the poor, they are more likely to suffer the negative influence of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Women in rural areas in developing countries are highly dependent on local natural resources for their livelihood, because of their responsibility to secure water, food and energy for cooking and heating. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of climate change, including drought, environmental degradation due to oil exploration, uncertain rainfall and deforestation, make it harder to secure these resources. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Entry Points for Gender in Climate Change Policy Intervention
    12. 12. Gender Mainstreaming in Climate Change Adaptation <ul><li>It is about using gender lens to understand social processes relating to adaptation thereby ensuring that gendered differences are taken into account </li></ul><ul><li>It is an integrated approach that is intended to facilitate equitable participation of both men and women, so as to adequately address the strategic needs of both genders, which may be different. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the risk and different impacts of climate change on men and women is key to achieving sustainable development and MDG’s </li></ul>
    13. 13. Using a Gender Approach in Climate Change Adaptation <ul><li>The Gender Approach is a working tool that should be integrated in the entire policy planning and implementation process, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Disaggregating all data by gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Using gender responsive indicators to measure results, benefits and impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Building capacity and strengthening sustainable development strategies and institutional frameworks. </li></ul><ul><li>Documenting and dissemination best practices to continually promote learning and innovation. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Using Gender Approach in AAP <ul><li>Taking an integrated approach through the entire programming process </li></ul><ul><li>Gender is not seen as a stand alone but part of a process </li></ul><ul><li>Taking a flexible approach to build on, and strengthen existing local knowledge, structures and institutions </li></ul>
    15. 15. Gender Approach in Community Based Adaptation <ul><li>1. Community composition and dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are the most vulnerable groups within the community with regards to climate change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do adaptive capacities differ between men and women? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 . Community participation in formulating the concept note/proposal, implementing and phasing-out the project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the opinions of both men and women sought to identify problems and potential solutions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the project fully community-driven by both women and men? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Gender Approach in Community Based Adaptation <ul><li>3. Project description (objective, outcomes, outputs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the project attempt to benefit both women and men to ensure equitable outcome? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the project have potential negative impacts such as increasing women’s workloads, or preferential access for men to project’s resources or decision-making? </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Gender Approach in Community Based Adaptation <ul><li>4. Monitoring and evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are quantitative and qualitative data collected on the gendered nature of a community’s vulnerability to current and future climate change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do monitoring indicators measure evolution of adaptive capacities of both women and men? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it include resources for activities to answer to women and men’s specific needs and meaningful participation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the budget plan for capacity building on gender if required? </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Key considerations in adopting the Gender Approach in Community Based Adaptation <ul><li>Understand the cultural context and the different barriers (physical, attitudinal, information and communication) that may undermine equal gender participation. </li></ul><ul><li>If appropriate, make arrangements to speak to women and men separately (e.g. have focus groups for women and focus groups for men). This ensures that their participation is meaningful, i.e. they are all feel free to speak and be heard without fear of recrimination. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Key Issues Cont’d <ul><li>3. To facilitate women’s participation, activities need to be planned with an awareness of their daily timetables and location-specific activities </li></ul><ul><li>4. Gender “training” or awareness-raising should take place within the community to avoid men feeling threatened and to reduce the risk of gender-based violence. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Project information could be disseminated via a range of media, including notices, leaflets, announcements in community fora, and picture-based texts (to cater for the illiterate population) </li></ul><ul><li>6. The project team should be reflexive and open to adapting their plans and activities based on information that emerges from community members as the implementation unfolds </li></ul>
    20. 20. Challenges to Gender Mainstreaming in CC Adaptation   <ul><li>Social and Cultural Restrictions to Gender Mainstreaming - Gender inequalities substantially limit women’s access to, control over and use of services and productive resources tree planting in Kanuri village </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Information on Gender Issues Related to Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Small Proportion of Women in Relevant Professions and Positions of Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Low Institutional Capacity </li></ul>
    21. 21. FEDERAL MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT ORGANOGRAM OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING BOARD <ul><li>o </li></ul>o DDP Permanent Secretary ( Chair) Director(PAMI) Deputy Chair GENDER DESK PAMI Secretariat <ul><li>Rep Partners </li></ul><ul><li>UNDP </li></ul><ul><li>UNIFEM </li></ul><ul><li>UNFPA </li></ul><ul><li>CIDA </li></ul><ul><li>JICA </li></ul><ul><li>WEP </li></ul><ul><li>FMoWASD </li></ul>Director Pollution Control & Env. Health Dept. Director Finance and Supply Dept Director Forestry Dept. Director Drought and Desertific. Ameliora. Dept. Director. Env. Assemt Dept. Director EFCZM Dept Director Human Resources Dept. Head Special Climate Change Unit
    22. 22. 8 POINT FRAMEWORK FOR GENDER & CC <ul><li>Integration of Gender in CC policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of Gender in strategy development </li></ul><ul><li>Gender in institutional set up/Development </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a critical mass of Gender experts in CC </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting capacity building on Gender and CC </li></ul><ul><li>Sourcing specific budgetary allocation for Gender &CC </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Networking on Gender & CC </li></ul><ul><li>M&E of impacts of Gender & CC from a women’s right perspective </li></ul>
    23. 23. Assessing Gender Integration Into CC Policies At Different Levels National level Local Government/Community Household/Individual level <ul><li>Does the government recognize the specific vulnerability of women and other marginalized groups to climate change? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this knowledge and recognition translated into policy and implementation of programs? </li></ul><ul><li>Do policies and programs support empowerment of vulnerable groups including women? </li></ul><ul><li>Do vulnerable groups have advocates at national level? </li></ul><ul><li>What social groups (men, women, old, young, etc) within the community are most vulnerable to climate change? </li></ul><ul><li>Are local planning processes participatory? </li></ul><ul><li>Do women and other marginalized groups have a voice in local planning processes? </li></ul><ul><li>Do local policies provide access to and control over critical livelihoods resources for all? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the other factors constraining adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable groups? </li></ul><ul><li>Are men and women working together to address challenges? </li></ul><ul><li>Do households have control over critical livelihoods resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Do women and other marginalized groups have equal access to information, skills and services, equal rights and access to resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there other social, political or economic issues which make particular people within the community more vulnerable than others? </li></ul>
    24. 24. CONCLUSION <ul><li>there is need for empirical, case-studies based </li></ul><ul><li>illustrations demonstrating the gender differences in climate impacts and adaptive capacities, </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly, existing toolkits related to vulnerability analysis as well as adaptation project implementation need to be reviewed by gender experts to answer questions on how gender awareness among stakeholders can be stimulated, and integrated in the existing tools or whether new tools are needed. </li></ul>