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Chapter 11new


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  • 2. OBJECTIVES Basic database performance-tuning concepts How a DBMS processes SQL queries About the importance of indexes in query processing About the types of decisions the query optimizer has to make Some common practices used to write efficient SQL code How to formulate queries and tune the DBMS for optimalperformance
  • 3. DATABASE PERFORMANCE-TUNING CONCEPTS Goal of database performance is to execute queries as fast as possible Database performance tuning• Set of activities and procedures designed to reduce response time ofdatabase system All factors must operate at optimum level with minimal bottlenecks Good database performance starts with good database design (youcant polish a turd)
  • 4. PERFORMANCE TUNING:CLIENT AND SERVER Client side• Generate a SQL query that returns the correct answer in the least amountof time• Using the minimum amount of resources at the server end• SQL performance tuning – The activities required to achieve that goal Server side• DBMS environment configured to respond to the clients’ requests as fastas possible• Optimum use of existing resources• DBMS performance tuning – The activities required to achieve thatgoal
  • 5. DBMS ARCHITECTURE All data in database are stored in data files Data files• Can automatically expand in predefined increments known asextends• Grouped in file groups or table spaces Table space or file group• Logical grouping of several data files that store data with similarcharacteristics
  • 6. DBMS ARCHITECTURECONT. Data cache or buffer cache• Shared, reserved memory area that stores the most recently accesseddata blocks in RAM SQL cache or procedure cache• Shared, reserved memory area that stores the most recently executedSQL statements or PL/SQL procedures, including triggers andfunctions DBMS retrieves data from permanent storage and places it inRAM
  • 7. DBMS ARCHITECTURECONT. Input/output (I/O) request: low-level data access operation to andfrom computer devices Data cache is faster than data in data files because the DBMS does notwait for hard disk to retrieve data Majority of performance-tuning activities focus on minimizing thenumber of I/O operations Typical DBMS processes:• Listener, user, scheduler, lock manager, optimizer
  • 8. DBMS PROCESSES Listener: Takes clients’ requests and handles the processingof the SQL requests to other DBMS processes. Oncereceived, the request is passes to appropriate user process User: Created to manage each client session and handles allrequests submitted to the server Scheduler: Organizes the concurrent execution of SQL requests
  • 9. DBMS PROCESSES CONT. Lock Manager: Manages all locks placed on database objects Optimizer: Analyzes SQL queries and finds the most efficient wayto access the data
  • 10. DATABASE STATISTICS Number of measurements about database objects and availableresources:• Number of processors used• Processor speed• Temporary space available Make critical decisions about improving query processingefficiency Can be gathered manually by DBA or automatically by DBMS
  • 11. QUERY PROCESS DBMS processes queries in three phases• Parsing• DBMS parses the SQL query and chooses the most efficientaccess/execution plan• Execution• DBMS executes the SQL query using chosen execution plan• Fetching• DBMS fetches the data and sends the result back to the client
  • 12. SQL PARSING PHASE Break down query into smaller units Transform original SQL query into slightly different version oforiginal SQL code• Fully equivalent• Optimized query results are always the same as original query• More efficient• Optimized query will almost always execute faster than original query
  • 13. SQL PARSING PHASE CONT. Query optimizer: Analyzes SQL query and finds most efficientway to access data• Validated for syntax compliance• Validated against data dictionary• Tables and column names are correct• User has proper access rights• Analyzed and decomposed into components• Optimized into a fully equivalent but more efficient SQL query• Prepared for execution by determining the most efficient execution
  • 14. SQL PARSING PHASE CONT. Access plans: Result of parsing a SQL statement• DBMS-Specific• Translate client’s SQL query into a series of complex I/O operations• Required to read the data from the physical data files and generate resultset DBMS checks if access plan already exists for query in SQL cache DBMS reuses the access plan to save time If it doesn’t, the optimizer evaluates various plans• Chosen plan placed in SQL cache
  • 15. SQL EXECUTION PHASE All I/O operations indicated in access plan are executed• Locks acquired• Data retrieved and placed in data cache• Transaction management commands processed
  • 16. SQL FETCHING PHASE All rows that match the specified condition(s) areretrieved, sorted, grouped, and/or aggregated and results arereturned to the client DBMS might use temporary table space to store temporary data
  • 17. QUERY PROCESSINGBOTTLENECKS Delay introduced in the processing of an I/O operation that slowsthe system• CPU• RAM• Hard disk• Network• Application code
  • 18. INDEXES AND QUERYOPTIMIZATION Indexes• Crucial in speeding up data access• Facilitate searching, sorting, and using aggregate functions as well asjoin operations• Ordered set of values that contains index key and pointers More efficient to use index to access table than to scan all rows intable sequentially
  • 19. INDEXES AND QUERYOPTIMIZATION CONT. Data sparsity: number of different values a column couldpossibly have Indexes implemented using:• Hash indexes• B-tree indexes• Bitmap indexes DBMSs determine best type of index to use